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*   -'     "  ^  -     XVt      -  T^*hl-    I    —  ^-  l*T 





BY    M.   W.    SAVAGE,   ESQ. 

IN    TWO    VOLUirES. 

YOL.  II. 















\    77 
DIVINE       J 



^  121 
POLL         J 



PENENDEN   HEATH  ...  193 






IRISH  ELECTIONS  ....        329 

MR.  STANLEY  IN   IRELAND  ...  ...  355 



VOL,  II. 



[APEIL,  1824.] 

I  CONCLUDED  my  last  letter  with  the  achievements  of 
Lord  Wellesley  at  the  Beef-steak  Club,  and  turn  from 
the  noble  Marquis  to  a  person  who  has  not  long  since 
enjoyed  much  more  substantial  power  that  the  present 
Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland.  Mr.  Saurin,  who  for  more 
than  fifteen  years  had  exercised  an  authority  little  short 
of  absolute  dominion,  had  been  removed  from  office  with 
such  peremptory  haste,  as  almost  amounted  to  disgrace. 
The  support  given  by  Mr.  Plunket  to  the  Six  Acts  made 
the  cabinet  over-willing  to  accede  to  the  stipulations  of 
the  Grenville  party,  that  he  should  be  restored  to  the 
situation  for  which  he  had  displayed  so  many  unequi- 
vocal requisites.  Saurin  was  promptly  sacrificed. 

Few  men  are  more  sensitive  than  this  virulent  poli- 
tician, who  carried  into  his  retirement  those  deep  and 
dark  emotions  which,  however  hidden  by  a  superficial 

B  2 


congelation  in  characters  so  externally  cold  as  his,  do 
not  boil  and  fret  with  the  less  vehemence  from  being 
secret  and  unheard.  Even  in  prosperity  his  mind  had 
manifested  its  vindictive  tendencies.  All  the  long  sun- 
shine of  fortune  could  not  make  it  completely  bright,  or 
divest  it  of  its  gloomy  and  monastic  hue.  When  placed 
upon  the  top  of  provincial  power,  and  virtually  the  Pro- 
consul of  Ireland,  he  exhibited  a  strange  inveteracy  of 
dislike  to  all  those  who  attempted  to  thwart  his  mea- 
sures. If  this  spirit  could  not  refrain  from  showing 
itself,  when  every  circumstance  contributed  to  allay  it, 
his  political  disasters  impelled  it  into  new  activity  and 
force.  Yet  he  endeavoured  to  carry  a  sort  of  dignity 
into  his  retreat,  and,  wrapping  himself  in  the  cloak  of 
principle,  exclaimed,  "  Mea"  virtute  me  involve."  The 
mantle  was  a  little  tarnished,  nor  was  it  difficult  to  dis- 
cern the  writhings  of  the  wounded  politician  underneath. 
Even  this  thin  and  threadbare  covering  was  soon  after 
torn  away.  His  famous  epistle  to  Lord  Norbury  was 
discovered.*  There  is  in  Ireland  a  kind  of  Spartan 
notion  of  criminality.  It  is  not  so  much  the  perpetra- 
tion that  constitutes  the  offence,  as  the  discovery.  The 
detection  of  this  document,  in  which  an  Attorney- Gene- 
ral had  taken  upon  himself  to  exhort  a  Chief  Justice  to 
employ  his  judicial  influence  in  the  promotion  of  a 
political  purpose,  created  universal  surprise.  This  un- 
fortunate disclosure  of  the  system  upon  which  his 
government  had  been  carried  on,  tended  not  a  little  to 
augment  the  gall  which  so  many  circumstances  had 
conspired  to  accumulate ;  and  when  the  ex-officio  pro- 
ceedings were  instituted  by  his  successor,  no  man  was 

*  See  the  sketch  of  Lord  Norbury,  where  this  letter  will  be  found  inserted. 

STATE    OF     PARTIES    IN    DUBLIN.  5 

more  vehement  than  Mr.  Saurin  in  his  reprobation  of 
the  high  prerogative  proceeding. 

He  protested  (and  he  is  in  the  hahit  of  enforcing  his 
asseverations  by  appeals  to  the  highest  authority,  and  by 
the  most  solemn  adjurations)  that  in  his  opinion  the 
conduct  of  Mr.  Plunket  was  the  most  flagrant  violation 
of  constitutional  principle  which  had  ever  been  at- 
tempted. He  seemed  to  think  that  the  genius  of 
Jeffries  had  by  a  kind  of  political  metempsychosis  been 
restored  in  the  person  of  William  Cunningham  Plunket. 
He  became  so  clamorous  in  his  invocations  to  liberty, 
that  he  almost  verified  the  parable  in  the  Scriptures. 
The  demon  of  "Whiggism,  after  a  long  expulsion,  seemed 
to  have  effected  a  re-entry  into  his  spirit,  and  to  have 
brought  a  seven-fold  power  along  with  it.  He  was 
much  more  rancorously  liberal  than  he  had  ever  been, 
even  at  the  period  of  his  hottest  opposition  to  the 
Union.  Little  did  he  think,  in  this  sudden  but  not 
unaccountable  paroxysm  of  constitutional  emotion,  that 
his  own  authority  would  be  speedily  produced  as  a 
precedent,  and  that  his  great  rival  would  find  a  shelter 
under  the  shadow  of  so  eminent  a  name.  It  was  not, 
however,  to  convivial  declamations  that  his  invectives 
were  confined.  The  press  was  resorted  to,  and  a  pamph- 
let entitled  "A  year  of  Lord  Wellesley's  Administra- 
tion" appeared.  It  Avas  written  with  skill,  but  without 
power.  It  was  destitute  of  real  eloquence,  but  exhi- 
bited that  species  of  dexterity  which  a  veteran  prac- 
titioner in  Chancery  might  be  expected  to  display.  It 
was  believed  that  if  not  actually  written  by  Saurin,  he 
supplied  the  materials.  The  poison  was  compounded 
t)y  other  hands.  This  book  was  a  good  deal  read,  but 


owed  its  circulation  rather  to  the  opinions  which  it 
inculcated,  than  to  the  language  in  which  they  were 

Having  succeeded  in  exciting  the  public  mind  to  an 
adequate  tone  of  irritation,  Mr.  Sauriii  resolved  to  push 
his  attack  into  his  enemy's  territory,  and  to  invade  him 
in  the  House  of  Commons.  The  selection  which  he 
made  of  one  of  his  instruments  for  this  purpose  was  a 
little  singular.  His  oratory  illustrates  a  plirase  of  the 
satirist,  "  tenero  supplantat  verba  palato."  The  spirit 
of  Saurin,  however,  breathed  some  of  its  masculine 
nature  into  his  soul,  and  he  exhibited  a  sort  of  Amazon 
intrepidity  in  his  encounter  with  Mr.  Pluuket.  His 
coadjutor  was  more  appropriately  chosen,  and  a  curtain 
noble  lictor  was  felicitously  selected  for  the  scourging 
of  the  Attorney-General.*  That  the  latter  was  guilty  of 
some  indiscretion  in  revenging  the  affront  which  was 
offered  to  the  vice-regal  dignity,  his  firmest  advocates 
do  not  now  dispute.  He  was  probably  actuated  by  an 
honest  desire  to  pierce  into  and  disclose  the  penetralia 
of  Orangeism,  but  this  object  he  might  perhaps  have 
attained  without  committing  the  rioters  for  high  treason 
against  the  representative  majesty  of  the  noble  Marquis. 
He  lent  himself  not  a  little  to  the  personal  exasperation 
of  that  distinguished  nobleman.  Lord  "Wellesley  re- 
garded the  bottle  affair  not  only  as  a  violation  of  his 
honour,  but  as  an  attempt  upon  his  life. 

*  Mr.  Charles  Brownlow  (the  late  Lord  Lurgan)  was  the  leader  of 
the  parliamentary  attack  upou  Mr.  Plunkct.  Tlie  "  noble  lictor"  was 
Colonel  Barry,  an  officer  of  militia,  aud  representative  of  the  county  of 
Cavan.  He  succeeded  to  the  barony  of  Farnliam  upon  the  death  of  his 
cousin,  the  fourth  baron,  in  July  1823. 


It  has  been  happily  observed  in  a  very  excellent 
pamphlet,  written  by  Mr.  vEneas  M'Donnel  (the  author 
of  the  Letters  of  Hibernicus,  in  the  Courier),  that  in 
the  year  1817  Lord  Wellesley  had,  in  a  speech  in  the 
House  of  Lords,  expressed  a  hope  that  the  Ministers 
would  not  allow  themselves  to  be  frightened  with  glass 
bottles.  He  now  looked  with  no  ordinary  awe  upon 
these  vitreous  engines  of  destruction.  Death  appeared 
to  have  been  uncorked,  and  like  Asmodeus  in  Le  Sage's 
novel,  who  rises  in  smoke  from  the  mysterious  phial  of 
a  conjuror,  the  king  of  terrors  ascended  upon  the  imagi- 
nation of  his  lordship  in  the  foam  of  porter  and  the 
exspuitions  of  ginger-beer. 

Mr.  Plunkct  accordingly  undertook  a  task,  to  which, 
with  all  his  talents,  the  event  proved  him  to  be  unequal. 
He  had  not  only  to  contend  with  a  certain  rashness  that 
constitutes  a  predominant  feature  in  his  character,  but 
with  a  previous  indisposition,  which  was  fully  as  much 
personal  as  political,  that  was  created  against  himself 
He  has  no  party  in  the  country.  He  has  not  the  talent 
of  attaching  men  to  his  interests  by  the  strong  ties  of 
individual  regard.  Saurin  is  in  this  particular  essen- 
tially his  superior.  The  unaffected  affability  of  the 
latter,  which  is  wholly  free  from  "  enforced  ceremony," 
has  secured  to  him  the  strict  adhesion  of  his  political 
partisans,  and  tended  in  some  degree  to  mitigate  the 
hostility  of  his  opponents.  The  manners  of  Mr.  Plun- 
ket  are  peculiarly  impolitic  and  unhappy.  It  is  said 
that  the  authoritative  frigidity  of  his  demeanour  is  the 
result  of  mere  heedlessness.  But  what  business  has  a 
statesman  to  be  heedless  ?  The  austerity  of  his  occa- 
sional recognition  is  not  a  little  annoying  to  the  self- 


respect  of  the  individuals  who  chance  to  fall  within  the 
scope  of  his  unobservant  vision.  It  may  be  figuratively 
as  well  as  literally  said,  that  he  is  short-sighted.  It  was 
the  sagacious  Alva,  I  think,  who  said  that  he  could  pur- 
chase a  man  with  a  touch  of  his  bonnet.  Mr.  Plunket 
seems  generally  indisposed  to  pay  even  this  low  price 
for  a  commodity  which  is  at  once  so  valuable  and  so 

Yet  upon  occcasion,  and  when  he  has  some  imme- 
diate object  in  view,  he  assumes  a  sort  of  clumsy  con- 
descension. His  temporary  politeness  is  like  a  new 
garment  that  sits  uneasily  upon  him.  At  the  approach 
of  a  college  election  the  film  is  gradually  removed  from 
his  eyes.  He  kens  a  voter  at  a  mile's  distance,  and 
acquires  a  telescopic  vision.  He  is  no  Coriolanus  in 
his  candidateship.  It  was  quite  pleasant  to  see  him 
during  the  last  election  standing  upon  a  wet  and  driz- 
zling day  on  the  steps  of  the  college  examination-hall, 
with  his  hat  in  his  hand,  and  while  the  rain  fell  upon 
his  broad  and  haughty  forehead,  soliciting  the  glance 
of  every  scholar  that  happened  to  pass  him  by,  and 
congratulating  the  students  upon  the  premiums  which 
they  had  obtained,  and  for  which  they  were  no  doubt 
indebted  to  the  inestimable  instructions  of  their  tutors, 
who  united  to  their  great  talents  the  no  less  valuable 
faculty  of  having  a  vote.  I  am  far  from  meaning  to 
say  that  at  an  election  the  very  extravagancies  of 
courtesy  are  not  almost  legitimate.  It  is  the  subse- 
quent and  almost  instantaneous  contrast  that  renders 
these  caprices  of  demeanour  so  ridiculous.  A  week  or 
two  after  his  return,  the  sight  of  Mr.  Plunket  becomes 
impaired.  The  dimness  increases  in  a  month,  and  in  a 


year  he  is  stone-blind.  This  infelicity  of  manner  is  a 
great  drawback  upon  his  many  excellent  qualities,  and 
has  produced  no  little  alienation.  His  advocates  are 
influenced  in  their  support,  rather  by  a  sense  of  duty 
than  by  any  individual  partiality. 

It  should  be  added,  that  he  has  been  guilty  of  a 
grievous  mistake  in  the  distribution  of  his  patronage. 
In  place  of  endeavouring  to  extend  his  influence  among 
those  \vho  had  already  rendered  and  who  were  still 
able  to  confer  upon  him  political  services,  he  gave 
places  to  his  sons.  This  was  an  error  (for  it  deserves 
no  stronger  designation)  which  Saurin  did  not  commit. 
The  latter  commanded  all  the  patronage  of  the  govern- 
ment at  the  Bar.  His  spirit  was  felt  in  every  appoint- 
ment. He  sat  in  the  centre  of  the  system  which  he 
had  himself  elaborated,  and  "  lived  in  every  line."  But 
Plunket,  after  having  indulged  in  his  parental  par- 
tialities, allowed  the  Solicitor-General  to  supersede  him 
at  the  Castle.  The  latter  who,  although  a  recruit  from 
the  Saurin  faction,  often  casts  "  a  lingering  look  be- 
hind," has  made  good  use  of  the  official  nonchalance  of 
his  confederate,  and  snatched  the  horn  of  plenty  from 
his  hands.  It  was  matter  of  universal  surprise,  that 
when  recent  vacancies  in  the  situation  of  assistant- 
barrister  had  occurred,  Mr.  Plunket  had  not  exercised 
his  influence  in  the  nomination  of  some  members  of 
the  liberal  party.  His  friends  apologized  for  him  by 
alleging  that  he  was  relaxing  from  his  political  labours 
at  Old  Connaught  (his  country  residence),  and  listening 
to  the  cawing  of  the  rooks  in  the  avenues  of  that 
magnificent  villa,  while  Mr.  Joy  was  busily  employed 
in  feathering  the  nests  of  his  partisans,  and  turning 
the  reveries  of  his  absent  friend  into  political  account. 


I  mention  these  circumstances,  because  they  afford 
an  insight  into  the  character  of  this  very  able  man; 
and  although  they  do  not  fall  into  the  natural  order  of 
events,  explain  the  absence  of  sympathy  in  the  great 
emergency  into  which  he  was  suddenly  thrown.  He 
had,  indeed,  a  few  old  and  staunch  supporters,  the 
friends  of  his  youth,  and  to  whom  he  is  most  honour- 
ably and  immutably  attached;  but  they  were  lost 
amidst  the  crowd  of  railers  who  triumphed  in  the  anti- 
cipation of  his  fall  /  and  that  he  would  have  fallen  is 
most  likely,  but  for  a  discovery  which  produced  an 
immediate  and  powerful  revulsion  in  the  public  mind. 

It  occurred  to  a  professional  gentleman,  Mr.  Foley, 
whose  recollection  was  less  evanescent  than  the  memory 
of  Mr.  Sealy  Townsend  (the  gentleman  who  had 
actually  drawn  the  ex  officio  informations  for  Mr. 
Saurin  as  well  as  for  his  successor),  that  a  precedent 
might  be  found  for  this  stretch  of  the  prerogative  even 
in  the  constitutional  dictatorship  of  the  ex- Attorney- 
General.  It  is  indeed  a  matter  of  surprise  that  Mr. 
Sealy  Townsend  should  not  have  remembered  so  im- 
portant a  fact.*  In  no  less  than  two  instances  had 
Mr.  Saurin  resorted  to  the  exercise  of  this  formidable 
authority,  and  employed  upon  both  occasions  the  pro- 

*  Mr.  John  Sealy  Townsend  (afterwards  a  Master  of  Chancery)  held 
the  office  of  law-adviser  to  the  Castle  at  the  period  of  these  prosecu- 
tions. Though  not  the  "Devil  to  the  Attorney -General,"  as  Mr.  Shell 
supposed,  it  was  part  of  his  official  duty  to  aid  the  law  officers  of  the 
Crown.  When  -Mr.  Plunket  electrified  the  House  of  Commons  by  the 
production  of  Mr.  Saurin's  ex  officio  proceedings,  severe  remarks  were 
made  by  Mr.  Abercromby  "  upon  the  way  the  Attorney-General  for 
Ireland  was  served  in  the  discharge  of  his  duties;"  and  a  motion  \v;is 
even  made  by  Mr.  Calcraft,  that  Mr.  Saurin  himself  should  be  summoned 
before  the 


fessional  labours  of  Mr.  Townsend,  who  is  what  is 
generally  called  "  Devil  to  the  Attorney- General."  So 
distinguished  is  Mr.  Townsend  for  the  permanence  of 
his  recollections,  that  there  are  those  who  insinuate 
that  even  its  failings  lean  to  memory's  side,  and  that 
his  very  oblivion  is  the  result  of  reminiscence.  Whether 
he  remembered  to  forget  I  shall  not  venture  to  decide, 
but  certain  it  is,  that  in  this  important  conjuncture  the 
integrity  of  his  recollection  was  like  the  chastity  of 
Haidee,  and 

"  he  forgot 
Just  in  the  very  moment  he  should  not." 

Mr.  Foley,  having  ascertained  by  an  inspection  of  the 
records  that  Mr.  Saurin  had  fulminated  two  of  the 
prerogative  bolts,  where  the  bills  of  indictment  had 
been  ignored,  hastened  to  communicate  the  discovery 
to  Mr.  Plunket,  who  is  said  to  have  been  overjoyed  at 
the  intelligence.  He  felt  like  a  man  who  had  been 
fighting  without  arms,  and  in  the  very  crisis  of  the 
combat  was  supplied  with  weapons  of  irresistible 

The  effect  produced  in  the  House  of  Commons  is 
well  known.  The  disclosure  struck  the  ascendancy 
faction  in  Ireland  like  a  palsy.  The  hopes  of  the 
liberals  rose  in  proportion  to  the  declination  of  the 
opposite  party;  and  when  soon  after  Sir  Abraham 
Bradley  King  was  produced  at  the  bar  of  the  House  of 
Commons,  it  was  expected  that  Orangeism  would  be  at 
length  unmasked,  and  that  its  sanguinary  turpitude 
would  be  left  without  a  veil. 

The  examination  of  the  "Pro  P atria"  baronet  (this 
person  had  been  originally  a  stationer)  was  watched 


with  the  most  intense  anxiety.  He  had  been  hailed 
by  Lord  Sidmouth  as  the  chief  conciliator  of  Ireland, 
was  created  a  baronet  by  His  Majesty  for  the  getting 
up  of  a  convivial  amnesty,  and  immediately  after  the 
departure  of  the  King  poured  out  a  libation  to  "  the 
glorious  memory,"  and,  as  he  elegantly  expressed  it, 
''threw  off  his  surtout."  It  was  now  anticipated  that 
he  would  be  obliged  to  divest  himself  of  his  inner 
Orange  garment,  and  disclose  all  the  loathsome  rags 
that  were  concealed  beneath.  But  these  expectations 
were  blasted  in  the  bud.  Sir  Abraham,  who  had 
received  a  wholesome  hint,  made  a  mock  tender  of 
martyrdom,  and  furnished,  in  the  impunity  of  his 
defiance,  matter  of  astonishment  to  the  empire,  and  of 
indignation  to  Ireland.  He  returned  in  triumph  to 
Dublin,  with  Mr.  Plunket  bound  at  his  chariot-wheels.* 
I  saw  the  Attorney-General  in  the  Four  Courts 
shortly  after  his  arrival.  His  face  was  full  of  care,  and 
haggard  with  disappointment  and  self-reproach.  There 
was  a  lividness  in  his  eyelids,  and  a  wanness  in  his 
cheek,  which  denoted  a  spirit  pining  under  the  sense  of 

*  It  is  not  easy  to  discover  in  what  took  place  ou  the  examination  of 
King,  the  Dublin  stationer,  any  triumph  obtained  over  Mr.  Plunket. 
King  alleged  his  oath  of  secresy  as  an  Orangeman  to  justify  his  refusal 
to  answer  a  question  put  by  Sir  John  Newport  as  to  the  use  of  certain 
scriptural  phrases  (about  Joshua  and  the  Amalekites)  in  the  initiation  of 
members  of  the  Orange  Lodges.  The  Committee  seems  to  have  attached 
more  importance  to  the  question  than  was  expedient ;  and  by  pressing 
the  witness  after  they  had  substantially  arrived  at  what  they  wanted  to 
learn,  they  put  an  obscure  individual  in  a  position  to  claim  a  victory  over 
the  House.  But  there  was  no  defeat  of  Mr.  Plunket ;  on  the  contrary, 
the  incredible  virulence  with  which  he  was  assailed  by  the  faction  in 
Dublin  proved  what  a  formidable  enemy  they  had  found  him  in  parlia- 


an  unmerited  humiliation,  which  he  vainly  struggled  to 
conceal.  How  unlike  he  looked  to  the  distinguished 
person,  who,  a  little  while  before,  unpensioned  and 
unplaced,  was  in  the  full  enjoyment  of  that  high 
renown,  for  the  diminution  of  which  no  emoluments 
can  compensate,  and  who,  instead  of  being  the  pro- 
vincial utensil  of  the  British  cabinet,  was  almost  the 
foremost  man  in  the  first  assembly  in  the  world. 

The  next  public  event  of  sufficient  importance  to 
take  a  place  in  these  epistolary  annals,  was  the  first  of 
that  series  of  alleged  miraculous  interpositions  of  which 
England  as  well  as  Ireland  has  heard  so  much.  You 
will  scarcely  expect  that  I  should  enter  upon  a  dis- 
cussion of  their  authenticity.  The  subject  is  too  sacred 
to  be  lightly  treated;  and  for  a  grave  and  detailed 
discussion  what  limits  would  suffice  ?  I  shall  therefore 
pass  on  at  once  to  the  notice  of  a  person,  certainly  of  no 
ordinary  kind,  whom  they  have  been  the  means  of  call- 
ing forth  to  public  view,  and  who  has  in  consequence 
acquired  a  degree  of  general  notoriety,  and  of  import- 
ance among  his  own  persuasion,  unenjoyed  by  any 
Catholic  priest  or  prelate  of  Ireland  since  the  days  of 
the  celebrated  O'Leary.  You  anticipate  that  I  must 
be  alluding  to  Doctor  Doyle,  the  titular  bishop  of 
Leighlin  and  Kildare.* 

This  gentleman  is  descended  from  one  of  those 
respectable  families  in  this  country  that  have,  as  to  the 
worldly  attribute  of  wealth,  been  irretrievably  ruined 
by  the  politics  of  Ireland.  So  recently  as  in  the  life- 
time of  his  father,  the  penal  code  laid  its  vulture-grasp 
upon  the  patrimonial  inheritance,  and  wrested  it  for 

*  See  note  (1)  to  the  subsequent  paper  entitled  Exorcism  of  a  Divine. 


ever.  Upon  approaching  to  man's  estate  he  found 
himself  in  education  and  alliances  a  gentleman — in 
prospects  and  resources  an  Irish  Catholic.  To  a  person 
so  circumstanced  exile  had  its  charms;  so,  shaking  the 
dust  of  his  natal  soil  from  his  feet,  he  passed  into 
Portugal,  where  he  perfected  his  education  in  one  of 
the  universities  of  that  country,  and  became  an  eccle- 
siastic. He  returned  to  Ireland  about  years 

ago.  His  learning  and  talents,  both  of  which  are 
great,  procured  his  nomination  to  the  Professorship  of 
Logic  in  the  Catholic  college  of  Carlow,  and  subse- 
quently to  the  titular  bishoprick  which  he  now  enjoys. 
In  this  country,  where  the  deepest  and  most  frequent 
crimes  of  the  peasantry  have  a  State-origin,  a  Catholic 
pastor,  who  regards  his  flock,  cannot  abstain  from 
intermingling  political  allusions  in  his  public  exhorta- 
tions ;  and  however  resolutely  it  may  be  denied,  it  is 
an  unquestionable  fact  that  many  an  insurgent  con- 
gregation is  tamed  into  submission  to  their  destiny  by 
the  voice  of  peace  and  warning  that  issues  from  the 
altar.  In  this  part  of  his  religious  duties  Dr.  Doyle 
was  long  remarkable  for  his  moderation.  Upon  the 
last  general  commotion  in  the  South,  about  sixteen 
months  ago,  he  published  a  pastoral  address,  so  adapted 
to  his  object  by  the  spirit  of  Christian  eloquence  and 
charity  which  it  breathed,  that  Mr.  Plunket  did  not 
hesitate  to  pronounce  it  a  masterpiece  worthy  of  the 
meek  and  virtuous  Fenelon.  It  was  calculated  to  be  of 
equal  service  to  the  government  and  the  established 
church;  but  a  hierarch  of  the  dominant  faith  was 
untouched  by  its  merits,  and  in  one  of  his  addresses,  or 
as  it  "was  more  correctly  entitled,  his  charge,  responded 


by  a  puerile  and  blundering  insult  upon  the  religion  of 
a  man  whom  he  should  have  embraced  as  a  brother, 
and  might  in  many  points  have  studied  as  a  model. 

This    unprovoked    anathema,    combined    with    the 
various    exciting   events   that   followed    in   rapid   suc- 
cession, roused  Dr.  Doyle  to  a  vindication  of  his  creed, 
and  (a  still  more  popular  theme)  to  some  elaborate  and 
cutting  retorts  upon  the  most  precious  and  vulnerable 
attribute   of  Irish   orthodoxy — its   temporalities.     He 
has   boldly   denied    the   divinity   of    tithes,    and    has 
brought  to  bear  a  most  provoking  array  of  learning  and 
logic  upon  their  Noli-me-tangere  pretensions.    A  deadly 
controversy  has  ensued,  and  still  rages.     I.  K.  L.  (the 
signature  which  Dr.    Doyle    has    adopted),   has    been 
answered  and  denounced  by  sundry  beneficed  alpha- 
betical characters,  and  tithe-loving  anagrams,  for  these 
champions  of  the  church  seem  reluctant  to  commit 
their    names,    and    deep    and   wide- spreading   is    the 
interest  with  which  the  combat  is  observed.     Upon  the 
merits  of  questions   so  entirely  beside  my  pursuits  I 
cannot  venture  to  pronounce ;  but  as  far  as  the  mere 
exhibition  of  wit  and  knowledge  and  controversial  skill 
is  concerned,  it  seems  to  me  that  I.  K.  L.  has  hitherto 
continued  master  of  the  field.     "You  are  a  Jacobin 
and  a  Catholic,"  cries  the  Rev.  F.  W. — "  You  are  too 
fond  of  gold  and  silver/'  retorts  I.  K.  L. — "Would  you 
plunder  the  established  church  of  its  vested  comforts, 
you  Papist  ?"  exclaims  T.  Y.  X. — "  Would  you  drive  a 
coach   and    six  along   the  narrow  path  that   leads  to 
Heaven ?"  rejoins  the  pertinacious  I.  K.  L. — "Where 
are  your  authorities  for  your  monstrous  positions?" 
demands  a  tliird  adversary,  muffled  up  in  an  aboriginal 


Irish  name  turned  inside  out. — "  I  -refer  you  (replies 
I.  K.  L.  here  evidently  quite  at  home)  to  the  Fathers, 
whom  you  clearly  have  never  read,  and  in  particular  to 
St.  Augustine,  who  wrote  the  book  De  Doctrina 
Christiana,  which  you  have  blunderingly  attributed  to 
Pope  Gelasius,  and  which  book  contains  no  such 
passage  as  you  have  cited  from  it,  the  said  passage 
being  in  another  book,  to  wit,  that  against  the 
Eutychian  heresy,  which  in  the  opinion  of  Baronius 
and  M.  Cano  was  never  written  by  Pope  Gelasius ;  and 
for  further  illustrations  of  my  views,  vide  passim,  Erric, 
Prosper,  D'Marea,  Cardinal  Lupus,  Cervantes,  and 
Fijo,  if  you  know  anything  of  Spanish;  Illiricus, 
Vincent  of  Lirins,  Pallivicini,  Yigilantius,  (Ecolam- 
padius,  and  the  Fudge  Family."  Here  is  a  good  six 
months'  course  of  reading  for  I.  K.  L/s  biliteral  and 
triliteral  opponents;  and  the  happy  results  will,  no 
doubt,  be  communicated  in  due  season  to  the  public. 

The  profusion  of  erudition  and  contempt  with  which 
Dr.  Doyle  plies  his  adversaries,  led  me  to  imagine 
before  I  saw  him  that  he  must  be  a  man  of  pompous 
and  somewhat  overbearing  carriage,  but  his  appearance 
and  his  manners  (which  I  am  told  are  courteous  and  play- 
ful) have  quite  a  different  character.  He  is  not  more, 
I  understand,  than  forty  years  of  age,  and  does  not 
seem  so  much.  He  is  indeed  the  most  juvenile-looking 
prelate  I  ever  saw.  His  smooth  round  face  and  ruddy 
complexion,  and  his  slender  and  pliant  form,  seem  to 
belong  rather  to  a  young  recruit  of  the  church  than  to 
one  of  its  established  dignitaries.  His  face  has  a  very 
peculiar  expression — intelligence  throughout,  strength 
and  an  honest  scorn  about  the  mouth  and  lips,  and  in 


the  eyes  a  mingled  character  of  caution  and  slyness, 
produced  by  their  downcast  look  and  the  overhanging 
of  thick  and  shady  lashes,  as  if  he  made  it  a  point  of 
prudence  to  screen  from  hostile  observation  the  light 
and  indignation,  and,  perhaps,  now  and  then  the  tri- 
umph, that  glow  within. 

The  remark  may  be  fanciful,  but  it  struck  me  that  I 
could  discover  in  his  controlled  and  measured  gait  the 
same  secret  consciousness  of  strength,  and  the  same 
reluctance  to  display  it.  Perhaps  I  might  extend  the 
observation  to  the  entire  of  the  Catholic  hierarchy. 
How  different  their  air  and  movements  from  those  of 
corresponding  rank  in  the  more  favoured  sect !  See  in 
the  streets  a  prelatical  sample  of  ascendancy,  and  with 
what  a  buoyant  and  lordly  swing,  like  a  vessel  laden 
with  worldly  wealth,  and  wafted  before  a  prosperous 
trade- wind,  he  rolls  along!  With  what  pride  and 
energy,  and  deep-seated  reliance  upon  the  eternity  of 
tithes,  he  thrusts  out  one  holy  and  pampered  leg  before 
the  other !  He  tramples  upon  Irish  ground  with  the 
familiar  superiority  of  one  who  feels  that  an  ample 
portion  of  its  fertile  soil  ia  irrevocably  dedicated  by 
divine  conveyance,  collaterally  secured  by  common  and 
statute  law,  to  the  uses  of  his  sacred  corporation.  But 
the  bishop  of  the  people — how  dissimilar  his  attitude 
and  gesture  !  He  picks  his  cautious  steps  as  if  the  way 
were  lined  with  penal  traps,  and  checks  the  natural 
impulse  of  humanity  to  appear  abroad  with  the  firm  air 
and  carriage  of  a  man,  lest  a  passing  alderman,  or 
tutored  parrot  from  an  Orange  window,  should  salute 
his  ears  with  some  vituperative  cant  against  his  politics 
and  creed.  I  would  suggest,  however  to  Dr.  Doyle 

VOL.  II.  C 


that  he  need  not  fear  to  throw  out  his  limbs  as  he 
has  done  his  mind.  The  enemies  of  his  country  have 
already  tendered  him  the  homage  of  their  hatred;  that 
of  their  fear  and  respect  will  inevitably  follow. 



[MAY,  1825.] 

THE  Roman  Catholic  Association  having  resolved  to 
petition  the  House  of  Commons  against  the  Bill  which 
was  in  progress  for  their  suppression,  requested  Mr. 
O'Connell  and  Mr.  Sheil  to  attend  at  the  bar  of  the 
house,  and  prayed  that  tHose  gentlemen  should  be  heard 
as  counsel  on  behalf  of  the  body  in  whose  proceedings 
they  had  taken  so  active  a  participation.*  They  ap- 
peared to  undertake  the  office  with  reluctance.  It 
involved  a  great  personal  sacrifice  upon  the  part  of 
Mr.  O'Connellj  and  independently  of  any  immediate 
loss  in  his  profession,  Mr.  Sheil  could  not  fail  to  per- 
ceive that  it  must  prejudice  him  in  some  degree  as  a 
barrister,  to  turn  aside  from  the  beaten  track  of  his 

*  At  the  opening  of  the  session  of  1825,  the  King's  speech  called  the 
attention  of  Parliament  to  the  existence  of  organized  meetings  in  Ireland 
calculated  to  endanger  the  peace  of  society ;  and  a  measure  to  suppress 
the  Catholic  Association  was  immediately  introduced.  The  Catholic 
leaders  petitioned  to  be  heard  by  their  counsel  against  the  bill,  and  sent 
a  deputation  to  London  to  manage  the  opposition  to  it.  The  petition 
was  presented  by  Mr.  Brougham,  and  the  question  of  hearing  the 
petitioners  gave  rise  to  a  spirited  and  acrimonious  debate.  The  motion 
was  rejected  by  a  large  majority. 

c  2 


profession,  in  the  pursuit  of  a  brilliant,  but  somewhat 
illusory  object. 

It  was,  however,  next  to  impossible  to  disobey  the 
injunction  of  a  whole  people — and  they  accepted  this 
honourable  trust.  At  the  same  time  that  counsel  were 
appointed,  it  was  determined  that  other  gentlemen 
should  attend  the  debates  of  the  House  of  Commons  in 
the  character  of  deputies,  and  should  constitute  a  sort 
of  embassy  to  the  English  people. 

The  plan  of  its  constitution  was  a  little  fantastic. 
Any  person  who  deemed  it  either  pleasurable  or  expe- 
dient to  attach  himself  to  this  delegation  M'as  declared 
to  be  a  member,  and,  in  consequence,  a  number  of  indi- 
viduals enrolled  themselves  as  volunteers  in  the  national 
sendee.  I  united  myself  to  these  political  missionaries, 
not  from  any  hope  that  I  should  succeed  in  detaching 
Lord  Eldon  from  the  church,*"or  in  banishing  the  fear 
of  Oxford  from  the  eyes  of  Mr.  Peel,  but  from  a  natural 
curiosity  to  observe  the  scenes  of  interest  and  novelty, 
into  which,  from  my  representative  character,  I  thought 
it  not  improbable  that  I  should  be  introduced.  I  set 
out  in  quest  of  political  adventure,  and  determined  to 
commit  to  a  sort  of  journal,  whatever  should  strike  me 
to  be  deserving  of  note.  Upon  my  return  to  Ireland, 
I  sent  to  certain  of  my  friends  some  extracts  from 
the  diary  which  I  had  kept,  in  conformity  with  this 
resolution.  They  told  me  that  I  had  heard  and  seen 
much  of  what  was  not  destitute  of  interest,  and,  at  their 
suggestion,  I  have  wrought  the  observations,  which 
were  loosely  thrown  together,  into  a  more  regular 
shape,  although  they  will,  I  fear,  carry  with  them  an 
evidence  of  the  haste  and  hcedlessness  with  which  they 
were  originally  set  down. 


The  party  of  deputies  to  which  I  had  annexed  myself, 
travelled  in  a  barouche  belonging  to  Mr.  O'Connell,  of 
which  he  was  kind  enough  to  offer  us  the  use.  I  fancy 
that  we  made  rather  a  singular  appearance,  for  the  eyes 
of  every  passenger  were  fixed  upon  us  as  we  passed; 
and  at  Coventry,  (a  spot  sacred  to  curiosity,)  the  mis- 
tress of  the  inn  where  we  stopped  to  change  horses, 
asked  me,  with  a  mixture  of  inquisitivcness  and  wonder, 
and  after  many  apologies  for  the  liberty  she  took  in 
putting  the  interrogatory,  "who  the  gentlemen  were?" 
I  contented  myself  with  telling  her  that  we  were  Irish — 
"  Parliament  folk,  I  suppose  ?" — to  which,  with  a  little 
mental  reservation,  I  nodded  assent. 

Mr.  O'Connell,  as  usual,  attracted  the  larger  portion 
of  the  public  gaze.  He  was  seated  on  the  box  of  the 
barouche,  with  a  huge  cloak  folded  about  him,  which 
seemed  to  be  a  revival  of  the  famous  Irish  mantle ; 
though  far  be  it  from  me  to  insinuate  that  it  was 
ever  dedicated  to  some  of  the  purposes  to  which  it  is 
suggested  by  Spenser  that  the  national  garment  was 
devoted.*  His  tall  and  ample  figure  enveloped  in  the 
trappings  that  fell  widely  round  him,  and  his  open  and 
manly  physiognomy,  rendered  him  a  very  conspicuous 
object,  from  the  elevated  station  which  he  occupied. 
"Wherever  we  stopped,  he  called  with  an  earnest  and 
sonorous  tone  for  a  newspaper,  being  naturally  solicitous 
to  learn  whether  he  should  be  heard  at  the  bar  of  the 

*  "  It  is  a  fit  house  for  an  outlaw,  a  meet  bed  for  a  rebel,  an  apt 
cloak  for  a  thief.  When  it  raineth,  it  is  his  pent-house,  when  it  bloweth, 
it  is  his  tent,  when  it  freezes,  it  is  his  tabernacle.  In  summer  he  can 
wear  it  loose,  in  winter  he  can  wrap  it  close ;  at  all  times  he  can  use  it ; 
never  heavy,  never  cumbersome." — View  of  the  State  of  Ireland  as  it 
was  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth. 


house;  and  in  invoking  "mine  host"  for  the  parlia- 
mentary debates,  he  employed  a  cadence  and  gesture 
which  carried  along  with  them  the  unequivocal  intima- 
tions of  his  country. 

Nothing  deserving  of  mention  occurred  until  we  had 
reached  Wolverhampton.  We  arrived  at  that  town 
about  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning,  with  keener  appe- 
tites than  befitted  the  season  of  abstinence,  during 
which  we  were  condemned  to  travel.  The  table  was 
strewed  with  a  tantalizing  profusion  of  the  choicest  fare. 
Every  eye  was  fixed  upon  an  unhallowed  round  of  beef, 
which  seemed  to  have  been  deposited  in  the  centre  of 
the  breakfast-room  with  a  view  to  "  lead  us  into  tempta- 
tion," when  Mr.  O'Connell  exclaimed  "recollect  that 
you  are  within  sacred  precincts.  The  conqueror  of 
Sturges,  and  the  terror  of  the  Veto-ists,  has  made 
Wolverhampton  holy."*  This  admonition  saved  us  on 
the  verge  of  the  precipice — we  thought  that  we  beheld 
the  pastoral  staff  of  the  famous  Doctor  raised  up  be- 

*  Doctor  Milner,  Roman  Catholic  Bishop  of  Castabala,  and  Vicar 
Apostolic  of  the  Midland  District  in  England,  was  equally  eminent  as  a 
polemic  and  antiquarian.  Among  numerous  other  works  he  wrote  a 
history  of  the  antiquities  of  Winchester,  in  wliich  he  displayed  both 
his  antiquarian  research  and  his  controversial  furor.  Among  other 
things,  he  treated  the  character  of  Bishop  Hoadly  with  a  provoking 
freedom.  The  Rev.  Doctor  Sturges,  a  dignitary  of  Winchester,  replied 
in  a  lxx>k  called  Reflections  on  Popery.  Milner  rejoined  in  Letters  to 
a  Prebendary.  Other  divines  mingled  in  the  fray,  some  on  one  side, 
some  on  the  other;  and,  as  usual  in  such  contests,  the  victory  was 
claimed  by  both  parties.  On  the  question  of  the  veto,  Doctor  Milner 
was  the  stubborn  advocate  of  ultramontane  opinions,  holding  the  largest 
measure  of  Emancipation  to  be  no  equivalent  for  the  concession  to  the 
Crown  of  any  control  upon  the  appointment  of  the  bishops  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church.  This  position  made  him  at  one  time  exceedingly 
unpopular  with  a  powerful  section  of  the  Catholic  party. 


tween  us  and  the  forbidden  feast,  and  turned  slowly 
and  reluctantly  from  its  unavailing  contemplation  to 
the  lenten  mediocrity  of  dry  toast  and  creamless  tea. 

We  had  finished  our  repast,  when  it  was  suggested 
that  we  ought  to  pay  Doctor  Milner  a  visit  before  we 
proceeded  upon  our  journey.  This  proposition  was 
adopted  with  alacrity,  and  we  went  forth  in  a  body  in 
quest  of  that  energetic  divine.  We  experienced  some 
little  difficulty  in  discovering  his  abode,  and  received 
most  evangelical  looks  and  ambiguous  answers  to  our 
inquiries.  A  damsel  of  thirty,  with  a  physiognomy 
which  was  at  once  comely  and  demure,  replied  to  us  at 
first  with  a  mixture  of  affected  ignorance  and  ostenta- 
tious disdain — until  Sir  Thomas  Esmonde,*  who  is  "  a 
marvellous  proper"  man  in  every  sense  of  the  word, 
whether  it  be  taken  in  its  physical  or  moral  meaning, 
addressed  the  fair  votary  of  Wesley  with  a  sort  of 
chuck-under-the-chin  manner  (as  Leigh  Hunt  would 
call  it),  and  bringing  a  more  benign  and  feminine  smile 
upon  a  face  which  had  been  over-spiritualized  by  some 
potent  teacher  of  the  word,  induced  the  mitigated 
methodist  to  reply:  "If  you  had  asked  me  for  the 
Popish  priest,  instead  of  the  Catholic  bishop,  I  should 
have  told  you  that  he  lived  yonder,"  pointing  to  a  large 
but  desolate-looking  mansion  before  us.  We  pro- 
ceeded, acccording  to  her  directions,  to  Dr.  Milner*s 

It  had  an  ample,  but  dreary  front.  The  windows 
•were  dingy,  and  covered  with  cobwebs,  and  the  grass 
before  the  door  seemed  to  illustrate  the  Irish  impreca- 

*  A  Catholic  gentleman  of  the  highest  respectability.  He  repre- 
sented the  county  of  Wexford  in  the  last  parliament,  and  is  an  Irish 
Privy  Councillor. 


tion.  It  is  separated  from  the  street  by  a  high  railing 
of  rusty  metal,  at  which  we  rang  several  times  without 
receiving  any  response.  It  was  suggested  to  us,  that  if 
we  tried  the  kitchen  door,  we  should  probably  get  in. 
We  accordingly  turned  into  a  lane,  leading  to  the 
postern  gate,  which  was  opened  by  an  old  and  feeble,  but 
very  venerable  gentleman,  in  whom  I  slowly  recognised 
the  active  and  vigorous  prelate,  whom  I  had  seen  some 
years  ago  in  the  hottest  onset  of  the  Veto  warfare  in 
Ireland.  His  figure  had  nothing  of  the  Becket  port 
which  formerly  belonged  to  it.  A  gentle  languor  sat 
upon  a  face  which  I  had  seen  full  of  fire  and  expression 
— his  eye  was  almost  hid  under  the  relaxed  and  drop- 
ping eyelid,  and  his  voice  was  querulous,  undecided,  and 

He  did  not  recollect  Mr.  O'Connell,  and  appeared  at 
a  loss  to  conjecture  our  purpose.  "We  have  come  to 
pay  you  a  visit,  my  lord,"  said  Mr.  O'Connell.  The 
interpellation  was  pregnant  with  our  religion;  "my 
lord/'  uttered  with  a  vernacular  richness  of  intonation, 
gave  him  an  assurance  that  we  were  from  "  the  Island 
of  Saints,"  and  on  the  right  road  to  heaven.  He 
asked  us,  with  easy  urbanity,  to  walk  in.  We  found 
that  he  had  been  sitting  at  his  kitchen  fire,  with  a 
small  cup  of  chocolate,  and  a  little  bread,  which  made 
up  his  simple  and  apostolic  breakfast.  There  was  an 
English  neatness  and  brightness  in  everything  about 
us,  which  was  not  out  of  keeping  with  the  cold  but 
polished  civility  of  our  reception.  The  Doctor  was,  for 
a  little  while,  somewhat  hallucinated,  and  still  seemed 
to  wonder  at  our  coming.  There  was  an  awkward 
pause.  At  length  Mr.  O'Connell  put  him  aufait.  He 
told  him  who  he  was,  and  that  he  and  his  colleagues 


were  going  to  London  to  plead  the  cause  of  their  holy 
religion.  The  name  of  the  counsellor  did  not  give  the 
Doctor  as  electric  a  shock  as  I  had  expected — he  merely 
said,  that  we  did  him  very  great  honour,  and  wished  us 
every  success.  He  requested  us  to  walk  up  stairs,  and 
welcomed  us  with  much  courtesy,  but  little  warmth. 
Time  had  been  busy  with  him.  His  faculties  were  not 
much  impaired,  but  his  emotions  were  gone.  His 
ideas  ran  clearly  enough,  but  his  blood  had  ceased  to 

We  sat  down  in  his  library.  The  conversation  hung 
fire.  The  inflammable  materials  of  which  his  mind 
was  originally  composed,  were  damp  by  age.  O'Connell 
primed  him  two  or  three  times,  and  yet  he  did  not  for 
a  long  while  fairly  go  off.  I  resolved  to  try  an  expe- 
dient, by  way  of  experiment  upon  episcopal  nature,  and 
being  well  aware  of  his  feuds  with  Mr.  Charles  Butler, 
(the  great  lawyer  and  profound  theologian  of  Lincoln's 
Inn),  asked  him,  with  much  innocence  of  manner, 
though  I  confess  with  some  malice  of  intent,  "  whether 
he  had  lately  heard  from  his  old  friend,  Charles 

The  name  was  talismanic — the  resurrection  of  the 
Doctor's  passions  was  instantaneous  and  complete.  His 

*  This  eminent  and  learned  man  was  Secretary  to  the  Committee  of 
English  Catholics,  and  in  that  capacity  came  into  collision  with  Milner. 
ilr.  Butler  and  Wilkes,  a  monk,  were  the  joint  writers  of  the  tracts  that 
issued  from  the  Committee,  and  were  called  The  Slue  Books.  Butler 
tells  us  in  his  reminiscences,  that  these  were  called  in  Italy  Lilri 
turcldni,  and  that  an  English  divine,  not  well  acquainted  with  Italian, 
mistook  the  word  for  torcliini,  and  translated  it  "Torches  of  heterodoxy.3' 
There  were  also  red  books  and  buff  books,  proceeding  from  the  same 
source.  The  polemical  spirit  was  busy  in  those  days,  and  the  press 
teemed  with  controversy ;  the  Catholic  divine  belaboured  the  Catholic 
lawyer,  and  the  Protestant  doctors  fell  upon  both. 


face  became  bright,  his  form  quickened  and  alert,  and 
his  eye  was  lighted  up  with  true  scholastic  ecst:.-  \ .  lie 
seemed  ready  to  enter  once  more  into  the  rugged  field 
of  controversy,  in  which  he  had  won  so  many  laurels, 
and  to  be  prepared  to  "fight  his  battles  o'er  again/'' 
To  do  him  justice,  he  said  nothing  of  his  ancient 
antagonist  in  polemics  which  a  bishop  and  a  divine 
ought  not  to  say ;  he,  on  the  contrary,  mentioned  that 
a  reconciliation  had  taken  place.  I  could,  however* 
perceive,  that  the  junction  of  their  minds  was  not  per- 
fectly smooth,  and  saw  the  marks  of  the  cement,  which 
had  "  soldered  up  the  rift."  The  odium  theologictim 
had  been  neutralized  by  an  infusion  of  Christianity,  but 
some  traces  of  its  original  acidity  could  not  fail  to 
remain.  He  spoke  of  Mr.  Butler  as  a  man  of  great 
learning  and  talents ;  and  I  should  mention  parenthe- 
.tically,  that  I  afterwards  heard  the  latter  express  himself 
of  Doctor  Milner,  as  a  person  of  vast  erudition,  and 
who  reflected  honour,  by  the  purity  of  his  life,  and  the 
extent  of  his  endowments,  upon  the  body  to  which  he 

The  impulse  given  to  his  mind  by  the  mention  of  his 
achievements  in  controversy,  extended  itself  to  other 
topics.  Cobbett  had  done,  said  Doctor  Milner,  service 
to  Ireland,  and  to  its  religion,  by  addressing  himself  to 
the  common  sense  of  the  English  people,  and  trying  to 
purge  them  of  their  .  misconceptions  respecting  the 
belief  of  the  great  majority  of  the  Christian  world. 
The  Doctor  spoke  with  a  good  deal  of  energy  of  the 
contests  which  had  been  carried  on  between  the  clergy 
and  the  itinerant  missionaries  of  the  Bible  Society  in 
Ireland,  and  congratulated  Mr.  O'Connell  and  Mr.  Sheil 
on  their  exertions  in  Cork,  from  which  the  systematic 


counteraction  of  the  new  apostles  had  originated. 
Mr.  O'Connell  expressed  his  obligations  upon  this 
occasion  to  Dr.  Milner's  celebrated,  and,  let  me  add, 
admirable  work,  which  has  been  so  felicitously  entitled 
"The  End  of  Religious  Controversy."  "Oh!"  said 
the  Doctor,  "I  am  growing  old,  or  I  should  write  a 
supplement  to  that  book." 

After  some  further  desultory  conversation,  we  took 
our  leave.  Doctor  Milner,  who  had  been  aroused  into 
his  former  energy,  thanked  us  with  simple  and  unaffected 
cordiality  for  our  visit.  He  conducted  us  to  the  gate 
before  his  mansion,  (in  which  I  should  observe  that 
neither  luxury  nor  want  appear)  with  his  white  head 
uncovered,  and  with  the  venerable  grace  of  age  and 
piety  bade  us  farewell.* 

~\Ve  proceeded  upon  our  journey.  No  incident 
occurred  deserving  of  mention,  unless  a  change  in  our 
feelings  deserves  the  name.  The  moment  we  entered 
England,  I  perceived  that  the  sense  of  our  own  national 
importance  had  sustained  some  diminution,  and  that, 

*  Doctor  Milner  died  in  the  following  year  (1826).  He  was  a  remark- 
able man  in  his  day.  The  mere  enumeration  of  his  works  would  fill  a 
pamphlet.  One  of  his  early  treatises  was,  An  Historical  and  Critical 
Enquiry  into  the  Existence  and  Character  of  St.  George,  patron  of 
England,  of  the  Order  of  the  Garter,  and  of  the  Antiquarian  Society. 
He  discusses  the  observations  of  Gibbon  and  others,  and  proposes  to  prove 
that  St.  George  the  Martyr  was  neither  an  imaginary  being,  nor  the 
infamous  Cappadocian  of  the  same  name  who  in  the  fourth  century 
usurped  the  see  of  Alexandria.  In  1807  Doctor  Milner  visited  Ireland, 
and  produced  a  work  on  its  religion  and  its  antiquities,  which  embroiled 
him  with  Dr.  Ledwich.  But  the  End  of  Religious  Controversy  was 
his  most  important  work.  Dr.  Parr  replied  to  it  in  a  letter  which  did 
not  appear  until  after  his  death.  Milner  did  not  leave  his  posthumous 
opponent  unanswered,  proving  that  religious  controversy,  like  a  circle, 
has  no  end. 


however  slowly  and  reluctantly  we  acknowledged  it  to 
ourselves,  the  contemplation  of  the  opulence  which 
surrounded  us,  and  in  which  we  saw  the  results  and 
evidences  of  British  power  and  greatness,  impressed 
upon  every  one  of  us  the  consciousness  of  our  provincial 
inferiority,  and  the  conviction  that  it  is  only  from 
an  intimate  alliance  with  Great  Britain,  or  rather  a 
complete  amalgamation  with  her  immense  dominion, 
that  any  permanent  prosperity  can  be  reasonably 
expected  to  be  derived.  In  the  sudden  transition  from 
the  scenes  of  misery  and  sorrow  to  which  we  are 
habituated  in  Ireland  to  the  splendid  spectacle  of 
English  wealth  and  civilization,  the  humiliating  con- 
trast between  the  two  islands  presses  itself  upon  every 
ordinary  observer.  It  is  at  all  times  remarkable.  Com- 
pared to  her  proud  and  pampered  sister,  clothed  as  she 
is  in  purple  and  in  gold,  Ireland,  with  all  her  natural 
endowments,  at  best  appears  but  a  squalid  and  emaciated 
beauty.  I  have  never  failed  to  be  struck  and  pained 
by  this  unfortunate  disparity:  but  upon  the  present 
occasion  the  objects  of  our  mission,  and  the  peculiarly 
national  capacity  in  which  we  were  placed  in  relation  to 
England,  naturally  drew  our  meditation  to  the  sur- 
passing glory  of  the  people,  of  whom  we  had  come  to 
solicit  redress. 

An  occasional  visit  to  England  has  a  very  salutary 
effect.  It  operates  as  a  complete  sedative  to  the  ardour 
of  the  political  passions.  It  should  be  prescribed  as  a 
part  of  the  antiphlogistic  regimen.  The  persons  who 
take  an  active  part  in  the  impassioned  deliberations  of 
the  Irish  people,  are  apt  to  be  carried  away  by  the 
strength  of  the  popular  feelings  which  they  contribute 
to  create.  Having  heated  the  public  mind  into  an 


ardent  mass  of  emotion,  they  are  themselves  under  the 
influence  of  its  intensity.  This  result  is  natural  and 
just :  but  among  the  consequences  (most  of  which  are 
beneficial)  which  have  arisen  from  this  habitual  excita- 
tion, and  to  which  the  Catholics  have  reasonably 
attributed  much  of  their  inchoate  success,  they  have 
forgotten  the  effect  upon  themselves,  and  have  omitted 
to  observe  in  their  own  minds  a  disposition  to  exaggerate 
the  magnitude  of  the  means  by  which  their  ends  are  to 
be  accomplished.  In  declaiming  upon  the  immense 
population  of  Ireland,  they  insensibly  put  out  of  account 
the  power  of  that  nation  from  whom  relief  is  demanded, 
and  who  are  grown  old  in  the  habit  of  domination, 
which  of  all  habits  it  is  most  difficult  to  resign. 

A  man  like  Mr.  O'Connell,  who,  by  the  force  of  his 
natural  eloquence  produces  a  great  emotion  in  the 
midst  of  an  enthusiastic  assembly  of  ardent  and  high- 
blooded  men,  who  is  hailed  by  the  community,  of  which 
he  is  the  leading  member,  as  their  chief  and  champion ; 
who  is  greeted  with  popular  benedictions  as  he  passes, 
whose  name  resounds  in  every  alley,  and  "  stands 
rubric"  on  every  wall,  can  with  difficulty  resist  the 
intoxicating  influence  of  so  many  exciting  causes,  and 
becomes  a  sort  of  political  opium-eater,  who  must  be 
torn  from  these  "seductive  indulgences,  in  order  to 
reduce  him  into  perfect  soundness  and  soberness  of 

His  deputation  to  England  produced  an  almost  imme- 
diate effect  upon  him.  As  we  advanced,  the  din  of 
popular  assemblies  became  more  faint ;  the  voice  of  the 
multitude  was  scarcely  heard  in  the  distance,  and  at 
last  died  away.  He  seemed  half  English  at  Shrews- 
bury, and  was  nearly  Saxonized  when  we  entered  the 

30  .        POLITICAL    SKETCHES. 

rnurky  magnificence  of  Warwickshire.  As  we  surveyed 
the  volcanic  region  of  manufactures,  and  saw  a  thousand 
Etnas  vomiting  their  eternal  fires,  the  recollections  of 
Erin  passed  away  from  his  mind,  and  the  smoky  glories 
of  Wolverhampton  took  possession  of  his  soul.  The 
feeling  which  attended  our  progress  through  England 
was  not  a  little  increased  by  our  approach  to  its  huge 
metropolis.  The  waste  of  wealth  around  us,  the  pro- 
cession of  ponderous  vehicles  that  choked  the  public 
roads,  the  rapid  and  continuous  sweep  of  carriages,  the 
succession  of  luxurious  and  brilliant  towns,  the  crowd 
of  splendid  villas,  which  Cowper  has  assimilated  to  the 
beads  upon  the  neck  of  an  Asiatic  Queen,  and  the  vast 
and  dusky  mass  of  bituminous  vapour  which  crowns 
the  great  city  with  an  everlasting  cloud,  intimated  our 
approach  to  the  modern  Babylon. 

Upon  any  ordinary  occasion  I  should  not,  I  believe, 
have  experienced  any  strong  sensation  on  entering 
London.  What  is  commonly  called  "  coming  up  to 
town,"  is  not  a  very  sublime  or  moving  incident.  I 
honestly  confess  that  I  have  upon  a  fine  summer  morn- 
ing stood  on  Westminster  Bridge,  upon  my  return  from 
the  brilliant  inanities  of  Vauxhall,  and  looked  upon 
London  with  a  very  drowsy  sympathy  in  the  meditative 
enthusiasm  which  breathes  through  Wordsworth's  admi- 
rable sonnet.  But  upon  the  occasion  which  I  am 
describing,  it  needed  little  of  the  spirit  of  political 
romance  to  receive  a  deep  and  stirring  impulse,  as  we 
advanced  to  the  great  metropolis  of  the  British  empire, 
and  heard  the  rolling  of  the  great  tide  — the  murmurs,  if 
I  may  so  say,  of  the  vast  sea  of  wealth  before  us.  The 
power  of  England  was  at  this  moment  presented  to  us 
in  a  more  distinct  and  definite  shape,  and  we  were  more 


immediately  led,  as  we  entered  London,  to  bring  the 
two  countries  into  comparison.  This,  we  exclaimed,  is 
London;  and  the  recollection  of  our  own  Eblana  was 
manifest  in  the  sigh  with  which  the  truism  was  spoken  : 
yet  the  reflection  upon  our  inferiority  was  not  unaccom- 
panied by  the  consolatory  anticipation  that  the  time 
was  not  distant,  when  we  should  be  permitted  to  parti- 
cipate in  all  the  advantages  of  a  real  and  consummated 
junction  of  the  two  countries,  when  the  impediments 
to  our  national  prosperity  should  be  removed,  and  Ire- 
land should  receive  the  ample  overflowings  of  that  deep 
current  of  opulence  which  we  saw  almost  bursting 
through  its  golden  channels  in  the  streets  of  the 
immense  metropolis. 

Immediately  after  our  arrival,  we  were  informed  by 
the  agent  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Association  in  London, 
Mr.  ./Eneas  M'Donnel  (and  who,  in  the  discharge  of 
the  duties  confided  to  him,  has  evinced  great  talents, 
judgment,  and  discretion),  that  Sir  Francis  Burdett  was 
desirous  to  see  us  as  soon  as  possible.  We  accordingly 
proceeded  to  his  house  in  St.  James's  Place,  where  we 
found  the  Member  for  Westminster  living  in  all  the 
blaze  of  aristocracy.  I  had  often  heard  Sir  Francis 
Burdett  in  popular  assemblies,  and  had  been  greatly 
struck  with  his  simple,  easy,  and  unsophisticated  elo- 
quence : — I  was  extremely  anxious  to  gain  a  nearer 
access  to  a  person  of  so  much  celebrity,  and  to  have  an 
opportunity  of  observing  the  character  and  intellectual 
habits  of  a  man  who  had  given  so  much  of  its  move- 
ment to  the  public  mind. 

He  was  sitting  in  his  study  when  we  were  introduced 
by  Mr.  M'Donnel.  He  received  us  without  any  of  that 
hauteur  which  I  have  heard  attributed  to  him,  and  for 


•which  his  constitutional  quiescence  of  manner  is  some- 
times mistaken.  We,  who  have  the  hot  Celtic  blood 
in  our  veins,  and  deal  in  hyperbole  upon  occasions 
which  are  not  calculated  to  call  up  much  emotion,  are 
naturally  surprised  at  what  we  conceive  to  be  a  want  of 
ardour  upon  themes  and  incidents  in  which  our  own 
feelings  are  deeply  and  fervently  engaged.  During  my 
short  residence  in  London,  I  constantly  felt  among  the 
persons  of  high  political  influence  whom  we  approached, 
a  calmness,  which  I  should  have  taken  for  the  stateliness 
of  authority  in  individuals,  but  that  I  found  it  was 
much  more  national  than  personal,  and  was,  in  a  great 
degree,  an  universal  property  of  the  political  world. 

There  was  a  great  deal  of  simple  dignity,  which 
was  entirely  free  from  affectation,  in  the  address  of  Sir 
Francis  Burdett.  Having  requested  us  to  sit,  which 
we  did  in  a  large  circle  (his  first  remark  indeed  was, 
that  we  more  numerous  than  he  had  expected)  he  came 
with  an  instantaneous  directness  to  the  point,  and  after 
a  few  words  of  course  upon  the  honour  conferred  upon 
him  by  being  entrusted  with  the  Catholic  question, 
entreated  us  with  some  strenuousness  to  substitute  Mr. 
Plunket  in  his  place ;  he  protested  his  readiness  to  take 
any  part  in  the  debate  which  should  be  assigned  him  ; 
but  stated,  that  there  was  no  man  so  capable,  and  cer- 
tainly none  more  anxious,  than  the  Attorney- General 
for  the  promotion  of  our  cause.  But  for  the  plain  and 
honest  manner  in  which  this  exhortation  was  given,  I 
should  have  suspected  that  he  was  merely  performing 
a  part, — but  I  have  no  doubt  of  the  sincerity  with  which 
the  recommendation  was  given. 

He  dwelt  at  length  upon  the  great  qualifications  of 
Mr.  Plunket  as  a  parliamentary  speaker,  and  pressed  us 


to  waive  all  sort  of  form  with  respect  to  himself,  and 
put  him  at  once  aside  for  an  abler  advocate.  We  told 
him  that  it  was  out  of  our  power  to  rescind  the  decision 
of  an  aggregate  meeting.  This  he  seemed  to  feel,  and 
said  that  he  should  endeavour  to  discharge  the  trust  as 
efficiently  as  he  was  able.  His  heart,  he  said,  was  in 
the  question — he  knew  that  there  could  not  be  peace 
in  Ireland  until  it  was  adjusted ;  and  for  the  country 
he  professed  great  attachment.  He  loved  the  people  of 
Ireland,  and  it  was  truly  melancholy  to  see  so  noble  a 
race  deprived  of  the  power  of  turning  their  great  natu- 
ral endowments  to  any  useful  account.  These  obser- 
vations, which  an  Irishman  would  have  delivered  with 
great  emphasis,  were  made  by  Sir  Francis  Burdett 
almost  without  a  change  of  tone  or  look.  He  made  no 
effort  at  strong  expression.  Everything  was  said  with 
great  gentleness,  perspicuity,  and  candour. 

I  thought,  however,  that  he  strangely  hesitated  for 
common  words.  His  language  was  as  plain  as  his  dress, 
which  was  extremely  simple,  and  indicated  the  favourite 
pursuit  of  a  man  who  is  "  mad  at  a  fox-chase,  wise  at  a 
debate."  I  watched  his  face  while  he  spoke.  His  eyes 
are  small  and  bright,  but  have  no  flash  or  splendour. 
They  are  illuminated  by  a  serene  and  tranquil  spirit  : 
his  forehead  is  high  and  finely  arched,  but  narrow  and 
contracted,  and  although  his  face  is  lengthy,  its  features 
are  minute  and  delicately  chiselled  off.  His  mouth  is 
extremely  small,  and  carries  much  suavity  about  it.  I 
should  have  guessed  him  at  once  to  be  a  man  of  rank, 
but  should  not  have  suspected  his  spirit  to  be  a  trans- 
migration of  Caius  Gracchus.  I  should  never  have 
guessed  that  he  was  the  man  whose  breath  had  raised 
so  many  waves  upon  the  public  mind,  and  aroused  a 

VOL.    II.  D 


storm  which  made  the  vessel  creak.  I  saw  no  shadow 
of  the  "  tower  of  Julius  "  in  his  pure  and  ruddy  colour, 
and  should  never  have  conjectured  that  he  had  inhaled 
the  evaporations  of  its  stagnant  moat.  At  the  same  time  I 
should  observe,  that  if  there  were  no  evidences  of  a  daring 
or  adventurous  spirit  about  this  champion  of  the  people, 
there  are  in  his  demeanour  and  bearing  many  indica- 
tions of  calm  resolve  and  imperturbable  determination. 

I  was  a  good  deal  more  occupied  in  watching  this 
celebrated  person,  than  in  observing  my  companions. 
Yet  I  at  once  perceived  that  we  were  too  numerous 
and  gregarious  a  body  for  a  council  of  state,  and  was 
glad  to  find  Mr.  O'Connell  take  a  decided,  and  what  was 
considered  by  some  to  be,  a  dictatorial  tone  amongst  us. 
I  saw  that  unless  some  one  individual  assumed  the 
authority  of  speaking  and  acting  for  the  rest,  we  should 
in  all  likelihood  be  involved  in  those  petty  squabbles 
and  miserable  contentions  of  which  Bonaparte  speaks 
as  characteristic  of  the  Irish  deputies  who  were  sent  to 
Paris  to  negotiate  a  revolution.  I  was  much  pleased  to 
find  that  Mr.  O'Connell  gave,  even  in  this  early  commu- 
nication, strong  proof  of  that  wise,  temperate,  and  con- 
ciliatory spirit  by  which  his  conduct  in  London  was 
distinguished ;  and  by  the  manifestation  of  which,  he 
conferred  incalculable  service  on  his  country. 

After  this  interview  with  Sir  Francis  Burdctt,  the 
chief  object  of  which,  upon  his  part,  was  to  sound  our 
disposition  to  confide  the  conduct  of  our  cause  to  the 
Irish  Attorney- General,  we  proceeded  to  the  House  of 
Commons,  for  the  purpose  of  attending  the  debate  upon 
the  petition  to  be  heard  by  counsel  at  the  bar.  We 
had  already  been  informed  by  Sir  Francis  Burdett,  that 
it  was  very  unlikely  that  the  house  would  accede  to  the 


petition,  and  that  Ministers  had  collected  their  forces  to 
oppose  it.  For  the  result  we  were,  therefore,  prepared ; 
but  we  were  extremely  anxious  to  hear  a  discussion,  in 
which  Mr.  Brougham  was  expected  to  display  his  great 
powers,  and  in  which  the  general  demerits  of  the  Associ- 
ation would,  in  all  probability,  be  brought  by  Ministers 
underreview.  The  speakerhad  the  goodness  to  direct  that 
the  Catholic  deputies  should  be  allowed  to  sit  under  the 
gallery  during  the  discussions  which  appertained  imme- 
diately to  the  object  of  their  mission ;  and  we  were,  in 
consequence,  accommodated  with  places  upon  this 'vantage 
ground ;  from  which  I  had  an  opportunity  of  observing 
the  orators  of  the  night.  We  found  a  considerable  array 
in  the  house,  and  attracted  universal  observation. 

In  the  front  of  our  body  was  Mr.  O'Connell,  upon 
whom  every  eye  was  fixed.  He  affected  a  perfect  care- 
lessness of  manner ;  but  it  was  easy  to  perceive  that  he 
was  full  of  restlessness  and  inquietude  under  an  icy 
surface.  I  saw  the  current  eddying  beneath.  Next  him 
was  Mr.  O'Gorman,  who  carried  a  most  official  look  as 
secretary  to  the  Catholics  of  all  Ireland,  and  seemed  to 
realize  the  beau-ideal  of  Irish  self-possession.  I  should 
observe  by  the  way,  that  Mr.  O'Gorman  was  of  great 
use  in  London  in  controlling  that  spirit  of  disputation 
among  the  deputies  to  which  Irishmen  are  habitually 
prone,  and  which  it  required  the  perfect  good  humour 
and  excellent  disposition  of  the  learned  functionary  to 

The  house  began  to  fill  about  eight  o'clock.  The  as- 
pect of  the  members  was  not  in  general  very  imposing. 
Pew  were  in  full  dress,  and  there  was  little,  in  the  gene- 
ral demeanour  of  the  representatives  of  the  people,  which 
was  calculated  to  raise  them  in  my  reverence.  This 

D  2 


absence,  or  rather  studious  neglect  of  ceremony,  is, 
perhaps,  befitting  an  assembly  of  the  "  citizens  and  bur- 
gesses in  parliament  assembled."  I  remarked  that  some 
of  the  members  were  distinguished  for  their  spirit  of 
locomotion.  The  description  of  "  the  Falmouth — the 
heavy  Falmouth  coach,"  given  by  a  jocular  secretary  of 
state,  had  prepared  me  to  expect  in  a  noble  Lord  a  more 
sedentary  habit  of  body ;  but  he  displayed  a  perfect 
incapacity  to  stay  still,  and  was  perpetually  traversing 
the  house,  as  if  he  wished,  by  the  levity  of  his  trip  arid 
the  jauntiness  of  his  movements,  to  furnish  a  practical 
refutation  of  ministerial  merriment.* 

After  some  matters  of  form  had  been  disposed  of, 
Mr.  Brougham  rose  to  move,  on  the  behalf  of  the  Asso- 
ciation, that  counsel  should  be  heard  at  the  bar  of  the 
house.  I  had  seen  Mr.  Brougham  several  years  before, 
and  immediately  observed  a  great  improvement  in  his 
accomplishments  as  a  public  speaker.  Nature  has  not 
perhaps,  been  very  favourable  to  this  very  eminent 
man  in  his  merely  physical  configuration.  His  person 
is  tall,  but  not  compact  or  well  put  together.  There  is 
a  looseness  of  limb  about  him,  which  takes  away  from 
that  stability  of  attitude  which  indicates  the  fixedness 
of  the  mind.  His  chest  is  narrow — he  wants  that  bulk 
which  gives  Plunket  an  Atlantean  massiveness  of  form, 
mentioned  by  Milton  as  the  property  of  a  great  states- 
man. The  countenance  of  Mr.  Brougham  wants  sym- 
metry and  refinement.  His  features  are  strong,  but 
rather  wide.  He  has  a  Caledonian  prominence  of  bone. 
His  complexion  indicates  his  intellectual  habits — and  is 
"  sicklied  o'er  by  the  pale  cast  of  thought."  It  seems 

*  The  noble  lord  was  the  late  Lord  Nugent ;  the  jocular  secretary, 
Mr.  Canning. 


smoked  by  the  midnight  lamp.  His  eyes  are  deeply  sunk, 
but  full  at  once  of  intensity  and  meditation.  His  voice 
is  good — it  is  clear,  articulate,  and  has  sufficient  melody 
and  depth.  He  has  the  power  of  raising  it  to  a  very 
high  key,  without  harshness  or  discord,  and  when  he 
becomes  impassioned,  he  is  neither  hoarse  nor  shrill. 
Such  is  the  outward  man ;  and  if  he  has  defects,  they 
are  not  so  numerous  or  so  glaring  as  those  over  which 
the  greatest  orator  of  antiquity  obtained  a  victory. 

In  his  ideal  picture  of  a  public  speaker,  Homer  repre- 
sents the  most  accomplished  artificer  of  words  as  a  per- 
son with  few  if  any  personal  attractions.  The  character- 
istics of  Brougham's  oratory  are  vigour  and  passion. 
He  alternates  with  great  felicity.  He  possesses  in  a  high 
degree  the  art  of  easy  transition  from  impetuosity  to  de- 
monstration. His  blood  does  not  become  so  over-heated, 
as  to  render  it  a  matter  of  difficulty  for  him  to  return  to 
the  tone  andlanguage  of  a  familiar  discourse — the  preva- 
lent tone  and  language  the  House  of  Commons.  A  man 
who  cannot  rise  beyond  it,  will  never  make  a  great  figure ; 
but  whoever  cannot  habitually  employ  it,  will  be  accoun- 
ted a  declaimer,  and  will  fall  out  of  parliamentary  favour. 

Mr.  Brougham's  gesture  is  at  once  senatorial  and 
forensic.  He  uses  his  arms  like  an  orator,  and  his 
hands  like  a  lawyer.  He  employs  great  sweep  of 
action,  and  describes  segments  of  circles  in  his  impas- 
sioned movements;  here  he  forgets  his  forensic  habi- 
tudes :  but  when  he  is  either  sneering  or  sophisticating, 
he  closes  his  hands  together  with  a  somewhat  pragma- 
tical air,  or  uniting  the  points  of  his  forefingers,  and 
lifting  them  to  a  level  with  his  chair,  embodies  in  his 
attitude  the  minute  spirit  of  Nisi  Prius.  If  he  did  this 
and  nothing  else,  he  would  hold  no  higher  place  than 


the  eternal  Mr.  Wetherall  in  the  house.  But  what, 
taken  apart,  may  appear  an  imperfection,  brings  out 
the  nobler  attributes  of  his  mind,  and  by  the  contrast 
•which  it  presents,  raises  his  better  faculties  into  relief. 

Of  the  variety,  nay  vastness  of  his  acquirements  it  is 
unnecessary  to  say  anything : — he  is  a  kind  of  ambu- 
latory encyclopaedia,  and  brings  his  learning  to  bear 
upon  every  topic  on  which  he  speaks.  His  diction  is 
highly  enriched,  or,  if  I  may  so  say,  embossed  with 
figures  executed  after  the  pure  classical  model;  yet 
there  are  not  perhaps  any  isolated  passages  which  are 
calculated  to  keep  a  permanent  residence  in  the  recol- 
lection of  his  hearers.  He  does  not  venture  like 
Plunket  into  the  loftiest  regions  of  eloquence ;  he  does 
not  wing  his  flight  among  those  towering  elevations 
which  are,  perhaps,  as  barren  as  they  are  high ;  but  he 
holds  on  with  steady  continuity  in  a  very  exalted 
course,  and  never  goes  out  of  sight.  His  bursts  of 
honest  vehemence,  and  indignant  moral  reprobation, 
are  very  fine.  He  furnished,  upon  the  night  on  which 
I  heard  him,  an  admirable  exemplification  of  this  com- 
manding power.  I  allude  to  his  reply  to  Mr.  Peel  upon 
the  charges  made  against  Mr.  Hamilton  Rowan.* 

The  Secretary  for  the  Home  Department  is  said  to 
have  delivered  upon  this  occasion  one  of  the  best 
speeches  which  he  ever  pronounced  in  parliament.  I 

*  One  of  the  most  distinguished  names  among  the  patriots  and 
reformers  of  Ireland  in  the  troubled  times  that  preceded  the  Union  ;  a 
man  of  fortune  and  family,  singular  energy  of  character,  benevolence  of 
disposition,  and  extraordinary  personal  strength  and  bravery.  In  1794 
he  was  the  object  of  a  state-prosecution.  The  story  of  his  escape  from 
prison  is  as  romantic  as  an  incident  in  a  novel  of  Dumas.  An  able 
sketch  of  Mr.  Hamilton  Rowan  appeared  subsequently  in  the  New 
Monthly  Magazine,  from  the  pen  of  Mr.  W.  H.  Curran. 


own  that  he  greatly  surpassed  my  expectations.  I  was 
prepared  from  the  perusal  of  his  speeches,  and  the 
character  which  I  had  heard  of  him,  for  a  display  of 
frigid  ingenuity,  delivered  with  a  dapper  neatness  and  an 
ironical  conceit.  I  heard  the  late  Mr.  Curran  say,  that 
"  Peel  was  a  mere  official  Jackanapes,"  and  had  built 
my  conceptions  of  him  upon  a  phrase  which,  valueless 
as  it  may  appear,  remained  in  my  memory. 

But  I  was  disabused  of  this  erroneous  impression  by 
his  philippic  against  the  Association.  I  do  not  mean 
to  say  that  Mr.  Peel  has  not  a  good  deal  of  elaborate 
self-sufficiency.  He  is  perpetually  indulging  in  enco- 
miums upon  his  own  manliness  and  candour — and  cer- 
tainly there  is  much  frankness  in  his  voice  and  bearing 
— but  any  man  who  observes  the  expedients  with  which 
he  endeavours  to  effect  his  escape  from  the  grasp  of 
some  powerful  opponent,  will  be  convinced  that  there  is 
a  good  deal  of  lubricity  about  him.  He  constantly 
advances  arguments  of  the  fallacy  of  which  he  cannot 
fail  to  be  conscious,  and  which  would  be  a  burlesque 
upon  reasoning  if  they  were  not  uttered  from  the 
Treasury  Bench.  As  a  speaker,  he  should  not  be 
placed  near  Brougham,  or  Canning,  or  Plunket, 
although  he  rises  far  beyond  that  mediocrity  to  which 
in  Ireland  we  are  in  the  habit  of  condemning  him. 
His  language  is  not  powerful,  but  it  is  perfectly  clear 
and  uniformly  correct.  I  observed,  indeed,  that  his 
sentences  were  much  more  compact  and  unbroken,  and 
their  several  parts  better  linked  together  than  those 
of  Mr.  Brougham ;  but  the  one  evolves  his  thoughts  in 
a  lengthened  and  winding  chain,  while  the  other  (having 
a  due  fear  of  the  parenthetical  before  his  eyes)  presents 
an  obvious  idea  in  a  brief  and  simple  form,  and  never 


ventures  to  frame  any  massive  or  extended  series  of 

His  gesture  is,  generally  speaking,  exceedingly  appro- 
priate, and  if  I  found  any  fault  with  it,  I  should  censure 
it  for  its  minute  adherence  to  grace.  His  hands  are 
remarkably  white  and  well  formed,  and  are  exhibited 
with  an  ostentatious  care.  He  stands  erect,  and,  to 
use  a  technical  expression  employed  by  French  dancers, 
"aplomb."  This  firmness  of  attitude  gives  him  that 
appearance  of  determination,  which  is  wanting  perhaps 
in  Mr.  Brougham.  I  do  not  like  his  physiognomy  as 
an  orator.  He  has  a  handsome  face,  but  it  is  suffused 
with  a  smile  of  sleek  self-complacency,  which  it  is  impos- 
sible to  witness  without  distaste.  He  has  also  a  trick  of 
closing  his  eyes,  which  may  arise  from  their  weakness, 
but  which  has  something  mental  in  its  expression; 
and  however  innocent  he  may  be  of  all  offensive  pnr- 
pose,  is  indicative  of  superciliousness  and  contempt.  I 
doubt  not  he  found  it  of  use  in  Ireland  among  the 
menials  of  authority,  and  acquired  this  habit  at  the 

In  one,  the  best  passage  in  his  speech,  and  I  believe 
the  best  he  ever  uttered,  he  divested  himself  of  those 
defects.  Upon  the  moral  propriety  of  his  attack  upon 
Mr.  Hamilton  Rowan  it  is  unnecessary  to  say  anything. 
The  misfortunes  of  that  excellent  gentleman  ought  not 
to  have  been  pressed  into  the  service.  After  every 
political  convulsion,  a  Lethe  should  be  permitted  to 
flow  upon  the  public  mind,  and  a  sin  of  thirty  years' 
standing  ought  not  only  to  be  pardoned  but  forgotten. 
Mr.  Peel,  however,  could  not  resist  the  temptation  of 
dragging  upon  the  stage  a  man  whose  white  hair  should 
hide  every  imperfection  upon  his  head.  Laying  aside 


all  consideration  of  the  generosity  evinced  by  Mr.  Peel 
in  the  selection  of  the  topic,  it  must  be  acknowledged 
that  he  pronounced  his  invective  with  great  and  very 
successful  force.  He  became  heated  with  victory,  and, 
cheered  as  he  was  repeatedly  by  his  multitudinous 
partisans,  turned  suddenly  towards  the  part  of  the 
house  where  the  deputies  were  seated,  and  looking  tri- 
umphantly at  Mr.  O' Conn  ell,  with  whom  he  forgot  for 
a  moment  that  he  had  been  once  involved  in  a  personal 
quarrel,  shook  his  hand  with  scornful  exultation,  and 
asked  whether  the  house  required  any  better  evidence 
than  the  address  of  the  Association  to  "  an  attainted 

The  phrase  was  well  uttered,  and  the  effect  as  a  piece 
of  oratory  was  great  and  powerful.  But  for  the  want 
of  moral  dignity  I  should  say  that  it  was  very  finely 
executed.  We  hung  down  our  heads  for  a  moment, 
and  quailed  under  the  consciousness  of  defeat.  But  it 
was  only  temporary.  Mr.  Brougham  was  supplied  with 
various  facts  of  great  importance  on  the  instant,  and 
inflicted  upon  Mr.  Peel  a  terrible  retribution. 

His  reply  to  the  minister  was,  I  understand,  as 
effective  as  his  celebrated  retort  upon  the  Queen's  letters. 
He  showed  that  the  government  had  extended  to 
Mr.  B-owan  conspicuous  marks  of  favour,  and  re- 
proached Mr.  Peel  with  his  want  of  nobleness  in 
opening  a  wound  which  had  been  so  long  closed,  and 
in  turning  the  disasters  of  an  honourable  man 
into  a  rhetorical  resource.  He  got  hold  of  the  good 
feeling  of  the  house.  Their  virtuous  emotions,  and 
those  high  instincts  which  even  the  spirit  of  party 
cannot  entirely  suppress,  were  at  once  marshalled  upon 
his  side.  Conscious  of  his  advantage,  he  rushed  upon 


his  antagonist,  and  hurled  him  to  the  ground.  He 
displayed  upon  this  occasion  the  noblest  qualities  of 
his  eloquence — fierce  sarcasm,  indignant  remonstrance, 
exalted  sentiment,  and  glowing  elocution.  He  brought 
his  erudition  to  his  aid,  and  illustrated  his  defence  by 
a  quotation  from  Cicero,  in  which  the  Roman  exten- 
uates the  faults  of  those  who  were  engaged  on  Pompey's 
side.  The  passage  was  exceedingly  apposite,  but  was 
delivered,  perhaps,  with  too  dolorous  and  lacrymatory 
a  note.  A  man  should  scarcely  weep  over  a  quotation. 
But  altogether  the  reply  was  magnificent,  and  made 
the  minister  bite  the  dust.  With  this  comfortable 
reflection  we  left  the  house. 

It  is  not,  of  course,  my  intention  to  detail  every 
circumstance  of  an  interesting  kind  which  occurred  in 
the  course  of  this  political  excursion.  From  a  crowd 
of  materials,  I  select  what  is  most  deserving  of  mention. 
I  should  not  omit  the  mention  of  a  dinner  given  to 
the  deputies  by  Mr.  Brougham.  He  invited  us  to  his 
house  upon  the  Saturday  after  our  arrival,  and  gave 
the  Irish  embassy  a  very  splendid  entertainment. 
Some  of  the  first  men  in  England  were  of  the 
party.  I  had  never  witnessed  an  assemblage  of  so 
much  rank,  and  surveyed  with  intense  curiosity  the 
distinguished  host  and  his  illustrious  guests.  It  is 
unnecessary  to  observe,  that  Mr.  Brougham  went 
through  the  routine  of  convivial  form  with  dignified 
facility  and  grace.  It  was  to  his  mind  that  I 
directed  my  chief  attention,  with  a  view  to  compare 
him  in  his  hours  of  relaxation,  with  the  men  of 
eminence  with  whom  I  had  conversed  in  my  own 
country.  The  first  circumstance  that  struck  me,  was 
the  entire  absence  of  effort,  and  the  indifference 


about  display.  I  perceived  that  he  stretched  his 
faculties  out,  after  the  exhaustion  of  professional  and 
parliamentary  labour,  in  a  careless  listlessness ;  and, 
if  I  may  so  say,  threw  his  mind  upon  a  couch. 

Curran,  Grattan,  and  Bushe,  were  the  best  talkers 
I  had  ever  witnessed.  The  first  (and  I  heard  a  person 
make  the  same  remark  in  London)  was  certainly  the 
most  eloquent  man  whose  conversation  I  ever  had  an 
opportunity  of  enjoying.  But  his  serious  reflections 
bore  the  character  of  harangue;  and  his  wit,  with  all 
its  brilliancy,  verged  a  little  upon  farce.  He  was  so 
fond  indeed  of  introducing  dialogue  into  his  stories, 
that  at  times  his  conversation  assumed  the  aspect  of 
a  dramatic  exhibition.  There  was,  perhaps,  too  much 
tension  of  the  intellect  in  those  master-pieces  of 
mirth  and  pathos,  in  which  he  appeared  to  be 
under  the  alternate  influence  of  Momus  and  of 

The  conversation  of  Mr.  Grattan  was  not  of  an  after- 
dinner  cast.  You  should  have  walked  with  him  among 
the  woods  of  Tinnahinch,  and  listened  to  his  recollec- 
tions of  a  better  day  by  the  sound  of  the  lulling  and 
romantic  waters  of  those  enchanting  groves,  in  which, 
it  is  said,  he  studied  the  arts  of  elocution  in  his  youth, 
and  through  which  he  delighted  to  wander  in  the 
illuminated  sunset  of  his  glorious  age.  It  was  neces- 
sary that  his  faculties  should  be  thrown  into  a  swing 
before  they  could  come  into  full  play.  He  poured  out 
fine  sentiments  in  glittering  epigrams.  His  mind 
became  antithetical  from  continued  habit,  but  it  was 
necessary  that  it  should  be  thrown  into  excitement  to 
bring  it  into  action.  It  was  in  sketches  of  character 
that  he  excelled ;  but  you  should  give  him  time  and 


leisure  for  the  completion  of  his  miniatures.  Bushe 
But  I  am  deviating  from  my  theme. 

To  return  to  Mr.  Brougham,  he  is,  perhaps,  more 
negligent  and  heedless  of  what  he  says,  than  any  of 
these  eminent  persons  to  whom  I  have  alluded,  and 
flings  his  opinions  into  phrase  without  caring  into  what 
shape  they  may  be  moulded.  I  remember  to  have  read 
in  an  article  in  the  Edinburgh  Review,  upon  Curran's 
life,  that  eminent  men  in  England  never  make  any 
effort  to  shine  in  conversation ;  and  I  saw  an  illustra- 
tration  of  the  remark  at  Mr.  Brougham's  table.  He 
did  not  tell  a  single  story — except,  indeed,  that  he 
mentioned  a  practical  joke  which  had  been  played  upon 
Joseph  Hume,  who  takes  things  au  pied  de  la  lettre, 
by  passing  some  strange  uncouth  person  upon  him  as 
Mr.  O'Connell.  The  latter  sat  between  the  Dukes  of 
Devonshire  and  Leinster.  It  was  the  place  of  honour, 
and  the  learned  gentleman  filled  it  without  airs  or 
affectation.  In  all  his  intercourse  with  the  great  in 
London,  I  remarked  that  he  comported  himself  in  a 
manner  perfectly  becoming  his  character  and  station 
in  his  own  country.  I  was  glad  to  find  that,  unlike 
Sir  Pertinax,  "  he  could  stand  straight  in  the  presence 
of  a  great  man."  The  attention  of  the  company  was 
rery  much  fixed  upon  him.  But  he  spoke  little. 

I  remember  Mr.  Moore  telling  me  an  anecdote  of 
Mrs.  Siddons,  which  is  not  unillustrative  of  the  scene. 
A  large  party  were  invited  to  meet  her.  She  remained 
silent,  as  is  her  wont,  and  disappointed  the  expectations 
of  the  whole  company,  who  watched  for  every  syllable 
that  should  escape  her  lips.  At  length,  however,  being 
asked  if  she  would  have  some  Burton  ale,  she  replied, 
with  a  sepulchral  intonation,  that  "she  liked  ale 


vastly."  *  To  this  interesting  remark  the  display  of 
her  intellectual  powers  was  confined. 

I  do  not  think  that  Mr.  O'Connell  upon  this  occasion 
gave  utterance  'to  any  more  profound  or  sagacious 
observation.  Nearly  opposite  to  him  sat  Sir  Francis 
Burdett  and  Mr.  Lambton.f  The  latter  seemed  to 
me  to  watch  Mr.  O'Conuell  with  a  very  unremitting 
vigilance.  He  hardly  spoke  himself.  His  air  is  foreign 
— he  is  full  of  intelligence,  and  looks  like  a  picture  by 
Murillo  of  a  young  Spanish  Jesuit  who  has  just  com- 
pleted his  noviciate.  At  the  other  end  of  the  table  sat 
the  celebrated  Mr.  Scarlett,  who,  at  English  Nisi  Prius, 
is  facile  princeps.  I  thought  I  could  perceive  the  wile 
of  a  lawyer  in  his  watchful  and  searching  eye — 

"  He  is  a  great  observer,  and  he  looks 
Quite  through  the  thoughts  of  men/' 

His  smile,  too,  was  perhaps  a  little  like  that  of  Cassius. 
He  said  little — altogether  there  was  not  as  much  alert- 
ness in  the  dialogue  as  in  the  champagne.  The  Duke 
of  Sussex  seemed  to  me  the  only  person  who  exhibited 
much  hilarity  of  spirit.  There  is  a  good  deal  of  buoy- 
ancy in  the  temperament  of  his  Royal  Highness.  He 
speaks  with  great  correctness  and  fluency :  is  perfectly 
kind  and  affable,  and  laughs  with  all  his  heart  at  his 
friend's  jokes  as  well  as  at  his  own.  If  the  Duke  of 
Sussex  were  our  Lord  Lieutenant  (as  I  hope  he  yet 
may  be),  he  would  put  us  into  good  humour  with  each 
other  in  a  month.  I  would  substitute  Oberon's  whistle 

*  I  remember  mentioning  this  anecdote  to  the  late  Mr.  Maturin,  who 
said,  "  The  voice  of  Mrs.  Siddons,  like  St.  Paul's  bell,  should  never  toll 
except  for  the  death  of  kings." — A. 

t  The  late  Earl  of  Durham. 


for  Alecto's  horn.*  I  should  like  to  hear  the  honest 
and  cordial  laugh  of  the  Duke  of  Sussex  at  an  aggre- 
gate levee  of  Catholics  and  Protestants  at  the  Castle. 
I  should  like  to  hear  the  echoes  of  St.  Patrick's  hall 
taking  up  the  royal  mirth  in  a  long  and  loud  rever- 
beration. What  might,  peradventure,  be  an  excess  of 
vivacity  in  a  gentleman,  would  be  condescending  plea- 
santry in  a  prince. 

I  understood  at  Mr.  Brougham' s,  that  it  was  intended 
to  give  a  public  dinner  to  the  Catholic  deputies,  at 
which  the  leading  advocates  of  emancipation  were  to  be 
present.  Much  preparation  was  made  for  this  festival 
of  liberality,  but  it  was  afterwards  conceived  that  it 
would  be  more  judicious  upon  the  part  of  the  friends  of 
religious  liberty,  not  to  provoke  their  antagonists  into 
a  reaction,  which  it  was  thought  likely  might  be  pro- 
duced. The  idea  was  abandoned ;  but,  in  order  to  give 
the  deputies  an  opportunity  of  expressing  their  senti- 
ments in  public,  the  British  Catholics  held  a  general 
meeting  at  the  Freemasons'  Hall. 

The  Duke  of  Norfolk  was  in  the  chair.  The  assembly 
was  not  as  numerous  as  I  had  expected — it  was  in  a 
great  measure  composed  of  Irish.  Many  persons  were 
deterred  from  attending  by  the  title  of  the  meeting, 
which  seemed  to  confine  it  to  Roman  Catholics.  In 
consequence  of  the  impression  that  Protestants  were 
not  invited  to  assist  in  these  proceedings,  few  of  the 
parliamentary  supporters  of  emancipation  attended. 
Mr.  Coke,  of  Norfolk,  who  sat  next  to  the  chairman, 
was  almost  the  only  English  Protestant  of  distinction 
whom  I  observed  at  the  meeting.  I  believe,  however, 

*  In  Wieland's  Oberon,  at  the  sound  of  a  magic  whistle,  laughter  is 
instantaneously  produced,  and  merriment  takes  the  place  of  strife. — A. 


that  an  anxiety  to  hear  Mr.  O'Connell  induced  a  great 
number  of  the  literary  men  attached  to  the  periodical 
and  daily  press  to  attend. 

Mr.  O'Connell  appeared  to  me  extremely  solicitous 
about  the  impression  which  he  should  produce,  and 
prepared  and  arranged  his  topics  with  unusual  care.  In 
public  meetings  in  Ireland,  he  is  so  confident  in  his 
powers,  that  he  gives  himself  little  trouble  in  the  selec- 
tion of  his  materials,  and  generally  trusts  to  his  emo- 
tions for  his  harangues.  He  is  on  that  account  occa- 
sionally desultory  and  irregular.  But  there  is  no  man 
more  capable  of  lucid  exposition,  when  he  previously  deli- 
berates upon  the  order  in  which  he  should  array  the 
topics  upon  which  he  intends  to  dwelL  He  undertook, 
on  this  occasion,  the  very  laborious  task  of  tracing  the 
progress  of  the  penal  code,  and  epitomised  in  some 
measure  the  history  of  his  country.  For  the  first  hour 
he  was,  perhaps,  a  little  encumbered  with  small  details; 
but  when  he  advanced  into  the  general  consideration  of 
the  grievances  under  which  the  great  body  of  the  people 
are  doomed  to  labour — when  he  painted  the  insolence 
of  the  dominant  faction — when  he  shewed  the  effects  of 
the  penal  code  brought  to  his  own  door — he  seized  with 
an  absolute  dominion  upon  the  sympathies  of  his 
acclaiming  auditors,  and  poured  the  full  tide  of  his 
own  emotions  into  their  hearts. 

I  did  not  greatly  heed  the  results  of  Mr.  O'Connell's 
oratory  upon  the  great  bulk  of  his  audience.  Many  a 
big  drop  compounded  of  heat  and  patriotism — of  tears 
and  of  perspiration,  stood  upon  the  rude  and  honest 
faces  that  were  cast  in  true  Hibernian  mould,  and  were 
raised  towards  the  glory  of  Ireland  with  a  mixed  ex- 
pression of  wonder  and  of  love. 


I  was  far  more  anxious  to  detect  the  feeling  produced 
upon  the  literary  and  English  portion  of  the  audience. 
It  was  most  favourable.  Mr.  Charles  Butler,  near 
whom  I  happened  to  sit,  and  whom  I  should  be  disposed 
to  account  a  severe  but  excellent  critic,  was  greatly 
struck.  He  several  times  expressed  his  admiration 
of  the  powers  of  the  speaker.  The  applause  of  such  a 
man  is  worth  that  of  a  "  whole  theatre  of  others." 
Mr.  Coke  also,  whose  judgment  is,  I  understand,  held 
in  very  great  estimation,  and  who  has  witnessed  the 
noblest  displays  of  parliamentary  eloquence,  intimated 
an  equally  high  opinion. 

Immediately  under  Mr.  O'Connell  there  was  an  array, 
and  a  very  formidable  one,  of  the  delegates  from  the 
press.  They  appeared  to  me  to  survey  Mr.  O'Connell 
with  a  good  deal  of  supercilious  distaste  at  the  opening 
of  his  speech,  and  although  some  amongst  them  per- 
severed to  the  last  in  their  intimations  of  national 
disrelish,  and  shrugged  their  shoulders  at  "  Irish  elo- 
quence/' the  majority  surrendered  their  prejudices  to 
their  good  feelings,  and  ultimately  concurred  in  the 
loud  plaudits  with  which  Mr.  O'Connell  concluded  his 
oration.  It  occupied  nearly  three  hours  and  a  half. — 
Mr.  O'Hanlon  succeeded  Mr.  O'Connell.  He  spoke 
well,  but  the  excitation  produced  by  Mr.  O'Connell,  the 
lateness  of  the  hour,  and  the  recollections  of  dinner, 
were  potent  impediments  to  rhetorical  effect. 

Mr.  Sheil  rose  under  similar  disadvantages.  He  cast 
that  sort  of  look  about  him,  which  I  have  witnessed  in 
an  actor  when  he  surveys  an  empty  house.  The  echo 
produced  by  the  diminution  of  the  crowd  drowned  his 
voice,  which  being  naturally  of  a  harsh  quality,  requires 
great  management,  and,  in  order  to  produce  any  orato- 


rical  impression,  must  be  kept  under  the  control  of  art. 
Mr.  Sheil  became  disheartened,  and  lost  his  command 
over  his  throat.  He  grew  loud  and  indistinct.  He  also 
fell  into  the  mistake  of  laying  aside  his  habitual  cast  of 
expression  and  of  thought,  and  in  place  of  endeavour- 
ing to  excite  the  feelings  of  his  auditory,  wearied  them 
with  a  laborious  detail  of  uninteresting  facts.  He 
failed  to  produce  any  considerable  impression  excepting 
at  the  close  of  his  speech,  in  which,  after  dwelling  upon 
the  great  actions  which  were  achieved  by  the  Catholic 
ancestors  of  some  of  the  eminent  men  around  him,  he 
introduced  Jean  of  Arc  prophesying  to  Talbot  the 
obscuration  of  his  illustrious  name,  and  the  exclusion 
of  his  posterity  from  the  councils  of  his  country.* 
I  should  not  omit  to  mention  the  speech  delivered  by 

*  To  make  this  intelligible,  it  is  necessary  to  quote  the  passage  (a  very 
striking  one)  as  we  find  it  in  the  report  of  Mr.  Sheil's  speech  pub- 
lished in  the  Dublin  Evening  Post : — 

"  Let  me  put  an  imaginary  case,  for  the  imagination  sometimes  lends 
its  light  to  reason,  and  the  heart  may  solve  a  difficulty  by  which  the 
intellectual  powers  may  be  embarassed.  If,  when  hot  from  the  field  of 
victory,  and  with  all  his  glory  about  him,  the  great  Talbot  had  been 
instructed  in  the  fate  that  should  befal  his  posterity ;  if  she  whom  the 
superstition  of  the  time  had  endowed  with  a  preternatural  foresight,  if 
the  celebrated  woman  who  checked  the  tide  of  English  triumph — if  Joan 
of  Arc  had  exclaimed  to  Talbot — '  The  time  shall  come  when  that 
country  tliat  showers  honours  on  your  name,  shall  stamp  degradation  upon 
the  posterity  to  which  that  name  shall  be  transmitted, — your  children 
shall  be  driven  from  the  senate  of  their  country — the  councils  of  England 
shall  be  closed  against  them — a  brand  shall  be  struck  upon  their  foreheads 
—the  robe  of  your  nobility  shall  be  trailed  in  the  mire,  and  the  lustre 

of  your  coronet  shall  be  tarnished' would  not  the  sword  have  dropped 

from  Talbot's  hand  ?  If  he  had  believed  in  the  denunciation,  would  he 
not  have  flung  his  spear  away  ?  How  would  his  cheek  have  burned  if 
he  had  heard  that  his  sons  would  be  laden  with  degrading  disqualifica- 
tions," &c. 

VOL.    II.  E 


Lord  Stourton  at  this  meeting.  It  was  easy  to  collect 
from  his  manner  that  he  was  not  in  the  habit  of  address- 
ing a  large  assembly,  but  the  sentiments  to  which  he 
gave  utterance  were  high  and  manly,  and  becoming  a 
British  nobleman  who  had  been  despoiled  of  his  rights. 
His  language  was  not  only  elegant  and  refined,  but 
adorned  with  imagery  of  an  original  cast,  derived  from 
those  sciences  [with  which  his  lordship  is  said  to  be 

Some  of  the  deputies  dined  with  him  after  the  meet- 
ing. They  were  sumptuously  entertained.  I  had  now 
become  more  habituated  to  the  display  of  patrician 
magnificence  in  England,  and  saw  the  exhibition  of  its 
splendour  without  surprise.  Yet  I  confess  that  at  Nor- 
folk-house, where  the  Duke  did  Mr.  O'Connell,  Lord 
Killeen,  and  others  of  our  deputation  the  honour  to 
invite  them,  and  in  compliment  to  our  cause,  brought 
together  an  assemblage  of  men  of  the  highest  rank  and 
genius  in  England,  I  was  dazzled  with  the  splendour 
and  gorgeousness  of  an  entertainment  to  which  I  had 
seen  no  parallel.  Norfolk-house  is  one  of  the  finest  in 
London.  The  interior,  which  is  in  the  style  prevalent 
about  eighty  years  ago  in  England,  realizes  the  notions 
which  one  forms  of  a  palace.  It  was  indeed  occupied 
at  one  time  by  some  members  of  the  royal  family ;  and 
the  Duke  told  us  that  the  late  King  was  born  in  the 
room  in  which  we  dined. 

"We  passed  through  a  series  of  magnificent  apart- 
ments, rich  with  crimson  and  fretted  with  gold.  There 
was  no  glare  of  excessive  light  in  this  vast  and  seem- 
ingly endless  mansion;  and  the  massive  lamps  which 
were  suspended  from  the  embossed  and  gilded  ceilings, 
diffused  a  shadowed  illumination,  and  left  the  distance 


in  the  dusk.  The  transition  to  the  great  chamber  where 
the  company  were  assembled,  and  which  was  glowing 
with  light,  presented  a  brilliant  and  imposing  contrast. 
Here  we  found  the  Duke  of  Norfolk,  surrounded  by 
persons  of  high  distinction.  Amongst  the  company 
were  the  Dukes  of  Sussex,  Devonshire,  and  Leinster, 
Lord  Grey,  Lord  Fitzwilliam,  Lord  Shrewsbury,  Lord 
Donoughmore,  Lord  Stourton,  Lord  Clifford,  Lord 
Nugent,  Lord  Arundel,  Sir  Francis  Burdett,  Mr.  But- 
ler, Mr.  Abercrombie,  Mr.  Blount,  Mr.  Denman,  and 
other  persons  of  eminence  and  fame. 

The  Duke  of  Norfolk  came  forward  to  meet  us,  and 
gave  us  a  cordial  and  cheerful  welcome.  This  amiable 
nobleman  is  distinguished  by  the  kindness  and  goodness 
of  his  manners,  which  bespeak  an  excellent  and  unas- 
suming spirit,  and  through  all  the  political  intercourse 
which  we  had  with  him  upon  the  great  question,  in 
which  he  feels  so  deep  an  interest,  manifested  a  shrewd 
sound  sense,  and  a  high  and  intense  anxiety  for  the 
success  of  the  great  cause  of  religious  liberty,  from 
which  very  beneficial  results  have  already  ensued.  He 
has  been  very  instrumental  in  effecting  a  junction 
between  the  English  and  Irish  Roman  Catholics,  and 
has  thus  conferred  a  great  service  upon  both. 

We  were  received  by  him  with  the  most  gracious  and 
unaffected  urbanity.  I  was  struck  with  the  perfect 
freedom  from  authoritativeness  which  characterised  most 
of  the  eminent  men  who  were  placed  about  me.  There 
is  among  the  petty  aristocracy  of  Ireland  infinitely  more 
arrogance  of  port  and  look  than  I  observed  among  the 
first  men  of  the  British  empire.  Certain  of  our  colonial 
aristocracy  are  far  more  bloated  and  full-blown  with  a 
notion  of  their  own  importance.  The  reason  is  obvious 

E  2 


The  former  rest  in  security  upon  their  unquestionable 
title  to  respect.  Their  dignity  fits  them  like  an  accus- 
tomed garment.  But  men  who  are  raised  but  to  a  small 
elevation,  on  which  they  hold  a  dubious  ground,  feel  it 
necessary  to  impress  their  consequence  upon  others  by 
an  assumption  of  superiority  which  is  always  offensive, 
and  generally  absurd.  Lord  Fitzwilliam  was  the  person 
with  whom  I  was  disposed  to  be  most  pleased.  This 
venerable  nobleman  carries,  with  a  grey  head,  a  young 
and  fresh  heart.  He  may  be  called  the  old  Adam  of 
the  political  world ;  and  England  might  well  exclaim  to 
her  faithful  servant,  in  the  language  of  Orlando, 

"  Oh,  good  old  man,  how  well  in  thce  appears 
The  constant  service  of  the  antique  world  ! 
Thou  art  not  for  the  fashion  of  these  times 
When  none  will  sweat  but  for  promotion." 

It  is  impossible  to  look  upon  this  amiable  and  dignified 
patrician  of  the  olden  stamp,  without  a  feeling  of  affec- 
tionate admiration  for  his  pure  and  distinguished  patriot- 
ism and  the  warm  love  of  his  country,  which  lives  (if  I 
may  so  say)  under  the  ashes  of  age,  and  requires  but  to 
be  stirred  to  emit  the  flashes  of  its  former  fire.  The 
natural  apathy  incidental  to  his  time  of  life  appears 
habitually  to  prevail  over  him ;  but  speak  to  him  of  the 
great  interests  of  the  empire — speak  to  him  of  that 
measure  which  at  an  earlier  period  he  was  delegated  by 
his  sovereign  to  complete — speak  to  him  of  Ireland,  and 
through  the  dimness  that  loads  his  eye,  a  sudden  illu- 
mination will  break  forth. 

For  Ireland  he  entertains  a  kind  of  paternal  tender- 
ness. He  reverted  with  a  Nestorian  pride  to  the  period 
of  his  own  government ;  and  mentioned  that  he  had 
preserved  the  addresses  which  he  had  received  from  the 


Roman  Catholic  body  as  among  the  best  memorials  of 
his  political  life.  That  he  should  live  long  enough  to 
see  the  emancipation  of  the  Irish  people,  seemed  to  be 
the  wish  nearest  to  his  heart.*  It  does  one  good — it  is 
useful  in  a  moral  point  of  view,  to  approach  such  a  per- 
son as  Lord  Fitzwilliam,  and  to  feel  that  there  is  in 
public  men  such  a  thing  as  a  pure  and  disinterested 
anxiety  for  the  benefit  of  mankind,  and  that  the  vows 
of  all  politicians  are  not,  whatever  we  may  be  disposed 
to  think,  "  as  false  as  dicers'  oaths."  In  describing  the 
impression  produced  upon  me  by  Lord  Fitzwilliam,  I 
have  mentioned  the  result  of  my  observation  at  Mr.  Pon- 
sonby's,  where  the  deputies  afterwards  met  him,  as  well 
as  at  Norfolk-house. 

Lord  Grey  also  dined  at  Mr.  Ponsonby's,  where  I  had 
a  better  opportunity  of  noting  him.  He  is  somewhat 
silent  and  reserved.  It  is  the  fashion  among  tories  to 
account  him  contemptuous  and  haughty ;  but  I  cannot 
coincide  with  them.  He  has,  indeed,  a  lofty  bearing, 
but  it  is  not  at  all  artificial.  It  is  the  aristocracy  of  virtue 
as  well  as  rank.  There  is  something  uncompromising, 
and  perhaps  stern  as  well  as  inflexible,  in  his  aspect. 
Tall,  erect,  and  collected  in  himself,  he  carries  the 
evidences  of  moral  and  intellectual  ascendancy  im- 
pressed upon  him,  and  looks  as  if  he  knew  himself  to  be, 
in  the  proudest  sense  which  the  poet  has  attached  to 
the  character,  not  only  a  great  but  an  honest  man. 
And  why  should  he  not  look  exactly  what  he  is?  Why 
should  he  not  wrap  himself  in  the  consciousness  of  his 
political  integrity,  and  seem  to  say,  "  meet  virtute  me  in- 
volvo,"  while  so  many  others,  who  were  once  the  com- 
panions of  his  journey,  and  who  turned  aside  into  a 

*  The  prayer  was  granted.     Lord  Fitzwilliam  lived  until  1833. 


more  luxuriant  road,  in  taking  a  retrospect,  as  the  close 
of  life  is  drawing  near,  of  the  mazy  course  which  they 
have  trod,  behold  it  winding  through  a  rich  and  cham- 
paign country,  and  occasionally  deviating  into  low  but 
not  unproductive  declivities. 

This  eminent  man,  in  looking  back  from  the  point  of 
moral  elevation  on  which  he  stands,  will  trace  his  path 
in  one  direct  and  unbroken  line — through  a  lofty  region 
which  has  been  barren  of  all  but  fame,  and  from  which 
no  allurement  of  ease,  or  of  profusion,  could  ever  induce 
him  to  depart.  Lord  Grey  has  a  touch  of  sadness  upon 
him,  which  would  look  dissatisfaction  to  a  placeman's 
eye ;  but  there  is  nothing  really  morose  or  atrabilious 
in  his  expression.  He  has  found  that  sorrow  can  unbar 
the  palaces  of  the  great,  as  well  as  unlatch  the  cottages 
of  the  lowly.*  His  dear  friend  and  near  ally  is  gone — 
his  party  is  almost  broken.  He  has  survived  the  death, 
and,  let  me  add,  the  virtue  of  many  illustrious  men, 
and  looks  like  the  lonely  column  of  the  fabric  which  he 
sustained  so  nobly,  and  which  has  fallen  at  last  around 
him.  It  is  not  wonderful  that  he  should  seem  to  stand 
in  solitary  loftiness,  and  that  melancholy  should  have 
given  a  solemn  tinge  to  his  mind. 

*  The  allusion  is  perhaps  to  Lord  Erskine,  who  died  in  November, 
1823,  little  more  than  a  year  before  the  period  referred  to  in  the  text. 



[JUNE  A>T>  SEPT.  1826.] 

A  LARGE  district  of  Dublin,  commonly  called  "  The 
Liberty/'  is  occupied  by  the  manufacturers  of  tabinet. 
This  part  of  the  city  exhibits  at  all  times  a  disagreeable 
aspect.  It  is  a  labyrinth  of  narrow  lanes,  composed  of 
old  and  crazy  houses,  and  is  choked  with  nastiness  of 
every  kind.  Even  when  its  enormous  population  is  in 
active  employment,  the  senses  are  shocked  with  much 
odious  circumstance  ;  but  when  labour  is  suspended,  as 
is  often  the  case,  and  the  inhabitants  are  thrown  out  of 
employment,  a  spectacle  of  wretchedness  is  presented  in 
this  quarter  of  the  Irish  metropolis,  of  which  it  would 
require  the  genius  of  Mr.  Crab  be  for  the  delineation  of 
misery  to  convey  any  adequate  picture. 

In  the  last  month  the  manufacturing  class  have  been 
without  occupation  or  food.  I  passed,  not  very  many 
days  ago,  through  the  district  in  which  they  chiefly 
reside,  and  do  not  recollect  to  have  ever  witnessed  a 
more  distressing  scene.  The  streets  may  be  said  to 
have  swarmed  with  want.  With  starvation  and  despair 
in  their  countenances,  and  with  their  arms  hanging  in 
listlessness  at  their  sides,  hundreds  of  emaciated  men 


stood  in  groups  at  every  corner.  They  gaped  on  every 
person  of  the  better  class  who  chanced  to  pass  them, 
with  the  vacant  earnestness  of  famine ;  and  when  the 
equipage  of  some  pampered  and  vain-glorious  citizen 
rolled  by,  it  was  painful  to  observe  in  the  expression  of 
their  faces  the  dumb  comparison  with  their  own  condi- 
tion, which  was  passing  through  their  minds.  The 
doors  of  the  houses  lay  wide  open,  and,  lighted  up  as 
they  were  with  the  new  and  brilliant  sunshine  of  May, 
afforded  an  insight  into  the  recesses  of  internal  wretched- 

Their  wives  and  children  were  seen  huddled  up  to- 
gether, with  scarcely  a  shred  of  raiment  upon  their 
discoloured  and  emaciated  limbs.  Their  beds  and 
blankets  had  been  transferred  to  the  pawnbrokers ;  and 
of  their  furniture,  nothing  but  the  mere  fixtures  re- 
mained. The  ashes  round  the  hearth  seemed  to  be  of 
a  week's  standing ;  and  it  was  easy  to  perceive  that  the 
few  potato-skins,  scattered  about  the  floor,  were  the 
relics  of  a  repast  of  no  very  recent  date.  Silence  in 
general  prevailed  through  these  receptacles  of  calamity, 
except  that  now  and  then  I  heard  the  wailing  of  a  child, 
who  called  with  a  feeble  cry  for  bread.  Most  of  these 
houses  of  affliction  were  deserted  by  the  men,  who 
stood  in  frightful  gatherings  in  the  public  way.  But 
here  and  there  I  observed  the  wan  but  athletic  father 
of  a  family,  sitting  in  the  interior  of  his  hovel,  with  his 
hands  locked  upon  his  knee,  surrounded  by  his  children, 
of  whose  presence  he  appeared  to  be  scarcely  conscious, 
and  with  his  wild  and  matted  hair,  his  fixed  and 
maddening  eye,  his  hard  and  stony  Up,  exhibiting  a, 
personification  of  despair ;  and,  if  I  may  say  so,  look- 
ing like  the  Ugolino  of  "The  Liberty."  Whatever 


may  be  the  faults  of  the  Irish  character,  insensibility  to 
distress  is  not  amongst  them.  Much  substantial  and 
practical  commiseration  was  exhibited  among  the  higher 
orders  for  the  sufferings  of  the  unfortunate  manufac- 
turers, and  various  expedients  were  adopted  for  their 

It  was,  among  other  devices  of  benevolence,  sug- 
gested to  the  Marchioness  of  Wellesley,  that  a  public 
ball  at  the  Rotunda  would  be  of  use,  and  accordingly  a 
"Tabinet  Ball,"  under  the  auspices  of  that  fair  and 
newly  ennobled  lady,  was  announced.  The  notice  was 
given  in  order  to  afford  the  young  ladies  in  the  country 
an  opportunity  of  coming  to  town,  and  the  llth  of 
May  was  fixed  for  the  metropolitan  fete.  Peremptory 
orders  were  issued  at  the  Castle,  that  no  person  should 
appear  in  any  other  than  Irish  manufacture.  A  great 
sensation  was  produced  by  what  in  such  a  provincial 
town  as  Dublin  may  be  considered  as  an  event.  Crowds 
of  families  nocked  from  all  parts  of  the  country ;  and  if 
any  prudential  grazier  remonstrated  against  the  ex- 
pense of  a  journey  to  the  metropolis,  the  eyes  of  the 
young  ladies  having  duly  filled  with  tears,  and  mamma 
having  protested  that  Mr.  O' Flaherty  might  as  well 
send  the  girls  to  a  convent,  and  doom  them  to  old- 
maidenhood  for  life,  the  old  carriage  was  ordered  to 
the  hall-door,  and  came  creaking  into  town,  laden  with 
the  rural  belles,  who  were  to  make  a  conquest  at  "the 
Tabinet  Ball." 

The  arrival  of  the  important  day  was  looked  for  with 
impatience,  and  many  a  young  heart  was  kept  beating 
under  its  virgin  zone  at  the  pleasurable  anticipation. 
In  the  interval  much  good  was  accomplished,  and  Terp- 
sichore set  the  loom  at  work.  Every  milliner's  shop 


gave  notes  of  profuse  and  prodigal  preparation.  At  last 
the  llth  of  May  arrived,  and  at  about  ten  o'clock  the 
city  shook  with  the  roll  of  carriages  hurrying  from  all 
quarters  to  the  Rotunda. 

Not  very  long  ago,  Doctor  Brinkley,  the  astronomer, 
took  the  noise  of  a  newly-established  manufactory  for 
the  indication  of  an  approaching  earthquake  ;  and  if  he 
had  not  been  removed  since  then  from  the  contempla- 
tion of  the  stars,  he  would,  in  all  likelihood,  have  taken 
the  concussion  of  the  Tabinet  Ball-night,  for  the  earth- 
quake itself.  The  love  of  dancing  is  not  among  my 
addictions,  and  it  is  the  tendency  of  most  persons  of 
my  profession  to  set  up  as  a  kind  of  spurious  Childe 
Harolds  upon  occasions  of  this  kind ;  but  as  the  object 
of  the  ball  was  national,  and  I  was  solicitous  to  take  a 
close  survey  of  Lord  Wellesley  and  his  Transatlantic 
bride,  I  resolved  to  join  the  festive  gathering,  which 
charity  and  its  amiable  patroness  had  assembled. 

The  Rotunda,  where  the  ball  was  given,  is  a  very 
beautiful  building,  erected,  I  believe,  by  Sir  William 
Chambers,  and  is  one  of  those  models  of  pure  architec- 
ture with  which  Dublin  abounds.*  Upon  entering  it, 
how  different  was  the  scene  from  that  with  which  it 

*  The  history  of  the  Eotunda  IB  the  history  of  Dublin ;  an  edifice 
applicable  to  all  uses — it  serves  the  ever-varying  purposes  of  fashion  and 
politics,  of  all  sects,  parties,  and  circles.  It  shifts  its  hues  like  the 
chameleon :  to-day  the  Protestant  blue,  the  popular  green  to-morrow — 
each  prevailing  colour  of  the  day,  whether  in  opinion  or  in  silks.  A 
conventicle  in  the  morning,  illuminated  with  outlandish  eloquence;  a 
ball-room  at  night,  radiant  with  native  beauty.  It  rings  alternately 
with  the  sharp  notes  of  controversy,  the  demagogue's  roar,  and  the  laugh 
of  girls.  In  short,  it  is  the  common  stage  of  all  performers  before  the 
Irish  public,  the  missionary,  the  lecturer,  the  charlatan,  the  coquette,  the 
auctioneer,  the  agitator,  the  viceroy. 

THE    TABINET    BALL.  59 

was  associated,  and  how  strong  a  contrast  was  presented 
between  the  gorgeous  and  glittering  spectacle  before 
me,  and  that  which  I  have  endeavoured  to  describe. 
My  mind  still  retained  some  of  those  mournful  reflec- 
tions which  the  contemplation  of  misery  had  produced ; 
and  when  I  found  myself  surrounded  with  a  blaze  of 
intense  and  brilliant  illumination,  and  encompassed  by 
a  crowd,  glittering  with  splendour,  youth,  and  beauty, 
and  moving  in  measure  to  exhilarating  music,  the 
naked  and  half-famished  wretches,  whom  I  had  seen  so 
recently,  rose  like  phantoms  in  my  memory,  and  my 
imagination  went  back  to  the  abode  of  starvation,  and 
to  "the  house  of  woe/'  I  did  not,  however,  permit 
these  melancholy  reflections  to  lay  any  permanent  hold 
upon  me ;  and  indeed  the  recollection  that  pleasure 
was  made  in  this  instance  to  minister  to  the  relief  of 
sorrow,  should  have  reconciled  a  person  of  much  more 
ascetic  quality  of  mind  than  I  am  to  a  participation  in 
the  enjoyments  of  so  brilliant  a  scene. 

I  question,  whether  in  London  itself,  however  it  may 
surpass  our  metropolis  in  wealth  and  grandeur,  more 
splendour  in  alliance  with  good  taste  could  readily  be 
displayed.  There  was  an  immense  assemblage  of  young 
and  beautiful  women,  dressed  in  attire  which,  instead  of 
impairing,  tended  to  set  off  the  loveliness  of  their 
aspects,  and  the  symmetry  of  their  fine  forms — that 
sweetness  and  innocency  of  expression  which  charac- 
terises an  Irish  lady,  sat  upon  their  faces, — modesty, 
kindness,  and  vivacity  played  in  their  features,  and 
grace  and  joyousness  swayed  the  movement  of  limbs 
which  Chantrey  would  not  disdain  to  select  for  a  model. 

While  I  was  looking  upon  this  fine  spectacle  with 
some  feeling  of  national  pride,  it  was  announced  that 


Lord  Wellesley  and  the  Marchioness  were  about  to 
enter  the  room.  There  was  a  sudden  cessation  in  the 
dancing,  and  the  light  airs  to  which  the  crowd  had 
been  moving,  were  exchanged  for  the  Royal  Anthem. 
I  had  never  observed  the  Marquis  so  nearly  as  to 
form  a  very  accurate  notion  of  him,  and  his  beautiful 
American  I  had  never  seen.  I  felt  a  strong  curiosity 
about  her.  A  Yankee,  and  a  Papist,  turned  into  a 
Vice- Queen !  !  There  was  something  strange  in  this 
caprice  of  fortune,  and  I  was  anxious  to  see  the  person 
with  whom  the  blind  goddess  had  played  so  fantastic  a 

I  stood  in  no  little  suspense,  when  it  was  announced 
that  the  noble  pair  were  making  their  triumphant  entry 
into  the  Rotunda.  Followed  by  a  gorgeous  retinue  of 
richly  decorated  attendants,  the  Viceroy  and  his  consort 
advanced  towards  the  immense  assembly,  who  received 
them  with  acclamation.  She  was  leaning  upon  his  arm. 
He  seemed  justly  proud  of  so  fair  a  burthen.  The 
consciousness  of  so  noble  a  possession  had  the  effect 
upon  him  which  the  inspirations  of  genius  were  said  to 
have  produced  upon  a  celebrated  actor,  and  he  looked 
"  six  feet  high,"  compact  and  well  knit  together,  with 
great  alertness  in  his  movements,  and  with  no  further 
stoop  than  sixty  winters  have  left  upon  him,  with  a 
searching  and  finely  irradiated  eye,  and  with  cheeks 
which,  however  furrowed,  carry  but  few  traces  of  the 

The  victor  of  Tippoo  Saib,  and  the  conqueror  of 
Captain  Rock,  entered  the  Rotunda.  I  am  not  quite 
sure  that  there  was  not  a  slight  touch  of  melo-dramatie 

*  Lady  Wellesley  was  the  widow  of  an  American  gentleman  of  the 
name  of  Patterson. 


importance  in  his  air  and  manner;  and  with  a  good 
deal  of  genuine  dignity,  it  occurred  to  me  that  there 
was  something  artificial  and  theatrical  in  his  entrance 
upon  a  stage,  in  which  ephemeral  majesty  was  to  be 
performed.  It  was  said  by  Voltaire  of  a  real  monarch, 
that  no  man  could  so  well  perform  the  part  of  a  king. 
"  Le  role  de  Roi,"  is  a  phrase  which,  amounting  to  a 
truism,  loses  its  force  perhaps  when  applied  to  a  lord- 
lieutenant.  Lord  Wellesley  seemed  to  me  to  personate 
his  sovereign  with  too  elaborate  a  fidelity  to  the  part, 
and  to  forget  that  he  was  not  in  permanent  possession 
of  the  character  upon  a  stage  which  was  under  the 
direction  of  such  capricious  managers,  and  that  he 
must  speedily  relinquish  it  to  some  other  actor  upon 
our  provincial  boards. 

He  his  unquestionably  a  man  of  very  great  abilities ; 
a  speaker  of  the  first  order ;  a  statesman  with  wide  and 
philosophic  views,  who  does  not  bound  his  prospects  by 
any  artificial  horizon.  He  has  great  fame  as  a  politician, 
and  has  the  merit  of  having  co-operated  with  Mr. 
O'Connell  in  the  pacification  of  Ireland.  With  these 
intrinsic  and  substantial  claims  to  renown,  it  is  strange 
that  he  should  rely  so  much  upon  the  gewgaws  of  a 
spurious  court  for  his  importance,  and  be  in  love  with 
the  raree-show  of  vice-regal  honours.  A  throne  sur- 
mounted with  a  gorgeous  canopy  of  gold  and  scarlet 
was  placed  at  the  extremity  of  the  room  for  his  recep- 
tion; and  to  this  seat  of  mock  regality  he  advanced 
with  his  vice-queen,  with  a  measured  and  stately  step. 
When  he  had  reached  this  place  of  dignity,  his  suite 
formed  themselves  into  a  hollow  square,  and  excluded 
from  any  too  familiar  approach  the  crowd  of  spectators 
that  thronged  around. 


A  sort  of  boundary  was  formed  by  the  lines  of 
aide-de-camps,  train-bearers,  and  poursuivants  of  all 
kinds.  I  presumptuously  advanced  to  the  verge  of  this 
sacred  limit,  when  I  was  checked  by  an  urchin  page  of 
about  ten  years  of  age,  who,  dressed  in  flaming  scarlet, 
and  with  his  epaulets  dropping  in  woven  gold  to  his 
heels,  seemed  to  mock  the  consequence  of  his  noble 
master,  and  with  an  imperious  squall  he  enjoined  me 
to  keep  back.*  I  obeyed  this  Lilliputian  despot,  and 
retired  one  or  two  paces,  but  stood  at  such  a  distance 
as  to  enable  me  to  survey -the  hero  and  heroine  of  the 
scene.  The  Marquis  was  dressed  in  a  rich  uniform, 
with  a  profusion  of  orders.  He  wore  white  pantaloons, 
with  short  boots  fringed  with  gold,  and  with  tassels  of 
the  same  material.  The  Marchioness  was  dressed  in 
white  tabinet,  crossed  with  a  garland  of  flowers.  She 
struck  me  at  once  not  only  as  a  very  fine,  but  dignified 
woman.  Nobody  would  have  suspected  that  she  had 
not  originally  belonged  to  that  proud  aristocracy  to 
which  she  has  been  recently  annexed.  She  had  nothing 
of  "  La  Bourgeoise  Parvenue."  I  was  surprised  at  the 
gracefulness  with  which  she  executed  her  first  curtsy, 
and  the  ease  with  which,  in  recovering  from  it,  she 
brought  herself  back  to  the  altitude  of  stateliness  which 
I  presume  had  been  prescribed  to  her  for  the  night. 
Her  figure  appeared  to  me  to  be  peculiarly  well  propor- 

*  The  urchin-pages  in  scarlet  have  long  since  disappeared  from  the 
pomps  and  vanities  of  Dunlin  Castle;  little,  indeed,  of  the  Lord  Lieu- 
tenancy remains  but  the  Lord  Lieutenant  himself — 

"  A  king  in  jest,  only  to  swell  the  scene." 

There  is  perhaps  very  little  to  be  said  for  the  viceregal  form  of  govern- 
ment, and  it  ought  no  doubt  to  be  swept  away;  but  "  shorn  of  its  beams" 
as  it  now  is,  it  has  become  useless  and  absurd ;  for  what  can  excite 
ridicule  more  than  a  court  without  splendour,  a  pageant  without  pomp  ? 


tioned.  Her  arms  and  shoulders,  though  less  suited  to 
Hebe  than  to  Pomona,  are  finely  moulded ;  and  of  her 
waist  I  may  justly  say,  that  it  is, 

"  Fine  by  degrees  and  beautifully  less." 

Her  features  approach  to  the  classical  model.  They 
have  nothing  of  that  obtuseness  which  in  Ireland  is 
frequently  observable  in  countenances  animated  by  the 
vivacity  of  youth,  but  which  lose  their  charm  when  the 
vividness  of  the  eye  becomes  impaired,  and  the  bloom 
of  the  cheek  has  begun  to  pass  away.  The  profile  of 
Lady  Wellesley  is  at  once  marked  and  delicate.  Her 
complexion  has  not  that  purity  and  milkiness  of  colour 
which  belongs  to  Irish  beauty,  but  it  is  not,  perhaps, 
the  less  agreeable  from  having  been  touched  by  a 
warmer  sun.  Her  brows  are  softly  and  straightly  pen- 
cilled ;  her  cheeks  are  well  chiselled,  and  an  expression 
of  permanent  mildness  sits  upon  her  lips,  which  I  do 
not  regard  as  artificial  and  made  up. 

Yet  I  think  it  too  unvarying  and  fixed.  Her  smile 
is  so  sedate  and  settled,  that  although  I  had  several 
occasions  to  observe  her,  her  countenance  seemed  for 
hours  not  to  have  undergone  the  least  change  of  expres- 
sion. Some  allowance  ought  to  be  made  for  this  immo- 
vable serenity,  which  it  may  be  proper  upon  a  state 
occasion  to  assume ;  but  I  am  inclined  to  think  that 
this  monotonous  suavity  is  not  the  mere  smile  of  elabo- 
borate  affability,  but  upon  a  face  less  beautiful  would 
amount  to  an  eternal  simper.  If  I  were  called  upon  to 
point  out  among  the  portraitures  of  fictitious  life,  an 
illustration  of  the  Marchioness  of  Wellesley,  I  do  not 
think  that  with  reference  to  her  air,  her  manners,  the 
polish  and  urbanity  of  her  address,  and  the  placidity  of 


her  expression,  I  could  select  any  more  appropriate  than 
the  English  heroine  of  Don  Juan — 

"  The  Lady  Adeline  Amundeville." 

The  Marquis  and  the  co-partner  of  his  honours,  and 
sole  tenant  of  his  heart,  having  made  their  obeisance 
to  the  company,  seated  themselves  upon  the  throne ; 
and  I  cannot  help  saying,  that  when  I  saw  them  sur- 
rounded with  all  the  superfluous  circumstances  of  sove- 
reignty, and  going  through  the  mock-regal  farce,  as  if 
the  whole  business  were  not  an  idle  and  most  unsub- 
stantial pageant,  I  felt  pain  at  this  voluntary  exposure 
to  the  ridicule  of  their  political  opponents,  who  seemed 
to  gather  round  for  no  other  purpose  than  to  pay  their 
derisive  homage. 

Upon  what  pretence  these  airs  of  royalty  were  assumed, 
I  could  not  even  guess.  The  gentry  of  Dublin  were 
assembled  at  the  instance  of  Lady  Wellesley,  to 
contribute  to  the  promotion  of  Irish  manufacture. 
This  was  assuredly  no  fit  occasion  for  the  "unreal 
mockery"  of  evanescent  pomp.  I  question  whether 
tinder  such  circumstances,  it  would  be  proper  in  a 
genuine  king  to  indulge  in  regal  parade.  But  it 
appears  to  me  to  be  out  of  all  keeping,  and  to  amount 
to  no  venial  sin  against  good  taste  on  the  part  of  the 
mere  shadowy  representative  of  a  sovereign,  to  invest 
himself  in  monarchical  state,  and  all  "  the  attributes  to 
awe  and  majesty." 

The  deportment  of  His  Excellency  tended  very 
much  to  enhance  the  burlesque  of  the  whole  business. 
He  affected  all  the  nonchalance  of  a  person  accustomed 
to  royalty.  His  attitude  was  studiously  careless,  while 
that  vivid  physiognomy,  of  which,  with  all  his  practice 


in  courts,  he  is  not  the  absolute  master,  betrayed  his 
anxiety  for  the  production  of  effect.  One  of  his  legs 
•was  thrown  heedlessly  over  the  other,  to  indicate  that 
he  was  perfectly  at  his  ease ;  but  at  the  same  time,  his 
piercing  and  sagacious  eye  seemed  to  search  amidst  the 
crowd  for  that  reverence  both  to  his  person  and  to  his 
office,  to  which  he  surmised,  perhaps,  that  he  possessed 
a  somewhat  disputable  claim. 

I  was  not  a  little  amused  when  his  Excellency's  eyes 
encountered  those  of  that  redoubted  champion  of 
ascendancy,  the  Keverend  Sir  Harcourt  Lees.  My 
English  readers,  who  have  only  known  Sir  Harcourt 
through  the  medium  of  his  loyal  celebrity,  and  who 
have  never  seen  the  prodigy  himself,  may  be  disposed 
to  think  Sir  Harcourt  a  gaunt  and  dreary  man,  with  a 
fanatical  and  desolate  look,  and  with  that  grim  aspect 
of  devotion  which  characterised  the  warlike  propagators 
of  Protestantism  under  the  Cromwellian  standard.  But 
nothing  could  be  more  remote  from  the  plain  realities 
of  Sir  Harcourt  than  this  beau  ideal  of  that  distinguished 
personage.  As  he  was  the  next  person  in  importance 
to  Lord  AVellesley,  it  may  not  be  inapposite  to  say  a 
word  or  two  about  him. 

For  many  years  he  was  unknown  to  the  public,  and 
among  his  own  immediate  friends  was  regarded  as  a 
harmless  and  somewhat  simple  man  who  could  discuss 
a  bottle  of  claret  much  better  than  a  homily,  a  daring 
fox- hunter  and  a  good-humoured  divine,  who  would 
have  passed  without  any  sort  of  note,  but  for  certain 
flashes  of  singularity  which  occasionally  broke  out,  and 
exhibited  points  of  character  at  variance  with  his  gene- 
ral habits.  "What  was  the  astonishment  of  all  Dublin, 
when  it  was  announced  that  this  plain  and  unobtrusive 

VOL.    II.  F 


lover  of  the  field  was  the  author  of  a  pamphlet  filled 
with  the  most  virulent  and  acrimonious  matter  against 
the  religion  of  the  country,  and  which  almost  amounted 
to  a  call  on  the  Protestant  population  to  rise  up  in 
arms  and  extirpate  Popery  from  the  land.  Sir  Harcourt 
became  a  public  man. 

I  had  never  seen  him  before  the  publication  of  his 
book,  and  was  a  good  deal  surprised  to  find  that  all 
this  uproar  had  been  produced  by  a  little  lumpish  man, 
who  rather  looked  like  a  superannuated  jockey  than  a 
divine,  with  an  equestrian  slouch  in  his  walk,  and  the 
manger  in  his  face,  and  with  a  mouth  the  graceful  con- 
figuration of  which  appeared  to  have  been  formed  by 
the  humming  of  that  stable  melody  with  which  the 
application  of  the  curry-comb  is  generally  accompanied. 
After  looking  at  this  singular  figure  which  the  tutelary 
genius  of  the  church  had  chosen  for  its  residence,  I 
gave  up  all  my  belief  in  physiognomy,  and  renounced 
Lavater  for  ever. 

But  I  feel  that  I  am  digressing.  Enough  to  say,  that 
Sir  Harcourt's  success  in  his  first  essay  against  Popery 
led  to  other  achievements  in  controversy,  and  that  he 
was  at  length  recognised  beyond  all  dispute  as  the  most 
appropriate  champion  of  the  Irish  church.  His  whole 
character  may  be  summed  up  in  a  single  sentence  of 
Swift :  "  He  hath  been  poring  so  long  upon  Fox's  Book 
of  Martyrs,  that  he  imagines  himself  living  in  the  reign, 
of  Queen  Mary,  and  is  resolved  to  set  up  as  a  knight- 
errant  against  Popery." 

The  meeting  between  the  Marquis  Wellesley  and 
this  celebrated  person  at  the  Tabinet  Ball  excited  all 
my  attention.  Seated  upon  the  throne,  with  his 
clenched  hand  resting  upon  his  thigh,  and  his  marked 


.and  diplomatic  visage  protruded  in  all  the  intensity  of 
expression  for  -which  it  is  remarkable,  the  most  noble 
•and  puissant  Marquis  shot  his  fine  and  indignant  eyes 
into  the  soul  of  his  antagonist;  while  Sir  Harcourt, 
with  a  half  waggish  and  half  malevolent  aspect,  blend- 
ing the  grin  of  an  ostler  with  the  acrimony  of  a  divine, 
encountered  the  lofty  look  of  the  chief  governor  of 
Ireland  with  a  jocular  disdain,  and  gave  him  to  under- 
stand that  a  man  of  his  theological  mettle  was  not  to 
be  subjugated  by  a  frown. 

The  next  person  in  importance  to  Sir  Harcourt  was 
his  Grace  the  Duke  of  Leinster.  With  the  highest 
rank,  and  a  magnificent  estate,  and  with  a  name  to 
which  so  many  national  recollections  are  painfully  but 
endearingly  allied,  it  must  be  confessed  that  the  first 
peer  in  Ireland,  notwithstanding  so  many  claims  upon 
the  public  respect,  is  less  sensibly  felt,  and  produces  an 
impression  less  distinct  and  palpable,  than  the  renowned 
champion  of  the  Church.  The  one  is  at  the  head  of 
the  nobles,  and  the  other  of  the  Protestants,  of  Ireland ; 
and  however  insane  the  alacrity  of  Sir  Harcourt  may 
appear,  there  is  something  in  enthusiasm,  be  it  genuine 
or  affected,  which  is  preferable  to  the  inactive  honesty 
of  the  Duke. 

The  latter  is  descended  from  the  first  Norman  settlers 
in  Ireland.  The  Fitzgeralds  gradually  became  attached 
to  the  country,  and  were  designated  as  the  ultra-Irish, 
from  the  barbarous  nationality,  of  which,  in  the  course 
of  that  series  of  rebellions  dignified  by  the  name  of  Irish 
history,  they  gave  repeated  proof.  They  were  of  that 
class  of  insurgents  who  earned  the  ignominious  appel- 
lation of  "  Hibernis  ipsis  Hiberniores."  I  recollect  to 
have  seen  their  pedigree  upon  a  piece  of  mouldering 

F  2 


parchment,  which  was  produced  at  a  trial  in  Waterford, 
connected  with  the  royalties  of  Dromona,  and  had  been 
brought  by  a  messenger  from  the  Tower  of  London. 
It  was  a  very  remarkable  document.  The  words, 
"  attainted,"  or  "  beheaded,"  were  annexed  to  the 
names  of  more  than  half  the  members  of  this  illustrious 

The  love  of  Ireland  appears  to  have  been  a  family 
disease,  and  to  have  descended  to  the  unfortunate  Lord 
Edward  as  a  malady  of  the  heart,  although  the  san- 
guinary record  of  the  virtues  of  his  house  did  not 
include  his  name ;  but  it  was  impossible  to  look  upon 
that  memorial  of  the  scaffold,  without  recalling  the 
memory  of  the  celebrated  person  whose  failure  consti- 
tuted so  large  a  portion  of  his  crime.  It  may  be  readily 
imagined,  that  when  the  Duke  of  Leinster  returned  to 
Ireland,  after  having  attained  his  full  age,  in  order 
to  take  possession  of  his  estates,  he  was  an  object 
of  great  national  interest.  The  associations  connected 
with  his  name  had  already  secured  him  the  partialities 
of  the  country.  His  frank  and  open  air,  the  unaffected 
urbanity  of  his  manners,  the  kindness  and  cordiality 
which  distinguished  his  address,  and  an  expression  of 
dignified  good  nature  in  his  physiognomy,  brought 
back  the  recollection  of  Lord  Edward,  and  gave  to  his 
young  kinsman  a  share  in  the  affectionate  respect  with 
which  the  guilty  patriotism  of  that  chivalrous  noble- 
man is  regarded  in  Ireland. 

Few  were  sufficiently  rash  to  desire  that  the  Duke  of 
Leinster  should  engage  in  an  enterprise  so  little  likely 
to  be  successful,  as  that  which  cost  Lord  Edward  his 
life.  Almost  all  men  had  become  sensible  of  the  hope- 
lessness of  such  an  undertaking;  but  it  was  expected 


that,  while  the  chief  of  the  house  of  Fitzgerald  would 
abstain  from  any  criminally  adventurous  speculation, 
he  would,  notwithstanding,  place  himself  at  the  head  of 
the  popular  party,  that  he  would  rally  round  him  the 
friends  of  the  country,  that  he  would  extend  to  good 
principles  the  authority  of  his  rank,  and  rescue  the 
spirit  of  Irish  whiggism  from  the  scoff  with  which  it 
had  been  the  fashion  in  the  higher  circles  to  deride  it. 
A  scope  of  political  usefulness  was  unquestionably  given 
to  the  Duke.  It  would  have  been  easy  for  him  to 
raise  up  a  legitimate  and  salutary  opposition  to  the 
abuses  of  the  local  government,  which  were  at  that 
time  excessive,  and  to  have  awed  the  viceregal  des- 
potism of  the  Duke  of  Richmond  into  moderation. 
There  was  enough  of  public  virtue  left  among  the 
aristocracy  to  turn  it  to  good  practical  account,  if 
there  had  been  any  man  capable  of  giving  it  a  direc- 
tion ;  and  of  all  others,  the  young  Duke  of  Leinster, 
from  his  paramount  rank  and  hereditary  station,  seemed 
to  be  calculated  to  take  the  honourable  lead. 

"What  might  not  a  Duke  of  Leinster,  with  even  ordi- 
nary abilities,  and  with  an  active,  steadfast,  and  ener- 
getic mind,  accomplish  in  this  country?  He  might 
place  himself  at  once  in  the  front  of  a  vast  and  ardent 
population,  and  become  not  only  the  protector  of  the 
Catholics,  but  the  director  of  the  whole  body  of  liberal 
Protestants  in  Ireland.  The  distinctions  of  sect  would, 
under  his  influence,  be  merged  in  the  community  of 
country,  and  all  religious  animosities  give  way  to  a 
comprehensive  and  philosophical  sentiment  of  nation- 
ality. He  would  be  the  point  of  contact,  at  which  the 
contending  factions  might  meet  and  cohere  together. 
His  rank  and  property  would  attract  the  men  who  pro- 


fess  illiberal  opinions  as  much,  out  of  fashion  as  out  of 
prejudice ;  while  the  democratic  party  would  find  in  his 
name  and  blood  a  sufficient  guarantee  for  his  fidelity  to 

It  is  difficult  to  conceive  a  more  lofty  or  a  more 
useful  part,  than  that  which  it  would  be  easy  for  a 
Duke  of  Leinster  to  perform;  and  the  facility  with 
which  this  ideal  picture  would  be  realized  induces  the 
more  regret  that  a  person,  surrounded  with  such 
numerous  opportunities  of  doing  good,  should  have 
omitted  the  splendid  occasions  thrown  by  birth  and 
fortune  in  his  way.  He  has  voluntarily  consigned 
himself  to  oblivion. 

After  having  sold  his  house  in  Dublin,  the  Duke 
retired  to  the  woods  and  solitudes  of  Carton.  There 
he  buried  himself  from  the  inspection,  and  gradually 
dropped  out  of  the  notice,  of  the  country.  Having  a 
turn  for  mechanics,  he  provided  himself  with  a  large 
assortment  of  carpenter's  tools,  and  beguiled  the 
tedium  of  existence  with  occupations  by  which  his 
arms  were  put  into  requisition.  There  is  not  a  better 
sawyer  in  the  county  of  Kildare.  As  you  wander 
through  the  forests  on  his  demesne,  you  occasionally 
meet  a  vigorous  young  woodman,  with  his  shirt  tucked 
up  to  his  shoulders,  while  he  lays  the  axe  to  the  trunk 
of  some  lofty  tree,  that  totters  beneath  his  stroke.  On 
approaching,  you  perceive  a  handsome  face,  flushed 
with  exercise  and  health,  and  covered  with  perspiration. 
Should  you  enter  into  conversation  with  him,  he  will 
throw  off  a  few  jovial  words  betwixt  every  descent  of 
the  axe ;  and,  if  he  should  pause  in  his  task  for  breath, 
will  hail  you  in  the  tone  of  good-humoured  fellowship. 
He  sets  to  his  work  again ;  while  you  pursue  your  path 


through  the  woodlands,  and  hear  from  the  ranger  of 
the  forest  that  you  have  just  seen  no  less  a  person  than 
his  Grace  himself. 

In  the  midst  of  these  innocent  •employments  the 
Duke  of  Leinster  passes  away  a  life  which  ought  to  be 
devoted  to  higher  purposes.  It  is  with  the  utmost 
difficulty  that  he  is  occasionally  dragged  out  of  his 
retreat,  and  consents,  some  once  a  year,  to  fill  the  chair 
at  a  public  meeting.  But  he  takes  no  part  in  the 
deliberations  or  the  measures  of  popular  assemblies,  for 
which  he  entertains  an  unaffected  distaste,  and  hurries 
back  to  his  domestic  occupations  again.* 

At  the  Tabinet  Ball  (from  which  I  have  made  a  wide 
digression,  into  somewhat  too  serious,  if  not  extraneous 
matter),  it  was  easy  to  observe  that  the  Duke  of 
Leinster,  surrounded  as  he  was  by  all  the  provincial 
rank  and  wealth  of  Dublin,  was  not  an  object  of  much 
public  concern.  As  he  mingled  among  the  various 
circles  in  the  saloon,  some  person,  who  chanced  to 
know  him,  just  mentioned, — "There  is  the  Duke  of 
Leinster ;"  while  his  Grace,  neither  attracting,  nor 
caring  for  any  further  notice,  passed  on  without  heed 
to  some  other  part  of  the  room.  How  different  an 

*  It  ought,  however,  to  be  mentioned,  in  justice  to  the  Duke  of 
Leinster,  that  upon  two  occasions  of  the  greatest  interest  and  moment  he 
conspicuously  performed  his  duty  to  the  public.  In  the  very  same  room 
where  he  is  here  represented  as  a  subordinate  personage  to  a  crazy  Orange 
parson,  his  Grace  presided  in  the  beginning  of  1829  over  a  most  impor- 
tant meeting  of  the  liberal  nobiHty  and  gentry  of  Ireland,  assembled  to 
press  upon  the  Government  the  necessity  of  a  prompt  and  complete 
settlement  of  the  Catholic  question.  Subsequently,  when  the  country 
was  disturbed  by  the  unfortunate  movement  for  the  Repeal  of  the  Union,, 
the  Duke  again  came  forward,  and  attached  his  name  to  the  memorable 
protest,  called  the  Leinster  Declaration. 


impression  would  he  have  produced,  had  he  taken  the 
more  active  and  intrepid  part  to  which  his  fortunes 
appeared  to  invite  him !  The  mock  regality  of  a  lord- 
lieutenant  would  fade  at  once  before  him.  The  repre- 
sentative of  a  nation  would  stand  superior  to  the  dele- 
gate of  the  king. 

But  in  drawing  this  contrast,  it  would  be  an  injustice 
not  to  add,  that  after  all,  the  Duke  of  Leiuster  has  a 
right  to  make  a  selection  of  happiness  for  himself.  He 
has  no  ambition.  Nature  has  not  mixed  that  mounting 
quality  in  his  blood,  which  teaches  men  to  aspire  to 
greatness,  and  makes  them  impatient  of  subordination. 
If  he  is  deficient  in  energy,  and  is  without  the  tempera- 
ment necessary  for  high  enterprise,  he  is  adorned  by 
many  gentle  and,  perhaps,  redeeming  virtues.  His  life 
is  blameless  in  every  domestic  relation;  and  if  he  is 
not  admired,  he  is  prized,  at  least  by  all  those  who  are 
acquainted  with  him.  He  looks,  and  I  am  convinced 
he  is,  an  exceedingly  happy  man ;  and  has  at  all  events 
one  of  the  chief  means  of  felicity,  in  the  amiable  and 
accomplished  woman  to  whom  he  is  united. 

The  Duchess  of  Leinster  accompanied  her  husband. 
Although  an  Englishwoman  she  prefers  Ireland  to  her 
own  country,  and  has  never  seduced  her  husband  into 
absenteeism.  Lady  Morgan  should  make  a  heroine  of 
her.  Few  persons  are  more  esteemed  and  loved  than 
she  is.  There  is  a  charm  in  her  kind  and  good-hearted 
manners,  which  engages  the  partiality  of  those  about 
her,  and  converts  that  respect  which  is  due  to  her 
station,  into  regard.  I  have  never  seen  any  lady  of  her 
distinction  in  society  so  wholly  free  from  assumption. 
There  is  the  enchantment  of  sincerity  in  her  sweet 
demeanour,  which,  in  the  manners  of  the  great,  is  above 


every  other  charm.     She  is  not  beautiful;  but  there  is 
about  her, 

Something  than  beauty  dearer, 

That  for  a  face  not  beautiful  does  more 
Than  beauty  for  the  fairest  face  can  do." 

It  was  amusing  to  observe  the  contrast  between  the 
unostentatious  affability  of  her  Grace,  and  the  factitious 
loftiness  of  the  other  titled  patronesses  of  the  ball. 
Lady  Wellesley  had  nominated  a  certain  number  of 
vice-presidents  of  the  dance,  who  were  directed  to 
appear  with  a  head-dress  of  ostrich-feathers,  by  way  of 
distinguishing  them  from  the  ladies  to  whom  that  high 
function  had  not  been  confided.  Accordingly,  about  a 
dozen  heads,  stuck  with  a  profusion  of  waving  plumage, 
lifted  their  nodding  honours  above  the  crowd.  These 
reminded  me  of  the  Mexican  princesses  in  prints  of 
Montezuma's  court,  which  I  have  seen  in  the  History 
of  New  Spain.  The  absence  of  any  surperfluity  of 
attire  did  not  make  the  resemblance  less  striking.  It 
was  pleasant  to  observe  the  authoritative  simper  with 
which  they  discharged  their  high-plumed  office,  and 
intimated  the  important  part  which  they  were  appointed 
to  play  in  this  fantastic  scene.  Upon  the  vulgar  in  the 
crowd,  such  as  the  wives  of  rich  burghers,  of  opulent 
attorneys,  and  of  stuff-gown  lawyers,  they  looked  with 
ineffable  disdain ;  and  even  to  the  fat  consorts  of  the 
aldermen  they  scarcely  extended  a  smile  of  supercilious 

Busily  engaged  among  the  latter,  I  observed  Mr. 
Henry  Grattan,  the  second  son  of  the  great  Irishman, 
of  whom  it  may  be  so  justly  said; 

-  Clarum  et  venerabile  nomen 
Gentibus,  et  niultum  nostrae  quod  proderat  urbi. 


Hia  father  took  from  the  earliest  period  the  most 
anxious  care  of  his  mind,  upon  which  he  set  a  high 
value.  The  great  patriot  saw  in  the  mind  of  his  son 
what  Doctor  Johnson  calls  "  the  latent  possibilities  of 
excellence;"  and  he  was  anxious,  as  well  from  a 
national  as  from  a  parental  feeling,  to  bring  them  forth. 
Mr.  Henry  Grattan,  while  in  college,  enjoyed  the 
double  advantage  of  an  excellent  system  of  public 
education,  and  of  having  a  domestic  pattern  of  the 
admirable  in  eloquence  and  in  patriotism  perpetually 
before  his  eyes.  His  career  in  the  University  was 
highly  honourable;  and  in  the  Historical  Society, 
which,  if  it  were  not  a  school  of  genuine  oratory,  was 
at  all  events  a  useful  nursery  of  declamation,  obtained 
universal  plaudits.  Having  taken  his  degrees  with 
credit,  he  entered  the  Temple,  and  went  through  the 
usual  masticating  process,  by  which  the  British  youth 
are  initiated  into  the  mysteries  of  the  law.  He  became, 
while  in  London,  a  member  of  the  society  called  "  The 
Academics,"  which  holds  debates  upon  all  the  entities, 
and  distinguished  himself  by  a  force  and  strenuousness 
of  elocution  to  which  that  debating  association  was 
little  accustomed.  Upon  his  return  to  Dublin,  after 
having  gone  through  his  two  years'  noviciate,  and  eaten 
his  way  to  the  Bar,  he  dedicated  himself  to  political 
rather  than  to  forensic  pursuits.  His  illustrious  father 
had  been  unkindly,  and,  in  my  judgment,  ungratefully 
treated  by  the  Irish  Catholics.  Mr.  Henry  Grattan 
resented  these  injuries  with  more  asperity  than  it  was 
perhaps  judicious  to  have  expressed,  and  involved  him- 
self in  some  personal  altercations,  which  are  now 
happily  forgotten.  Having  a  turn  for  composition,  but 
not  being  sufficiently  versed  in  the  arts  of  vituperative 


insinuation,  lie  published  one  or  two  articles  in  the 
"  Evening  Post/'  of  too  undisguised  a  kind,  against  the 
Duke  of  Richmond,  which  produced  a  prosecution. 
The  great  aggravation  of  his  satire  was  its  truth. 

Until  his  father's  death,  his  son  did  not  come 
directly  forward  upon  the  political  stage;  but  when 
that  great  man  had  been  deposited  in  Westminster 
Abbey  (neither  Grattan  nor  Curran  are  buried  in  Irish 
earth),*  his  son  offered  himself  as  a  candidate  for  the 
representation  of  the  city  of  Dublin.  It  ought  to  have 
descended  to  him  as  an  inheritance.  He  appeared  on 
the  hustings  with  the  incomparable  services  of  his 
illustrious  father  as  his  advocate.  He  combined  with 
the  legitimate  claims  derived  from  so  illustrious  a 
name,  great  personal  merit.  Yet  so  high  ran  the  pre- 
judices of  party,  that  Master  Ellis,  whose  only  title 
arose  from  his  hostility  to  the  Catholics,  was  preferred 
to  him,  and  the  services  of  the  best  and  most  lofty- 
minded  Irishman  that  ever  lived  were  shamefully  for- 
gotten.t  Painful  as  such  a  defeat  unquestionably  was, 

*  At  the  period  when  this  was  written  the  ashes  of  Curran  still 
remained  in  Paddington  Church,  where  he  was  buried;  but  they  were 
removed  in  1834  to  Dublin,  and  deposited  in  the  popular  cemetery  of 
Glasnevin,  near  that  city,  beneath  a  monument  of  native  granite.  The 
word  "Curran"  is  the  only  inscription  on  the  stone;  like  the  "Dryden" 
on  the  plain  slab  in  Westminster  Abbey,  a  sufficient  epitaph  for  so  great 
a  man. 

•f-  These  observations  remind  us  of  a  striking  incident  of  the 
election  referred  to.  Mr.  Henry  Grattan  had  the  honour  of  being 
recommended  to  the  citizens  of  Dublin  by  Mr.  Plunket,  who  proposed 
him  in  a  speech  of  great  energy  and  beauty.  A  short  extract  from  that 
speech,  ending  with  a  very  happy  application  of  a  passage  in  Pope's  prologue 
to  Cato,  it  will  not  be  amiss  to  quote  from  the  newspapers  of  the  day. 

"  I  do  not  now  talk  to  Protestant  or  Catholic.  It  would  be  profanation 
of  the  dead  to  make  any  distinction.  I  come  here  to  talk  to  Ireland, 


he  did  not  relinquish  the  object  on  which  his  heart  was 
set,  and  at  the  last  election  he  was  returned  for  the 
city.  I  observed  him  actively  engaged  in  this  part  of 
his  vocation  at  the  Tabinet  Ball.  No  man  laughed 
more  loudly  at  certain  reminiscences  from  "Joe  Miller/' 

which  Alderman was  pouring,  as  original  anecdotes, 

into  his  ear.  The  new  and  graceful  pleasantry  of  the 
worthy  corporator  appeared  to  throw  Mr.  Grattan  into 
convulsions  of  merriment,  though  now  and  then,  in  the 
intervals  of  laughter,  I  could  perceive  an  expression  of 
weariness  coming  over  his  face,  and  that  effort  over  the 
oscitating  organs,  with  which  an  incipient  yawn  is 
smothered  and  kept  in. 

and  never  could  I  perform  a  duty  more  serviceable  to  my  countrymen 
than  to  implore  them  not  to  degrade  themselves  by  trampling  on  the 
ashes  of  their  father  and  benefactor.  And  I  tell  my  learned  friend,  that 
I  could  not  offer  him  a  sincerer  mark  of  friendship  than  by  advising  him 
to  retire  from  this  contest.  How  I  should  compassionate  his  feelings* 
when  paraded  through  those  streets,  his  memory  would  return  to  the 
days  when  that  great  man,  now  no  more,  passed  along  those  same  streets, 
between  the  files  of  his  countrymen,  who  were  resting  on  their  arms  in 
admiration  of  his  virtue. 

'  Even  when  proud  Caesar  midst  triumphal  cars, 
The  spoils  of  conquest,  and  the  pomp  of  wars, 
Ignobly  vain,  and  impotently  great, 
Showed  Borne  her  Cato's  figure  drawn  in  state, 
As  her  dead  Father's  reverend  image  passed, 
The  pomp  was  darkened  and  the  day  o'ercast, 
The  triumph  ceased,  tears  gushed  from  every  eye, 
The  world's  great  Master  passed  unheeded  by.'" 
The  cheering  that  followed  is  described  as  most  enthusiastic,  the  effect 
having  been  doubtless  much  heightened  by  the  felicitous  employment  of 
the  word  "  Master"  in  place  of  the  "  victor"  of  the  original." 



[OCTOBEB,   1827.] 

To  the  Editor  of  the  New  Monthly  Magazine. 

SIR, — I  am  a  Jesuit,  residing  at  the  establishment 
of  the  society  at  Clongowes  Wood.  It  was  recently 
stated  in  the  House  of  Commons  that  there  was  no 
such  thing  as  a  disciple  of  Loyola  in  Ireland ;  and  an 
honourable  gentleman  is  reported  to  have  expressed 
a  wish  that  one  of  the  order  should  be  produced  at 
the  Bar  of  the  House,  to  gratify  the  curiosity  of  the 
members  who  had  never  seen  the  prodigy. 

I  am  surprised  that  Mr.  Peel,  who  had  had  several 
intimate  communications  with  Dr.  Kenny,  the  Irish 
Provincial,  did  not  take  the  opportunity  of  setting 
Mr.  Hobhousc  right,  and  assure  him  that  he  had 
looked  upon  as  complete  a  specimen  of  the  monster 
as  Mr.  Hobhouse  could  desire  to  have  exhibited,  to 
the  horror  'of  Sir  Thomas  Lethbridge,  in  the  House 
of  Commons.  Perhaps  Mr.  Peel's  silence  on  the 
subject  of  his  intercourse  with  Dr.  Kenny  might  have 
arisen  from  a  suggestion  of  his  quondam  friend,  Sir 


John  Copley,  that  he  had  incurred  the  penalties  of  a 
pramunire  in  holding  any  communication  with  one  of 
the  Pope's  body-guards,  as  the  Jesuits  were  not  un- 
happily designated  by  the  King  of  Prussia,  when  they 
were  disbanded  by  Ganganelli. 

The  conversation  touching  "  the  Society  of  Jesus," 
in  the  House  of  Commons,  has  induced  a  supposition 
that  no  establishment  of  the  order  exists  in  Ireland. 
This  is  a  signal  mistake,  and  the  Jesuits  themselves  felt 
humiliated  at  the  obscurity  in  which  they  have  been 
permitted  to  remain.  For  the  purpose  of  rescuing 
themselves  from  oblivion,  they  bethought  themselves 
of  an  expedient  by  which  the  public  attention  should 
be  directed  to  them,  and  determined  to  apply  to  Prince 
Hohenloe  to  make  Clongowes  Wood  the  theatre  of  a 
miracle  which  should  surpass  all  the  other  wonders  of 
that  extraordinary  person.  It  had  indeed  been  a 
source  of  annoyance  to  our  ingenuous  fraternity,  that 
of  the  multitude  of  prodigies  which  had  taken  place, 
not  one  had  been  performed 'through  the  intervention 
of  a  Jesuit,  or  in  connexion  with  Clongowes  Wood; 
and  this  indisposition  on  the  part  of  the  German 
Thaumatourgos  (to  apply  to  him  the  designation  of 
St.  Gregory)  was  referred  to  a  jealousy  in  the  Prince 
of  a  greater  miracle  accomplished  by  the  Jesuits  than 
any  which  he  has  yet  achieved;  for  it  was  justly 
remarked  amongst  us,  that  the  very  existence  of  our 
order  in  the  heart  of  the  British  empire  was  a  far 
greater  wonder  than  Miss  Hohenloe  D 's  resto- 
ration to  agility  in  the  labyrinths  of  a  quadrille.* 

*  The  case  of  Miss  Maria  Lalor,  a  lady  of  Maryborough,  was  still 
more  remarkahle,  as  the  reality  of  the  miracle  wrought  was  attested  by 
an  authority  no  less  eminent  than  James  Doyle,  Catholic  Bishop  of 


"We  Avere  somewhat  slow  in  our  recognition  of  the 
marvellous  powers  of  Prince  Hohenloe,  and  used  occa- 
sionally to  refer  to  the  tomb  of  Abbe  Paris,  in  illus- 
tration of  the  wonders  of  the  Simon  Magus  of  Bamberg. 
But  when  it  was  understood  that  the  Pope  had  bestowed 
upon  Prince  Hohenloe  the  walking-staff  of  St.  Francis 
Xavier,  we  not  only  changed  our  tone,  but,  considering 
the  Prince  as  associated  in  some  degree  with  the  order, 
we  decided  on  applying  to  him  to  perform  a  new 
miracle,  which  should  bring  Clongowes  Wood  into 
general  notice,  and  surpass  all  his  former  prodigies. 
The  interval  which  had  elapsed  since  the  Prince  had 
vouchsafed  a  proof  of  his  interest  in  the  councils  of 
Heaven  afforded  a  farther  reason  for  applying  to  him, 
as  it  was  manifest  that  his  reputation  for  omnipotence 

Kildare  and  Leighlin,  the  author  of  the  eloquent  letters  of  J.K.L.  Oo 
the  6th  of  March,  1823,  the  Bishop  applied  to  His  Serene  and  Very 
Reverend  Highness  Prince  de  Hohenlohe  at  Bamberg  on  behalf  of  Miss 
Lalor,  who  had  been  troubled  with  a  dumb  devil  for  six  years  and  a  half. 
An  answer  was  returned  addressed  to  the  lady  in  person,  and  the  morn- 
ing of  the  10th  of  June,  at  the  hour  of  nine  o'clock,  was  fixed  for  her 
miraculous  cure.  The  Bishop,  hi  apprizing  the  priest  of  Maryborough 
of  the  arrangement,  took  care  to  remind  him  of  the  difference  of  longi- 
tude between  that  place  and  Bamberg.  "  As  the  meridian  of  Bamberg,** 
he  wrote,  "  differs  from  that  of  Maryborough  by  an  hour  and  about 
twelve  minutes,  you  can  direct  the  mass  to  be  celebrated  at  a  little  before 
eight  on  the  10th  of  June."  With  such  mathematical  accuracy,  it  would 
have  been  strange  indeed  if  there  been  a  contre-tems.  That  the  result 
was  most  complete  and  satisfactory  we  have  the  evidence  of  no  leas  a 
personage  than  Bishop  Doyle  himself,  in  a  pastoral  letter  on  the  subject 
addressed  on  the  22nd  June  to  the  clergy  and  faithful  of  his  diocese.  In 
that  remarkable  document  he  used  these  works : — "  We  announce  to  you, 
dearest  brethren,  with  great  joy,  a  splendid  miracle  which  the  Almighty 
God  hath  wrought  in  our  own  days,  in  the  midst  of  ourselves;  restoring 
miraculously  Miss  Maria  Lalor  to  the  perfect  use  of  her  speech,  of  which 
for  six  years  and  five  months  she  had  been  totally  deprived,"  &c. 


was  losing  ground;  and  in  the  opinion  of  the  fair 
frequenters  of  the  Asylum  Chapel  and  the  Bethesda, 
he  was  greatly  surpassed  by  Ferdinand  Mendez  Kater- 
felto  Woulfe,  who,  having  been  a  member  of  the 
Propaganda  in  Rome,  came  recommended  by  certain 
etymological  associations  to  the  Ladies'  Hibernian 
Auxiliary  Bible  Society. 

These  considerations  induced  Father  Kenny,  our 
superior,  to  make  a  special  request,  in  the  name  of 
the  order,  to  Prince  Hohenloe ;  and,  as  an  inducement, 
he  was  assured  that  the  society  would  hereafter  con- 
tribute to  the  expenses  of  his  canonization,  by  sending 
Counsellor  O'Connell,  as  special  counsel,  to  oppose 
"  the  Devil's  advocate "  at  Rome ;  and  I  should  not 
omit  to  add,  to  the  honour  of  Mr.  O'Connell,  that  he 
has  since  engaged  to  do  so,  having  stipulated,  by  way 
of  professional  remuneration  (although  he  is  not  accus- 
tomed to  such  special  fees),  that  a  thousand  masses 
shall  be  said  for  the  purgation  of  his  soul  for  all  his 
misdoings  at  Nisi  Prius. 

The  particular  line  of  prodigy  was  not  prescribed  to 
Prince  Hohenloe.  Not  wishing  to  put  limits  to  his 
genius  for  the  wonderful,  Father  Kenny  left  it  entirely 
to  himself  to  choose  what  manner  of  miracle  he  should 
perform,  whereby  the  glory  of  our  order  should  be 
diffused,  and  even  Surgeon  Crampton,*  the  Prince's 

*  Mr.  Crampton  wrote  an  exceedingly  clever  tract  on  Prince  Hohen- 
loe's  miracles.  The  whole  faculty  was  enraged  by  "  the  Prince's  cures," 
as  they  were  familiarly  called.  The  doctors  were  completely  supplanted 
by  the  Prince.  Instead  of  invoking  Mr.  Crampton  or  Mr.  Colles  (the 
Podalirius  and  Machaon  of  Dublin)  for  the  remedy  of  a  heart-ache,  every 
pretty  papist  sent  up  an  orison  to  the  Prince.  Jlr.  Crampton  vented  his 
anger  in  a  book;  Mr.  Colles  displayed  it  in  a  sarcasm,  in  which  his 
chirurgical  disdain  for  saints  and  physicians  (the  latter  order  surgeons 


main  antagonist  (and  no  wonder,  when  lie  superseded 
him  at  the  pillow  of  his  pretty  patients),  should  be  put 
down.  In  the  interval  between  the  transmission  of 
Father  Kenny's  despatches  to  Bamberg,  and  the  arrival 
of  the  Prince's  answer,  we  amused  our  leisure  by 
indulging  in  conjectures  as  to  the  sort  of  miracle  which 
it  would  probably  please  his  Highness  to  perform. 
Some  suggested  that  he  would  restore  Sir  Harcourt 
Lees  to  his  senses;  others  that  he  would  make  Sir 
George  Hill  resign  his  place  :*  one  imagined  that  he 
would  make  a  wit  of  Leslie  Foster,  a  dunce  of  Lady 
Morgan,  a  blunderer  of  the  Chief  Justice,  or  a  prodigal 
of  Sergeant  Lefroy. 

At  length  a  letter  arrived  from  Bamberg :  the  whole 
fraternity  was  summoned  together,  and  in  the  midst  of 
a  deep  hush  of  expectation  the  precious  document  was 
unfolded.  I  shall  not  transcribe  the  whole  of  it,  as  it 
ran  to  considerable  length.  The  Prince  stated  that  he 
had  yielded  to  the  application  of  Father  Kenny,  but 
had  been  a  good  deal  at  a  loss  to  determine  what  kind 
of  miracle  he  should  achieve.  He  had  at  first  a  notion, 
of  silencing  one  Jack  Lawless  at  the  Catholic  Associa- 
tion ;  but  this,  he  found,  it  was  even  beyond  his  powers 
to  accomplish.  Various  other  prodigies  of  the  same 
hold  exceedingly  cheap)  was  combined.  Being  asked  if  he  believed  that 
a  miracle  had  been  performed  upon  Miss  Stuart,  he  replied  in  the  affir- 
mative to  a  priest  by  whom  the  question  had  been  put.  The  advocates 
of  the  Prince  boldly  appealed  to  his  evidence.  Much  wonder  was  created 
among  the  faculty;  and,  as  the  Prince's  interests  and  theirs  were 
at  variance,  Mr.  Colles  was  brought  to  task  by  the  College  of  Physicians 
and  being  interrogated  respecting  his  admission  that  a  miracle  had  been 
performed,  he  confessed  the  fact,  and  added,  that  "  nothing  less  than  a 
miracle  could  have  saved  her  from  the  Doctors." — A. 

*  Sir  George  Hill  held  the  lucrative  office  of  Vice-Treasurer  of  Ireland 
It  was  a  sinecure  and  abolished  in  1830. 

VOL.    II.  G 


character  presented  themselves,  and,  at  length,  finding 
himself  in  a  state  of  irresolution,  he  determined  to 
leave  it  to  a  dream  to  suggest  what  course  he  should 
adopt.  Accordingly  he  fell  into  a  profound  sleep, 
having  been  previously  engaged  in  reading  Southey's 
Book  of  the  Church,  and  received  in  a  vision  an 
intimation  of  the  prodigy  which  he  should  work.  The 
part  of  his  letter  immediately  relating  to  the  miracle 
(of  which,  in  this  letter  to  the  Editor  of  the  New 
Monthly  Magazine,  I  have  undertaken,  for  the  honour 
of  Prince  Hohenloe,  and  of  the  Society  of  Jesuits,  to  give 
some  account)  I  think  it  not  out  of  place  to  copy. 

"  I  was,"  said  the  Prince,  "  in  imagination,  trans- 
ported to  your  city  of  Dublin,  where  I  beheld  the 
object  on  which  my  influence  with  heaven  is  to  be  dis- 
played. I  saw  riding  through  a  certain  street  called 
Dame-street,  and  coming  from  the  Castle,  a  heretic 
ecclesiastic,  who  was  seated  upon  a  mettlesome  horse, 
and  whom,  from  his  arrogant  air,  whereof  I  had  heard 

even  in  Bamberg,  I  recognised  to  be  Dr. .*    At 

first  I  saw  nothing  but  the  outward  man,  because  that 
supernatural  vision,  by  which  I  am  enabled  to  discover 
evil  spirits,  was  not  unsealed,  nor  the  film  of  corpora- 
lity  instantaneously  removed.  I  saw  a  priested  antic, 
of  small  but  well-proportioned  dimensions,  and  in  his 
equestrian  attitude  and  bearing  strongly  resembling 
certain  prints  of  one  Dr.  Syntax,  which  I  have  seen 
when  transported  in  vision  to  the  city  of  London,  in 
passing  along  the  shops  thereof.  Yet  it  was  only  in 
attitude,  in  the  fashion  wherewith  his  legs  were  thrust 
into  his  stirrups,  that  he  bore  any  very  marked  affinity 

*  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  fill  up  the  blank  with  the  name  of  Magee, 
then  in  the  plenitude  of  his  intolerance,  and  Archbishop  of  Dublin. 


to  the  seeker  of  the  picturesque ;  for  the  expression  of 
the  Doctor's  face  was  wholly  different,  and  did  not  con- 
vey the  same  character  of  insanity. 

"  It  was  the  extravagance  of  sacerdotal  pride,  that 
displayed  itself  in  flashes  of  wildness,  which  broke  every 
moment  from  his  eyes.  The  latter  were  by  no  means 
destitute  of  intelligence ;  but,  bright  as  they  -w  ere  with 
thought,  still  the  expression  of  arrogance  predominated 
over  that  of  acuteness,  and  every  look  and  gesture  indi- 
cated a  self-sufficiency  carried  to  an  excess  amounting 
almost  to  the  delirium  of  conceit.  Everything  about 
him  denoted  flippancy  and  pertness.  A  light  ecclesias- 
tical hat  was  perked  with  such  a  nicety  and  airiness 
upon  the  apex  of  his  head,  that  it  studiously,  and  of 
malice  prepense,  left  room  for  his  haughty  forehead  to 
display  itself.  The  powder  with  which  his  hair  was 
lightly  sprinkled  was  fresh  and  delicate,  while  a 
slender  queue  depended  gracefully  between  his  shoul- 
ders, and  even  this  petty  appendage  exhibited  a  cox- 
combical inclination.  His  neckcloth  was  knotted  with 
precision,  and  assisted  by  its  stiffness  in  upholding  him 
in  that  neatness  of  bearing  which  he  carefully  observed. 
A  jerkin,  which  fitted  his  well-turned  person  with  an 
admirable  adaptation,  was  closely  buttoned  to  the  top, 
and  gave  his  figure  a  spruce  and  compact  air. 

"  In  trotting  along,  he  was  busily  engaged  in  watch- 
ing the  passengers,  and  observing  what  quantity  of 
deference  he  received  from  them,  .and  though  obviously 
an  object  of  joke  rather  than  respect,  he  imagined  that 
every  eye  was  fixed  upon  him  in  veneration ;  of  which 
I  saw  no  evidence,  except  in  the  face  of  a  certain  syco- 
phant, who  has  declared  that  he  adored  him,  and  who 
is  understood  to  have  intimated  that  the  prophet  Enoch 

G  2 


upon  his  white  horse  was  but  a  type  of  Dr. .     The 

efforts  made  by  this  very  fantastic  little  personage  at 
dignity  were  truly  ridiculous ;  for  his  horse  seemed  re- 
solved to  interfere  with  his  determination  to  be  majestic; 
at  every  step  on  the  rough  pavement  the  rider  was 
thrown  to  a  considerable  height  from  his  saddle,  while 
his  arms  were  horizontally  extended,  and  his  legs,  in 
obedience  to  the  impulse,  swung  irregularly  up  and 
down  as  he  bumped  along.  Still  the  perpetual  springs 
which  he  gave  denoted  the  workings  of  a  restless  mind, 
and  typified  his  aspiring  spirit. 

"  Such  was  the  external  man ;  but  on  a  sudden  my 
mind's  eye  was  opened  by  the  finger  of  heaven,  and  the 
spiritual  interior  of  the  man  was  disclosed  to  me.  I 
saw  a  sight  which  made  me  start  back  with  horror,  and 
recoil  from  the  spectacle.  A  legion  of  evil  spirits  had 
taken  possession  of  him,  and  seemed  to  vie  with  each 
other  for  the  ownership  of  the  interior  man.  The 
demons  of  pride,  ambition,  avarice,  envy,  and  ingra- 
titude, with  many  other  fiends,  seemed  to  be  tenants  in 
common  within  him.  I  was  seized  with  such  a  terror 
at  the  sight  of  so  many  demons  of  peculiar  hideous- 
ness,  that,  like  Clarence  in  one  of  your  Shakspeare's 
plays,  (to  which  I  refer  because  Mr.  Charles  Butler,  of 
Lincoln's  Inn,  has  lately  discovered  that  Shakspeare  was 
a  good  Catholic*)  I  was  roused  from  my  vision  by  its  very 

*  The  passage  alluded  to  occurs  in  Mr.  Butler's  Memoirs  of  ihe 
English  Catholics.  The  subject  is  curious  enough  to  justify  a  quotation. 
After  remarking  that  he  had  long  entertained  a  suspicion  that  Shakspoare 
was  a  Roman  Catholic,  he  adds — "  Not  one  of  his  works  contains  the 
slightest  reflection  on  popery,  or  any  of  its  practices,  or  any  eulogy  on 
the  Reformation.  His  panegyric  on  Queen  Elizabeth  is  cautiously 
expressed,  whilst  Queen  Catherine  is  placed  in  a  state  of  veneration,  and 
nothing  can  exceed  the  skill  with  which  Griffith  draws  the  panegyric  of 


horrors,  and  '  starting  waked/  On  opening  my  eyes  I 
saw  your  letter  before  me,  and  perceived  that  my  dream 
was  a  hint  from  above,  that  I  should  select  the  Doctor 
for  the  purposes  of  exorcism." 

It  is  unnecessary  to  quote  any  more  of  the  Prince's 
letter,  which  proceeded  to  order  that  the  Doctor  should 
be  seized  and  carried  down  to  Clongowes  Wood,  where, 
through  his  influence,  the  "  legion  of  foul  fiends" 
should  undergo  a  process  of  expulsion.  It  also  con- 
tained various  directions  for  effecting  the  capture  of  the 
unhappy  patient,  and  the  conduct  of  the  ceremony, 
which  were  punctually  fulfilled,  and  will  appear  in  the 
detail  of  the  miraculous  operation.  The  letter  having 
been  read,  it  was  resolved  that  the  project  suggested 
by  the  Prince  should  be  carried  into  immediate  exe- 

The  first  step  was  to  seize  the  Doctor,  and  carry  him, 
by  a  pious  fraud,  to  Clongowes  Wood.  To  this  rend 
four  able-bodied  lay-brothers  were  selected.  They  had 
formerly  been  in  the  service  of  Captain  Rock,  and  had 
been  recently  converted  from  the  ways  of  rapine  and 

Wolsey.  The  ecclesiastic  is  never  presented  by  Shakspeare  in  a  degrad- 
ing point  of  view.  The  jolly  monk,  the  irregular  nun,  never  appear  in 
his  drama.  Is  it  not  natural  to  suppose  that  the  topics  on  which,  at 
that  time,  those  who  criminated  popery  loved  so  much  to  dwell,  must 
have  often  solicited  his  notice,  and  invited  him  to  employ  his  muse  upon 
them,  as  subjects  likely  to  engage  the  favourable  attention  both  of  the 
sovereign  and  the  subject  ?  Does  not  his  abstinence  from  them  justify  a 
suspicion  that  a  popish  feeling  withheld  him  from  them  ?  Milton  made 
the  Gunpowder  Conspiracy  the  theme  of  a  regular  poem,  Shakspeare  is 
altogether  silent  on  it." 

In  No.  248  of  that  valuable  publication,  Notes  and  Queries,  these 
opinions  of  Mr.  Butler  have  been  lately  controverted,  and  extracts  are 
"there  given  from  Shakspeare's  historical  plays,  from  which  conclusions 
in  favour  of  his  protestantism  are  ingeniously  drawn. 


sin.  Having  betaken  themselves  to  devotion,  they 
were  admitted  as  members  of  the  society,  and  it  being 
a  canon  of  our  order  that  every  man's  genius  should 
be  permitted  to  take  its  natural  bent  amongst  us, 
Father  Kenny  directed  that  they  should  be  entrusted 
with  the  office  of  effecting  the  abduction  of  the 

I  was  chosen  to  command  the  party,  and  adopted  the 
following  expedient.  I  wrote  to  the  unfortunate  divine 
that  I  was  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Jesuits,  and  was 
anxious  to  renounce  the  errors  of  the  Romish  church. 
I  farther  stated  that  his  apprehensions  of  assassinatiou 
were  too  well  founded ;  and  that,  if  he  permitted  me  to 
wait  upon  him  in  the  dusk  of  the  evening,  I  would 
disclose  a  plot  against  his  life,  as  diabolical  as  that 
which  was  directed  against  Lord  Redesdale  by  the 
Papists,  and  of  which  his  Lordship  had  communicated 
the  fact,  but  not  the  particulars,  to  the  House  of  Lords. 
I  received  an  immediate  w  answer,  desiring  me  to  wait 
upon  him  at  eight  o'clock.  I  did  so,  having  stationed 
my  four  lay -brothers  outside  his  door ;  and  being  con- 
ducted into  the  Doctor's  study,  was  directed  to  wait  his 
coming.  A  single  taper  was  all  the  light  there.  On 
the  table  lay  various  tracts,  in  manuscript,  in  a  forward 
state  of  preparation  for  the  press.  One  was  entitled 

"  A  vindication  of  Doctor against  the  charge  of 

Ingratitude,  addressed  to  Lord  Plunket."  Another, 
"  Advice  to  Protestants  to  hire  none  but  Orthodox 
Shoeboys  and  Anti-Papistical  Ladies'  Maids."  A  third, 
"  The  Wealth  of  the  Irish  Established  Church  in  accord- 
ance with  the  principles  of  the  Gospel." 

After  a  few  minutes,  the  Doctor  entered  with  an 
eager  and  elastic  step,  and,  laying  aside  his  habitual 

THE    EXOKCISM    OF   A   DIVINE.  87 

loftiness  of  demeanour  to  his  inferiors,  proceeded  at 
once  to  state,  that  upon  the  succeeding  Sunday  my 
recantation  should  be  publicly  celebrated:  observing 
that  it  was  a  great  point  to  have  secured  a  Jesuit  in  the 
New  Reformation,  as  almost  all  the  converts  were  of  so 
low  a  description  that  it  was  impossible  to  conceal  the 
substantial  discredit  which  they  reflected  on  the  Estab- 
lishment. He  proceeded  then  to  interrogate  me  respect- 
ing the  plans  of  assassination,  which  had  laid  a  great 
hold  upon  his  imagination. 

I  told  him,  "  that  various  schemes  for  taking  him  off 
had  been  devised  at  Clongowes  Wood;  that  it  was 
through  the  influence  of  the  Jesuits  that  a  noble  Lord 
had  put  to  him  various  questions  respecting  his  former 
opinions  on  Catholic  emancipation,  and,  from  the  effect 
which  they  were  reported  to  have  produced,  it  was 
considered  surprising  that  he  could  have  survived  such 
formidable  interrogatories :  that  an  application  had 
been  made  to  Lord  Plunket  to  reproach  him  with  his 
ungrateful  conduct,  but  that  that  nobleman  disdained 
to  charge  him  with  a  breach  of  obligation ;  that  various 
means  of  assassination  had  been  devised,  but  that  they 
had  been  laid  aside  for  a  plan,  upon  the  success  of 
which  great  reliance  was  placed,  namely,  that  of 
publishing  a  history  of  his  early  life,  in  order  that  the 
public  might  compare  his  present  demeanour  with  his 
former  condition  of  a  spiritual  upstart.  I  saw  that  this 
intimation  worked  upon  him,  and  proceeded  to  tell  him 
that  the  book  was  ready  for  publication  at  the  "  Register 
Office,"  and  that,  unless  he  took  immediate  steps  to 
suppress  it,  it  would  appear  the  succeeding  day.  The 
Doctor,  without  waiting  to  put  on  his  fire-shovel  hat, 


rushed  out  of  the  room  into  the  street.  I  precipitated 
myself  after  him,  and  before  he  had  gone  five  paces, 
my  assistants,  who  lay  in  wait,  seized  and  made  him 

He  had  only  time  to  exclaim  with  Scrub  :  "  Murder  ! 
robbery  !  the  Pope  and  the  Jesuits  !  "  when  I  advanced, 
and,  in  order  to  silence  him,  thrust  the  Athanasian 
Creed,  of  which  I  had  a  copy  in  my  pocket,  down  his 
throat.  A  coach  was  waiting  for  us ;  we  hurried  him 
into  it,  and  in  a  short  time  approached  the  lofty  avenues 
of  Clongowes  Wood.  He,  being  gagged  with  the 
Athanasian  Creed,  had  not  uttered  a  word;  but  when 
he  perceived  that  we  were  entering  the  famous  estab- 
lishment of  the  Jesuits,  he  was  thrown  into  terrible 
convulsions,  and  exhibited  the  paroxysms  of  demoniacal 
possession.  He  shortly  after  fell  into  a  swoon,  of  which 
I  was  glad,  as  it  rendered  it  easier  to  convey  him  to 
the  Chapel,  where  the  whole  brotherhood  of  Loyola 
were  assembled  to  receive  us. 

The  carriage  rolled  rapidly  along  the  lofty  range  of 
trees,  which  had  been  planted  many  years  before  by  the 
former  proprietor  of  Clongowes  Wood,  Mr.  Wogan 
Brown,  whose  cypresses,  of  all  his  groves,  are  the  only 
trees  that  now  attend  him.  On  reaching  the  castellated 
entrance  of  the  College,  we  were  received  by  Father 
Kenny,  who,  on  observing  the  prize  which  we  had 
secured,  was  too  well  habituated  to  the  rules  of  his 
order  to  manifest  any  emotion;  but  looking  into  the 
carriage,  where  the  Doctor  still  lay  in  a  swoon,  and 
holding  a  torch  to  his  face,  merely  smiled,  as  the  flashes 
flickered  over  the  countenance  of  the  pale  and  fallen 
champion  of  Protestant  ascendancy.  After  gazing  on 


the  patient,  he  directed  that  he  should  be  conveyed,  for 
the  purposes  of  exorcism,  to  the  Ghapel. 

The  whole  congregation,  which  not  only  consisted  of 
the  brethren  of  the  society  but  of  several  visitors  of 
distinction,  who  had  been  invited  to  witness  the  miracle, 
rose  to  receive  us.  The  most  prominent  was  Dr.  Doyle. 
"We  slowly  conveyed  the  possessed  man  to  the  steps  of 
the  altar,  and  placed  him  immediately  under  the  statue 
of  St.  Ignatius,  where  he  lay  like  Caesar  at  Pompey's 
feet.  No  signs  of  returning  animation  appeared;  but 
this  is  not  uncommon  among  possessed  persons,  until 
the  proper  stimulants  be  applied.  Father  Kenny 
ascended  the  pulpit,  and  in  a  sermon,  remarkable  for 
ingenuity  and  erudition,  expatiated  on  the  power  vested 
in  the  Church  of  expelling  demons ;  and,  independently 
of  the  authority  of  Prince  Hohenloe,  demonstrated  that 
the  conduct  and  character  of  the  Doctor  must  be  the 
result  of  possession. 

"  What,"  exclaimed  the  preacher,  "  but  an  occupation 
of  his  whole  heart  by  the  evil  spirit  of  pride,  can 
account  for  the  excess  of  arrogance  into  which  he  has 
allowed  himself  to  be  carried  ?  "Who  has  ever  seen  him 
at  the  Castle — who  has  watched  his  haughty  pontifical 
aspect,  his  conscious  gesture,  and  his  authoritative 
gait,  as  he  paced  through  St.  Patrick's  Hall,  and  did 
not  feel  that  the  devil  of  pride  had  hold  upon  this 
overbearing  and  ambitious  priest  ?  Not  contented  with 
the  opulence  and  honours  already  heaped  upon  him,  he 
aims  at  still  higher  distinctions,  and  in  his  visionary 
aspirations  beholds  in  perspective  the  throne  of  Becket, 
and  the  glimmering  towers  of  Canterbury  itself.  To 
the  same  cause  we  must  refer  his  haughty  bearing, 


which  is  without  precedent,  not  only  towards  the 
laymen  who  hold  an  intercourse  with  him,  but  to  the 
inferior  clergy  over  whom  he  has  any  control. 

It  may,  perhaps,  be  urged  in  answer  to  the  suggestion 
that  he  is  possessed  by  the  devil  of  pride,  that  devils 
are  not  destitute  of  discretion.  Thus,  if  a  demon 
really  influenced  his  conduct,  he  would  not  have  made 
him  appear  in  so  ludicrous  a  light,  as  when  he  dressed 
himself  in  London  in  a  purple  surtout  before  certain  of 
the  great  men  of  the  realm :  and  acted  such  a  part  that 
he  was  threatened  with  a  committal,  from  which 
nothing  but  the  merciful  suggestion  of  his  unfortunate 
disorder  could  have  saved  him.  But,  although  it  must 
be  owned  that  his  conduct  was  preposterous,  yet  it 
must  not  be  concluded  that  upon  that  account  he 
could  not  have  been  under  an  infernal  agency.  It  is 
well  known  that  the  Doctor  was  so  discomfited  that  he 
was  upon  the  point  of  doing  himself  bodily  injury; 
from  which  it  is,  perhaps,  reasonable  to  infer  that  the 
devil  of  pride  made  him  demean  himself  in  this  wild 
fashion,  in  order  that  he  might  tempt  him  to  commit 
suicide;  but  this  he  was  probably  prevented  from 
effecting  by  the  counteraction  of  another  devil,  namely, 
that  of  polemics,  which,  lest  he  should  lose  his  chief 
instrument  for  'throwing  the  country  into  commotion, 
reserved  him  for  the  composition  of  another  incendiary 

"Who  will  for  a  moment  question  that  this  last- 
mentioned  devil  has  possession  of  the  Doctor's  soul? 
Who  has  mainly  contributed  to  inflame  the  passions  of 
Catholics  and  Protestants? — The  Doctor.  Who  has 
insulted  the  religion  of  the  people,  and  wantonly  cast 


opprobrium  upon  the  ancient  and  even  now  almost 
universal  creed  of  Ireland? — The  Doctor.  Who  has, 
from  the  seat  of  his  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction,  hallooed 
on  the  Catholic  priests  and  Protestant  parsons  to  the 
combat  ? — The  Doctor.  Who  has  disturbed  the  peace 
of  private  life,  made  the  religion  of  servants  the  test  of 
their  fidelity,  and  carried  his  conduct  to  such  extremes 
as  even  to  interfere  with  the  rites  of  sepulture,  and  the 
graves  of  Roman  Catholics,  almost  offering  profanation 
to  the  newly  dead? — Again  I  answer,  the  Doctor. 
And,  let  me  add,  that  nothing,  save  the  devil  of  polemics, 
could  have  prompted  him  to  outrages  upon  which  the 
very  men  who  agree  with  him  in  his  abstract  principles 
cannot  refrain  from  pronouncing  their  condemnation. 
But  the  two  devils,  the  instances  of  whose  influence  I 
have  enumerated,  are  not  the  only  proprietors  of  this 
unfortunate  man.  The  workings  of  the  meanest  of 
devils  are  manifest  in  his  life.  What  but  the  agency  of 
Mammon,  could,  in  the  midst  of  the  recent  public 
distress,  have  closed  his  hand  and  shut  his  heart  to  the 
cries  and  moans  of  the  wretches  who  were  suffering  in 
fever  and  in  famine  around  him  ? 

In  this  strain  Father  Kenny  continued  for  some  time, 
when  the  college  clock  struck  one,  the  hour  appointed 
for  the  performance  of  the  miracle,  and,  the  preacher 
descending  from  the  pulpit,  advanced  towards  the  un- 
happy possessed.  He  did  not  on  this  occasion  employ 
the  ordinary  form  of  exorcism,  but,  having  a  turn  for 
poetry,  addressed  the  Doctor  in  rhyme,  and  began  with 
the  first  of  the  seven  deadly  sins : — 

"  Fiend  of  pride,  who  deadliest  art 
Within  the  sacerdotal  heart, 


Come  forth,  and  unto  mortal  eyes 
Appear  in  such  befitting  guise 
Of  bird  or  emblematic  beast, 
As  may  express  this  haughty  priest, 
A    And  his  peculiar  nature  shew — 
In  the  name  of  the  holy  Hohenloe !" 

This  rhythmical  adjuration  having  been  pronounced,  the 
convulsions  of  the  possessed  man  became  terrific.  He 
started  upon  his  legs,  and,  after  divers  wild  contortions, 
stood  in  a  state  of  frightful  catalepsy,  with  his  eyes  and 
mouth  open,  and  his  limbs  rigid  and  distended.  For 
some  time  the  demon  did  not  come  forth;  but  the 
exorcism  having  been  repeated,  and  a  sop  dipped  in 
holy  water  having  been  applied,  the  possessed  man 
threw  up  the  Athanasian  Creed,  which  had  remained  in 
his  throat,  covered  with  foam  and  froth  of  a  poisonous 
quality ;  and  immediately  after  a  clap  of  thunder  was 
heard,  and  the  demon  flew  out  of  the  doctor's  mouth. 

At  first  we  were  so  terrified  that  we  were  unable  to 
distinguish  the  shape  and  properties  which  Father 
Kenny  had  commanded  the  evil  spirit  to  assume  as 
symbolical  of  the  character  of  pride  by  which  the 
doctor  was  possessed.  When  we  had  recovered  in  some 
degree  from  our  alarm,  we  saw  the  demon  in  the  shape 
of  an  infernal  bird  perched  upon  the  doctor's  head; 
and  we  began  to  observe  the  type  of  the  unhappy 
gentleman's  mind,  which  the  attributes  of  the  demon 
were  intended  to  convey.  At  first  we  could  only  per- 
ceive one  half  the  form  of  the  spectre,  while  a  cloud  of 
smoke  was  slowly  dispersing  from  about  it,  and  we 
remarked  the  head  and  wings  of  an  eagle,  which  we 
considered  as  highly  complimentary  to  the  patient,  and 
indeed  an  act  of  justice  to  him ;  but  as  the  vapour 


which  shrouded  the  extremities  rolled  away,  and  the 
whole  demon  was  disclosed,  we  observed  a  turkey-cock's 
tail  expanded  in  ludicrous  parade ;  and  however  awful 
the  means  by  which  the  evil  spirit  had  been  ejected, 
yet  the  contrast  which  was  exhibited  between  the  two 
extremities  of  this  fantastical  apparition,  and  the  strange 
and  ostentatious  movement  of  conceit  which  was  ob- 
servable in  the  demon's  tail,  produced  a  loud  burst  of 
merriment ;  which  was,  however,  speedily  silenced  by 
the  deep 'voice  of  the  exerciser. 

Father  Kenny. 

Say,  Fiend  of  pride,  infernal  guest, 

Late  of  the  Doctor's  soul  possess'd, 

"Wherefore  to  our  eyes  of  earth 

Com'st  thou  in  shape  to  raise  our  mirth, 

At  the  awful  hour  of  one  o'clock, 

With  eagle  head,  and  tail  of  turkey-cock  ? 


My  eagle  half  proclaims  the  power 
In  intellectual  heights  to  tower, 
And  shows  the  Doctor  once  did  try 
By  noble  means  to  rise  on  high ; 
But  when  he  rose,  a  meaner  pride 
Within  his  bosom  did  preside, 
And  of  his  consequence  the  motion 
You  see  express'd  in  the  antic  notion 
With  which  the  tail  of  a  turkey-cock 
The  Doctor's  dignity  doth  mock. 

,  Father  Kenny. 

In  the  name  of  Hohenloe, 
Ere  back  to  Hell  he  let  thee  go, 
I  charge  thee,  Demon,  tell  me  true 
What  thou  hast  made  the  Doctor  do  ! 



I  made  him  play  a  thousand  pranks, 

For  which  I  well  deserve  the  thanks 

Of  the  Burgh  May  Association 

On  behalf  of  the  Irish  nation ; 

And  hoped  the  Papists,  in  their  mood 

Of  miscellaneous  gratitude, 

For  all  I  have  made  the  Doctor  do, 

Would  have  given  the  Devil  his  due. 

'Twas  I  that  turned  the  Doctor's  head, 

And  into  such  vagaries  led, 

That,  like  a  mad  fantastic  elf, 

In  purple  he  did  dress  himself; 

When  even  the  good  Lord  Liverpool 

Took  the  great  Doctor  for  a  fool ; 

And  Darnley  whispered  that  his  looks 

Bespoke  him  fitter  for  St.  Luke's. 

Whene'er  Lord  Wellesley  gave  a  feast, 

'Twas  I  that  made  this  vapouring  priest 

Hold  forth  in  such  conceited  way, 

And  such  unholy  antics  play, 

That  while  he  made  "the  angels  weep," 

He  set  the  ladies  fast  asleep, 

And  all  the  aide-de-camps  cried  out, 

He  put  even  Croker*  to  the  rout. 

But  do  not  think  me  satisfied 

With  the  mere  ridicule  of  pride. 

'Twas  I  that  with  my  potent  art 

Did  petrify  the  Doctor's  heart. 

The  Gospel  from  his  soul  I  wrung1, 

But  left  St.  Paul  upon  his  tongue : 

*  Mr.  Secretary  Croker  dined  not  long  ago  at  the  Castle,  and  after 
monopolising  the  discourse,  as  is  his  wont,  observed  that  the  proper 
custody  of  the  mail  from  Waterford  to  Dungarvon,  was  the  only  fit 
employment  for  the  Government  of  Ireland.  "  The  only  fit  employment 
for  the  Government  of  Ireland  \"  cried  Lord  Wellesley;  "  'sdeath,  Sir, 
do  you  know  (rising,  and  clapping  his  hand  on  his  breast),  do  you  know, 
Sir,  that  I  am  the  Government  of  Ireland  ?  "—A. 


While  of  humility  he  talk'd, 

In  pride  and  arrogance  he  stalk'd ; 

And  men  cried  as  to  church  he  strode, 

"  Behold  the  humble  priest  of  God !" 

And  thus,  through  him,  into  derision 

I  have  brought  the  Protestant  religion ; 

For  which  I  have  laid  the  Popish  nation 

Under  such  mighty  obligation, 

That  in  the  name  of  Hohenloe 

In  peace  to  Hell  you  should  let  me  go. 

Father  Kenny  admitted  that  the  devil  had  presented 
a  very  just  view  of  the  doings  into  which  he  had  led  the 
doctor,  and  stated  that  he  should  only  ask  the  fiend 
one  question  more,  namely,  what  devil  was  most  pre- 
dominant after  himself?  To  which  the  devil  of  pride 
replied,  that  the  devil  of  covetousness  held  the  next 
place.  There  was  immediately  a  loud  call  for  the 
exorcism  of  this  devil,  who  was  ordered  to  depart  from 
the  Doctor  in  an  invocation  which  it  is  unnecessary  to 
record.  It  was  some  time  before  Prince  Hohenloe  was 
obeyed ;  for  this  devil  seemed  to  have  gotten  so  firm  a 
gripe  of  the  Doctor's  mind,  that  it  appeared  almost 
beyond  the  Prince's  miraculous  powers  to  turn  him  out. 

At  length,  however,  after  repeated  injunctions,  the 
demon  came  forth  in  the  midst  of  a  mephitic  stench, 
which  well  befitted  the  sordid  nature  of  the  vice  that 
now  appeared  in  the  shape  of  an  insect,  half  spider  and 
half  ant.  The  creature,  after  crawling  out  of  the 
Doctor's  mouth,  crept  into  his  bosom,  where  it  bur- 
rowed in,  and  seemed  still  determined  not  to  part.  At 
length,  however,  it  was  forced  by  a  new  conjuration,  to 
leave  its  hold;  and  we  saw  it  creep  up  the  fiend  of 
pride,  and  fasten  on  its  tail,  where  it  remained  con- 
cealed in  the  feathers;  which  we  considered  to  be  a 


symbol  of  that  alliance  of  parsimony  and  ostentation, 
which  are  not  unfrequently  found  together.  No  ques- 
tions were  asked  of  the  devil  of  covetousness. 

Having  thus  expelled  the  devil  of  avarice,  Father 
Kenny  was  proceeding  to  eject  the  devil  of  polemics, 
when  it  was  suggested  that  Doctor  Doyle  was  the  best 
qualified  theologian  to  perform  this  operation.  Accord- 
ingly Father  Kenny  yielded  his  place  to  the  Bachelor  of 
Coimbra,  and  the  Bishop  of  Leighlin  and  Ferns  advanced 
to  the  office  of  exorcism.  He  did  not,  however,  adopt 
the  ordinary  ritual  of  diabolical  ejection ;  but  in  order 
to  allure  this  devil  out,  who  he  knew  was  always 
prompt  and  willing  to  appear,  he  challenged  him  to  a 
controversial  disputation,  respecting  the  comparative 
claims  of  the  two  rival  religions,  when  instantly  a 
direful  hissing  was  heard,  and  the  devil  of  po- 
lemics sprang  from  the  Doctor  into  the  midst  of  the 

The  young  Jesuits  immediately  assailed  it,  and  the 
Reverend  Mr.  Esmonde  laid  his  hand  boldly  upon  the 
fiend,  but  the  fierce  adder  turned  upon  him,  and  giving 
him  a  formidable  sting,  he  was  compelled  to  let  him 
loose.  The  fiend  went  hissing  in  triumph  round  the 
Chapel,  spitting  its  venom  on  the  images  of  the  saints 
and  crucifixes,  rearing  itself  aloft,  and  erecting  itself 
upon  its  burnished  spires.  It  must  be  owned  that, 
however  hateful  from  its  venomous  qualities,  it  was  not 
destitute  of  beauty,  and  its  brilliant  skin  and  glossy 
scales  were  appropriately  emblematic  of  the  Doctor's 
intellectual  qualifications.  It  was  manifest  that  Doctor 
Doyle  was  the  only  divine  competent  to  contend  with 
this  devil,  and  he  was  loudly  called  on  to  attack  it. 


The  fiend,  who  did  not  at  first  appear  to  entertain  any- 
dread  of  the  Carlow  theologian,  turned  round,  and 
seemed  to  collect  and  concentrate  all  its  power  to  make 
a  dreadful  spring  upon  him ;  but  Doctor  Doyle  subdued 
it  with  a  single  word.  He  merely  articulated  "  plagia- 
rism/' and  instantaneously  the  serpent  shrunk  back, 
and  made  an  effort  to  escape ;  but  Doctor  Doyle  set 
his  foot  upon  its  head,  and,  crushing  it  to  the  ground, 
commanded  it  to  confess  the  misdeeds  which  it  had 
caused  the  Doctor  to  perpetrate.  The  fiend,  after 
twisting  and  contorting  itself  in  vain,  assumed  a  human 
voice,  and  answered  : — 

*•  I  am  the  Devil  of  Polemics, 
Who  made  the  Doctor,  for  the  heretics, 
Ply  tongue  and  pen  in  such  a  way, 
That  there  has  been  the  devil  to  pay ; 
Since  with  the  rage  of  disputation 
He  hath  driven  mad  one  half  the  nation, 
And  all  religions  have  gone  amiss 
Since  he  flung  his  fierce  antithesis. 

If  discord  rages  through  the  land, 

If  controversy's  furious  band 

From  North  to  South,  and  East  to  West, 

The  country  with  their  howls  infest, 

The  Doctor  has  the  fearful  merit 

Of  having  raised  this  frantic  spirit, 

That  long  hath  set,  and  will  for  years 

Still  set  the  people  by  the  ears. 

Now,  holy  father,  I  entreat  you, 

Since  I  could  never  yet  defeat  you, 

And  since  'tis  by  opposing  me, 

You  owe  your  fame  in  theology, 

And  if  you  lose  an  antagonist, 

Your  name  in  the  papers  will  be  miss'd — 

VOL.    II.  H 


I  humbly  pray  you,  I.  K.  L., 
Don't  trample  me  too  soon  to  Hell, 
But  long  in  Kildare-street  let  me  dwell. 
'Twould  never  answer  me  or  you, 
That  neither  should  have  aught  to  do." 

"  No !"  exclaimed  Doctor  Doyle,  "  I  will  drive  tlice 
from  the  face  of  the  country,  and  send  thee  for  ever 

'  Down,  down  to  Hell,  and  say  I  sent  thce  thither.' " 

He  was  about  to  put  his  menace  into  execution,  when 
there  was  a  general  remonstrance  from  the  Jesuits,  who 
felt  the  force  of  the  devil's  logic,  and  the  cogency  of  his 
last  argument.  They  perceived  the  near  connexion 
between  this  devil's  existence  and  their  own,  and  inter- 
fered for  his  preservation,  observing  that  there  could 
not  have  been  a  more  pernicious  book  than  "  Milner's 
End  of  Religious  Controversy,"  if  the  contents  had  at 
all  justified  the  title.  The  devil  of  polemics  was  in 
consequence  permitted  to  escape.  But  the  day  began 
now  to  break,  and  the  tapers  with  which  the  chapel  was 
illumined  "to  pale  their  ineffectual  ray."  It  was 
apprehended,  that  if  all  the  devils  by  which  the  unfor- 
tunate Doctor  was  possessed,  were  driven  out  one  by 
one,  the  operation  would  last  a  week. 

To  shorten  the  miracle,  which  was  now  becoming 
somewhat  tedious,  it  was  proposed  by  the  Reverend  Mr. 
Lestrange,  who  was  anxious  to  be  in  Dublin  at  six 
o'clock,  in  order  to  give  early  mass  to  Counsellor 
O'Connell,  that  all  the  devils  should  be  expelled  at 
once.  Father  Kenny  complied  with  this  request,  and 
with  a  loud  voice  commanded  the  whole  legion  to 
depart  to  the  Red  Sea.  Whoever  has  seen  the  casting 
of  the  seventh  bullet  in  Der  Freischutz  may  form  some 


conception  of  the  effects  of  this  more  summary  exor- 
cism. Successive  claps  of  thunder  shook  the  College  of 
Clongowes  to  its  foundations,  and  the  whole  Chapel 
was  filled  with  the  crowd  of  devils  who  had  rushed 
from  the  Doctor.  They  were  too  numerous  to  be  de- 
scribed. I  should  not,  however,  omit  to  mention 
one  of  them  which  was  peculiarly  hideous  and  em- 

This  was  the  devil  of  ingratitude.     It  had  the  head 
of  an  unfledged  pelican,  (the  bird  that  feeds  upon  its 
parent's  blood),  while  the  rest  of  the  body  was  com- 
posed of  a  reptile  that  sought  to  hide  itself  in  every 
corner :  ingratitude,  base  as  it  is,  having  at  least  the 
merit  of  being  ashamed  of  its  own  turpitude.     (The 
Doctor  denies  his  obligations  to  Lord  Plunket).     The 
whole  of  the  infernal  legion  having  been  expelled  from 
the  possessed  man,  permission  was  given  them  to  go 
their  several  ways,  of  which  they  immediately  availed 
themselves ;  and  the  miracle  was  complete.     The  Doc- 
tor was  raised  from  the  ground,  and  having  recovered 
from  a  swoon  into  which  he  had  fallen,  returned  his 
thanks  to  Prince  Hohenloe,  and  to  the  Jesuits,  and 
expressed  a  desire  to  renounce  the  errors  of  Protest- 
antism and  become  a  member  of  the  society.      This 
proposition  was  acceded  to ;  but,  instead  of  entering  the 
novitiate,  as  is  the  regular  course,  it  was  proposed  that, 
for  the  benefit  of  religion,  the  Doctor  should  still  con- 
tinue ostensibly  a  member  of  the  Established  Church, 
and  in  the  exercise  of  his  ecclesiastical  functions :  for  as 
nothing  tended  to  bring  Protestantism  into  greater  dis- 
repute in  Ireland  so  much  as  his  conduct,  it  was  deemed 
advisable,  that,  with  a  view  to  aid  the  interests  of  Popery, 

H  2 


he  should  persevere  in  the  same  course ;  and,  although 
in  reality  poor  in  spirit,  and  of  an  humble  and  truly 
Christian  character  of  heart,  he  should  appear  to  be 
insolent,  avaricious,  and  overbearing. 

It  is  almost  unnecessary  for  me  to  mention  that  this 
suggestion  was  adopted,  and  that  the  Doctor  still 
continues  to  render  the  same  services  to  the  Catholic 




[OCTOBEE,   1828.] 

THE  Catholics  had  passed  a  resolution,  at  one  of  their 
aggregate  meetings,  to  oppose  the  election  of  every  can- 
didate who  should  not  pledge  himself  against  the  Duke 
of  Wellington's  administration.  This  measure  lay  for 
some  time  a  mere  dead  letter  in  the  registry  of  the 
Association,  and  was  gradually  passing  into  oblivion, 
when  an  incident  occurred  which  gave  it  an  importance 
far  greater  than  had  originally  belonged  to  it. 

Lord  John  Russell,  flushed  with  the  victory  which 
had  been  achieved  in  the  repeal  of  the  Test  and  Corpo- 

*  This  memorable  election,  which  exercised  so  important  an  influence 
upon  the  question  of  Catholic  Emancipation,  commenced  on  the  30th 
June,  1828.  The  circumstances  that  occasioned  it  are  sufficiently  detailed 
in  Mr.  Shell's  animated  narrative.  Mr.  O'Connell  went  the  daring 
length  of  affirming  that  he  was  not  only  eligible,  as  the  law  stood,  but 
that,  if  returned,  he  could  sit  and  vote  without  taking  the  oaths  objected 
to  by  Roman  Catholics ;  and  this  novel  view  of  the  law  was  supported 
by  the  opinion  of  an  eminent  legal  authority  in  England,  Mr.  Charles 


ration  Acts,  and  grateful  to  the  Duke  of  Wellington  for 
the  part  which  he  had  taken,  wrote  a  letter  to  Mr. 
O'Connell,  in  which  he  suggested  that  the  conduct  of 
his  Grace  had  been  so  fair  and  manly  towards  the  Dis- 
senters, as  to  entitle  him  to  their  gratitude ;  and  that 
they  would  consider  the  reversal  of  the  resolution  which 
had  been  passed  against  his  government,  as  evidence  of 
the  interest  which  was  felt  in  Ireland,  not  only  in  the 
great  question  peculiarly  applicable  to  that  country, 
but  in  the  assertion  of  religious  freedom  through  the 

The  authority  of  Lord  John  Russell  is  considerable, 
and  Mr.  O'Connell,  under  the  influence  of  his  advice, 
proposed  that  the  anti-  Wellington  resolution  should  be 
withdrawn.  This  motion  was  violently  opposed,  and 
Mr.  O'Connell  perceived  that  the  antipathy  to  the  Great 
Captain  was  more  deeply  rooted  than  he  had  originally 
imagined.  After  a  long  and  tempestuous  debate,  he 
suggested  an  amendment,  in  which  the  principle  of  his 
original  motion  was  given  up,  and  the  Catholics  re- 
mained pledged  to  their  hostility  to  the  Duke  of  Wel- 
lington's administration.  Mr.  O'Connell  has  reason  to 
rejoice  at  his  -failure  in  carrying  this  proposition;  for  if 
he  had  succeeded,  no  ground  for  opposing  the  return  of 
Mr.  Vesey  Fitzgerald  would  have  existed. 

The  promotion  of  that  gentleman  to  a  seat  in  the 
Cabinet  created  a  vacancy  in  the  representation  of  the 
County  of  Clare  ;*  and  an  opportunity  was  afforded  to 

*  Mr.  Vcsey  Fitzgerald  (afterwards  Lord  Fitzgerald  and  Vesci)  was 
Paymaster  of  the  Forces  in  the  Goderich  Ministry,  and  President  of  the 
Board  of  Trade  in  the  Duke  of  Wellington's  Administration  of  the  same 
year.  Mr.  Fitzgerald  succeeded  Mr.  Charles  Grant,  the  present  Lord 
Glenelg,  on  his  retirement  with  Mr.  Huskisson  from  the  Wellington 


the  Roman  Catholic  body  of  proving,  that  the  resolution 
which  had  been  passed  against  the  Duke  of  Welling- 
ton's government  was  not  an  idle  vaunt,  but  that  it 
could  be  carried  in  a  striking  instance  into  effect.  It 
was  determined  that  all  the  power  of  the  people  should 
be  put  forth.  The  Association  looked  round  for  a  can- 
didate, and  without  having  previously  consulted  him, 
nominated  Major  M'Namara.  He  is  a  Protestant  in 
religion,  a  Catholic  in  politics,  and  a  Milesian  in 
descent.  Although  he  is  equally  well  known  in  Dublin 
and  in  Clare,  his  provincial  is  distinct  from  his  metro- 
politan reputation.  In  Dublin  he  may  be  seen  at  half- 
past  four  o'clock,  strolling,  with  a  lounge  of  easy  im- 
portance, towards  Kildare- street  Club-house,  and  dressed 
in  exact  imitation  of  the  King ;  to  whose  royal  whiskers 
the  Major's  are  considered  to  bear  a  profusely  powdered, 
and  highly  frizzed  affinity.  Not  contented  with  this 
single  point  of  resemblance,  he  has,  by  the  entertain- 
ment of  "  a  score  or  two  of  tailors,"  and  the  profound 
study  of  the  regal  fashions,  achieved  a  complete  look  of 
Majesty ;  and  by  the  turn  of  his  coat,  the  dilation  of  his 
chest,  and  an  aspect  of  egregious  dignity,  succeeded  in 
producing  in  his  person  a  very  fine  effigy  of  his  .sove- 

.  With  respect  to  his  moral  qualities,  he  belongs  to 
the  good  old  school  of  Irish  gentlemen ;  and  from  the 
facility  of  his  manners,  and  his  graceful  mode  of  arbi- 
trating a  difference,  has  acquired  a  very  eminent  cha- 
racter as  "  a  friend."  No  man  is  better  versed  in  the 
strategics  of  Irish  honour.  He  chooses  the  ground 
with  an  O'Trigger  eye,  and  by  a  glance  over  "the 
[Fifteen  Acres,"  is  able  to  select,  with  an  instantaneous 
accuracy,  the  finest  position  for  the  settlement  of  a 


quarrel.*  In  his  calculation  of  distances,  he  displays  a 
peculiarly  scientific  genius;  and,  whether  it  be  ex- 
pedient to  bring  down  your  antagonist  at  a  long  shot, 
or  at  a  more  embarrassing  interval  of  feet,  you  may  be 
sure  of  the  Major's  loading  to  a  grain. 

In  the  county  of  Clare,  he  does  not  merely  enact  the 
part  of  a  sovereign.  He  is  the  chief  of  the  clan  of  the 
M^Namaras,  and  after  rehearsing  the  royal  character  at 
Kildare-street,  the  moment  he  arrives  on  the  coast  of 
Clare,  and  visits  the  oyster-beds  at  Poldoody,  becomes 
"every  inch  a  king."  He  possesses  great  influence 
with  the  people,  which  is  founded  upon  far  better 
grounds  than  their  hereditary  reverence  for  the  Mi- 
lesian nobility  of  Ireland.  He  is  a  most  excellent 
magistrate.  If  a  gentleman  should  endeavour  to  crush 
a  poor  peasant,  Major  M'Namara  is  ready  to  protect 
him,  not  only  with  the  powers  of  his  office,  but  at  the 
risk  of  his  life.  This  creditable  solicitude  for  the  rights 
and  the  interests  of  the  lower  orders  had  rendered  him 
most  deservedly  popular ;  and  in  naming  him  as  their 
representative,  the  Association  could  not  have  made  a 
more  judicious  choice.  He  was  publicly  called  upon  to 
stand.  Some  days  elapsed  and  no  answer  was  returned 
by  the  Major.  The  public  mind  was  thrown  into  sus- 
pense, and  various  conjectures  went  abroad  as  to  the 
cause  of  this  singular  omission.  Some  alleged  that  he 
was  gone  to  an  island  off  the  coast  of  Clare,  where  the 

"  The  "Fifteen  Acres"  is  a  portion  of  the  Phoenix  Park,  and  the 
"  Champ-de-Mars "  of  Dublin,  where  the  troops  of  the  garrison  are 
reviewed  upon  state  occasions.  When  the  duel  was  in  fashion,  the 
same  ground  corresponded  to  Chalk  Farm  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
London.  The  farcical  story  of  the  Irish  attorney  challenging  his  opponent 
to  "the  Fifteen  Acres,  be  the  same  more  or  less,"  is  well  known 
"  omnibus  lippis  et  tonsoribus." 


proceedings  of  the  Association  had  not  reached  him  ; 
while  others  suggested  that  he  was  only  waiting  until 
the  clergy  of  the  county  should  declare  themselves  more 
unequivocally  favourable  to  him. 

The  Association  were  not,  however,  dismayed ;  and  it 
having  been  conjectured  that  the  chief  reason  for  Major 
M'Namara  having  omitted  to  return  an  answer  was 
connected  with  pecuniary  considerations,  it  was  decided 
that  so  large  a  sum  as  five  thousand  pounds  of  the 
Catholic  rent  should  be  allocated  to  the  expenses  of  his 
election.  Mr.  O'Gorman  Mahon  and  Mr.  Steele  were 
directed  to  proceed  at  once  to  Clare,  in  order  that  they 
might  have  a  personal  interview  with  him ;  and  they 
immediately  set  off.  After  an  absence  of  two  days, 
Mr.  O'  Gorman  Mahon  returned,  having  left  his  col- 
league behind  in  order  to  arouse  the  people ;  and  he  at 
length  conveyed  certain  intelligence  with  respect  to  the 
Major's  determination.  The  obligations  under  which 
his  family  lay  to  Mr.  Fitzgerald  were  such,  that  he  was 
bound  in  honour  not  to  oppose  him.  This  information 
produced  a  feeling  of  deep  disappointment  among  the 
Catholic  body,  while  the  Protestant  party  exulted  in  his 
apparent  desertion  of  the  cause,  and  boasted  that  no 
gentleman  of  the  county  would  stoop  so  low  as  to  accept 
of  the  patronage  of  the  Association.  In  this  emer- 
gency, and  when  it  was  universally  regarded  as  an 
utterly  hopeless  attempt  to  oppose  the  Cabinet  Mi- 
nister, the  public  were  astonished  by  an  address  from 
Mr.  O'Connell  to  the  freeholders  of  Clare,  in  which 
he  offered  himself  as  a  candidate,  and  solicited  their 

Nothing  but  his  subsequent  success  could  exceed  the 
sensation  which  was  produced  by  this  address,  and  all 


eyes  were  turned  towards  the  field  in  which  so  remark- 
able a  contest  vras  to  be  waged.  The  two  candidates 
entered  the  lists  with  signal  advantages  upon  both  sides. 
Mr.  O'Connell  had  an  unparalleled  popularity,  which 
the  services  of  thirty  years  had  secured  to  him.  Upon 
the  other  hand,  Mr.  Vesey  Fitzgerald  presented  a  com* 
bination  of  favourable  circumstances,  which  rendered 
the  issue  exceedingly  difficult  to  calculate.  His  father 
had  held  the  office  of  Prime  Sergeant  at  the  Irish  Bar ; 
and,  although  indebted  to  the  Government  for  his  pro- 
motion, had  the  virtuous  intrepidity  to  vote  against  the 
Union.  This  example  of  independence  had  rendered 
him  a  great  favourite  with  the  people.  From  the 
moment  that  his  son  had  obtained  access  to  power,  he 
had  employed  his  extensive  influence  in  doing  acts  of 
kindness  to  the  gentry  of  the  county  of  Clare.  He 
had  inundated  it  with  the  overflowings  of  ministerial 
bounty.  The  eldest  sons  of  the  poorer  gentlemen,  and 
the  younger  branches  of  the  aristocracy,  had  been  pro- 
vided for  through  his  means;  and  in  the  army,  the 
navy,  the  treasury,  the  Four  Courts,  and  the  Custom 
House,  the  proofs  of  his  political  friendship  were  every- 
where to  be  found. 

Independently  of  any  act  of  his  which  could  be  re- 
ferred to  his  personal  interest,  and  his  anxiety  to  keep 
up  his  influence  in  the  county,  Mr.  Fitzgerald,  who  is  a 
man  of  a  very  amiable  disposition,  had  conferred  many 
services  upon  his  Clare  acquaintances.  Nor  was  it  to 
Protestants  that  these  manifestations  of  favour  were  con- 
fined. He  had  laid  not  only  the  Catholic  proprietors, 
but  the  Catholic  priesthood,  under  obligation.  The 
Bishop  of  the  diocese  himself,  (a  respectable  old  gentle- 
man who  drives  about  in  a  gig  with  a  mitre  upon  it,)  is 


supposed  not  to  have  escaped  from  his  bounties ;  and  it 
is  more  than  insinuated  that  some  droppings  of  minis- 
terial manna  had  fallen  upon  him.  The  consequence 
of  this  systematized  and  uniform  plan  of  benefaction  is 
obvious.  The  sense  of  obligation  was  heightened  by 
the  manners  of  this  extensive  distributor  of  the  favours 
of  the  Crown,  and  converted  the  ordinary  feeling  of 
thankfulness  into  one  of  personal  regard. 

To  this  array  of  very  favourable  circumstances,  Mr. 
Fitzgerald  brought  the  additional  influence  which  arose 
from  his  recent  promotion  to  the  Cabinet;  which,  to 
those  who  had  former  benefits  to  return,  afforded  an 
opportunity  for  the  exercise  of  that  kind  of  prospective 
gratitude  which  has  been  described  to  consist  of  a  lively 
sense  of  services  to  come.  These  were  the  comparative 
advantages  with  wliich  the  ministerial  and  the  popular 
candidate  engaged  in  this  celebrated  contest ;  and 
Ireland  stood  by  to  witness  the  encounter. 

Mr.  O'Connell  did  not  immediately  set  off  from 
Dublin,  but  before  his  departure  several  gentlemen 
were  despatched  from  the  Association  in  order  to  excite 
the  minds  of  the  people,  and  to  prepare  the  way  for 
him.  The  most  active  and  useful  of  the  persons  who 
were  employed  upon  this  occasion,  were  the  two  gentle- 
men to  whom  I  have  already  referred,  Mr.  Steele  and 
Mr.  O'Gorman.  They  are  both  deserving  of  special 

The  former  is  a  Protestant  of  a  respectable  fortune  in 
the  county  of  Clare,  and  who  has  all  his  life  been  de- 
voted to  the  assertion  of  liberal  principles.  In  Trinity 
College,  he  was  amongst  the  foremost  of  the  advocates 
of  emancipation,  and  at  that  early  period  became  the 
intimate  associate  of  many  Roman  Catholic  gentlemen 



who  have  since  distinguished  themselves  in  the  pro- 
ceedings of  their  body.  Being  a  man  of  independent 
circumstances,  Mr.  Steele  did  not  devote  himself  to  any 
profession,  and  having  a  zealous  and  active  mind,  he 
looked  round  for  occupation.  The  Spanish  war  afforded 
him  a  field  for  the  display  of  that  generous  enthusiasm 
by  which  he  is  distinguished.  He  joined  the  patriot 
army,  and  fought  with  a  desperate  valour  upon  the 
batteries  of  the  Trocadero.  It  was  only  when  Cadiz 
had  surrendered,  and  the  cause  of  Spain  became  utterly 
hopeless,  that  Mr.  Steele  relinquished  this  noble  under- 
taking. He  returned  to  England,  surrounded  by  exiles 
from  the  unfortunate  country  for  the  liberation  of 
which  he  had  repeatedly  exposed  his  life.  It  was  im- 
possible for  a  man  of  so  much  energy  of  character  to 
remain  in  torpor ;  and  on  his  arrival  in  Ireland,  faithful 
to  the  principles  by  which  he  had  been  uniformly 
swayed,  he  joined  the  Catholic  Association. 

There  he  delivered  several  powerful  and  enthusiastic 
declamations  in  favour  of  religious  liberty.  Such  a 
man,  however,  was  fitted  for  action  as  well  as  for 
harangue ;  and  the  moment  the  contest  in  Clare  began, 
he  threw  himself  into  the  combat  with  the  same  alacrity 
with  which  he  had  rushed  upon  the  French  bayonets  at 
Cadiz.  He  was  serviceable  in  various  ways.  He  opened 
the  political  campaign  by  intimating  his  readiness  to 
fight  any  landlord  who  should  conceive  himself  to  be 
aggrieved  by  an  interference  with  his  tenants.  This 
was  a  very  impressive  exordium.  He  then  proceeded 
to  canvass  for  votes;  and,  assisted  by  his  intimate 
friend  Mr.  O'Gorman  Mahon,  travelled  through  the 
country,  and,  both  by  day  and  night,  addressed  the 
people  from  the  altars  round  which  they  were  assembled 


to  liear  him.  It  is  no  exaggeration  to  say,  that  to  him, 
and  to  his  intrepid  and  indefatigable  confederate,  the 
success  of  Mr.  O'Connell  is  greatly  to  be  ascribed. 

Mr.  O'  Gorman  Mahon  is  introduced  into  this  article 
as  one  amongst  many  figures.  He  would  deserve  to 
stand  apart  in  a  portrait.  Nature  has  been  peculiarly 
favourable  to  him.  He  has  a  very  striking  physiog- 
nomy, of  the  Corsair  character,  which  the  Protestant 
Gulnares,  and  the  Catholic  Medoras,  find  it  equally 
difficult  to  resist.  His  figure  is  tall,  and  he  is  pecu- 
liarly free  and  degage  in  all  his  attitudes  and  move- 
ments. In  any  other  man  his  attire  would  appear 
singularly  fantastical.  His  manners  are  exceedingly 
frank  and  natural,  and  have  a  character  of  kindliness 
as  well  as  of  self-reliance  imprinted  upon  them.  He  is 
wholly  free  from  embarrassment  and  mauvaise  honte, 
and  carries  a  well-founded  consciousness  of  his  personal 
merit ;  which  is,  however,  so  well  united  with  urbanity, 
that  it  is  not  in  the  slightest  degree  offensive.  His 
talents  as  a  popular  speaker  are  considerable.  He 
derives  from  external  qualifications  an  influence  over 
the  multitude,  which  men  of  diminutive  stature  are 
somewhat  slow  of  obtaining.  A  little  man  is  at  first 
view  regarded  by  the  great  body  of  spectators  with 
disrelish ;  and  it  is  only  by  force  of  phrase,  and  by  the 
charm  of  speech,  that  he  can  at  length  succeed  in 
inducing  his  auditors  to  overlook  any  infelicity  of  con- 
figuration; but  when  O'Gorman  Mahon  throws  himself 
out  before  the  people,  and,  touching  his  whiskers  \vith 
one  hand,  brandishes  the  other,  an  enthusiasm  is  at 
once  produced,  to  which  the  fair  portion  of  the  spec- 
tators lend  their  tender  contribution.  Such  a  man  was 
exactly  adapted  to  the  excitement  of  the  people  of 


Clare ;  and  it  must  be  admitted  that,  by  liis  indefati- 
gable exertions,  his  unremitting  activity,  and  his  de- 
voted zeal,  he  most  materially  assisted  in  the  election 
of  Mr.  O'Connell. 

While  Mr.  Steele  and  Mr.  O' Gorman  Mahon  ha- 
rangued the  people  in  one  district,  Mr.  Lawless,  who 
was  also  despatched  upon  a  similar  mission,  applied  his 
faculties  of  excitation  in  another.  This  gentleman  has 
obtained  deserved  celebrity  by  his  being  almost  the 
only  individual  among  the  Irish  deputies  who  remon- 
strated against  the  sacrifice  of  the  rights  of  the  forty- 
shilling  freeholders.  Ever  since  that  period  he  has 
been  eminently  popular;  and  although  he  may  occa- 
sionally, by  ebullitions  of  ill-regulated  but  generous 
enthusiasm,  create  a  little  merriment  amongst  those 
whose  minds  are  not  as  susceptible  of  patriotic  and 
disinterested  emotion  of  his  own,  yet  the  conviction 
which  is  entertained  of  his  honesty  of  purpose,  confers 
upon  him  a  considerable  influence.  "  Honest  Jack 
Lawless"  is  the  designation  by  which  he  has  been 
known  since  the  "  wings  "  were  in  discussion.  He  has 
many  distinguished  qualifications  as  a  public  speaker. 
His  voice  is  deep,  round,  and  mellow,  and  is  diversified 
by  a  great  variety  of  rich  and  harmonious  intonation. 
His  action  is  exceedingly  graceful  and  appropriate  :  he 
has  a  good  figure,  which,  by  a  purposed  swell  and 
dilation  of  the  shoulders,  and  an  elaborate  erectness,  he 
turns  to  good  account ;  and  by  dint  of  an  easy  fluency 
of  good  diction,  a  solemn  visage,  an  aquiline  nose  of  no 
vulgar  dimension,  eyes  glaring  underneath  a  shaggy 
brow  with  a  certain  fierceness  of  emotion,  a  quizzing- 
glass,  which  is  gracefully  dangled  in  any  pauses  of 
thought  or  suspensions  of  utterance,  and,  above  all,  by 


a  certain  attitude  of  dignity,  which  he  assumes  in  the 
crisis  of  eloquence,  accompanied  with  a  flinging  hack 
of  his  coat,  which  sets  his  periods  beautifully  off, 
11  Honest  Jack "  has  hecome  one  of  the  most  popular 
and  efficient  speakers  at  the  Association. 

Shortly  after  Mr.  Lawless  had  been  despatched,  a 
great  reinforcement  to  the  oratorical  corps  was  sent 
down  in  the  person  of  the  celebrated  Father  Maguire, 
or,  as   he   is   habitually   designated,    "Father  Tom." 
This  gentleman  had  been  for  some  time  a  parish  priest 
in  the  county  of  Leitrim.     He  lived  in  a  remote  parish, 
where  his  talents  were  unappreciated.     Some  accident 
brought  Mr.  Pope,  the  itinerant  controversialist,  into 
contact  with  him.     A  challenge  to  defend  the  doctrines 
of  his  religion  was  tendered  by  the  wandering  disputant 
to  the   priest,   and    the    latter   at   once   accepted  it. 
Maguire  had  given  no  previous  proof  of  his  abilities, 
and  the  Catholic  body  regretted  the  encounter.     The 
parties  met   in   this  strange  duel  of  theology.     The 
interest   created  by  their   encounter   was   prodigious. 
Not  only  the  room  where  their  debates  were  carried  on 
was  crowded,  but  the  whole  of  Sackville-street,  where 
it  was  situated,  was  thronged  with  population.     Pope 
brought  to  the  combat  great  fluency,  and  a  powerful 
declamation.     Maguire  was  a  master  of  scholastic  logic. 
After  several  days  of  controversy,  Pope  was  overthrown, 
and  "  Father  Tom/'  as  the  champion  of  orthodoxy, 
became  the  object  of  popular  adoration. 

A  base  conspiracy  was  got  up  to  destroy  his  moral 
character,  and  by  its  failure  raised  him  in  the  affection 
of  the  multitude.*  He  had  been  under  great  obligations 

*  The  conspiracy,  if  such  it  was,  took  the  shape  of  an  action  for 
seduction.  The  lady  was  examined  on  the  trial,  and  swore  that  the 


to  Mr.  O'Connell,  for  his  exertions  upon  his  trial ;  and 
from  a  just  sentiment  of  gratitude,  he  tendered  his 
services  in  Clare.  His  name  alone  was  of  great  value ; 
and  when  his  coming  was  announced,  the  people  every- 
where rushed  forward  to  hail  the  great  vindicator  of 
the  national  religion.  He  threw  fresh  ingredients  into 
the  caldron,*  and  contributed  to  impart  to  the  contest 
that  strong  religious  character  which  it  is  not  the  fault 
of  the  Association,  but  of  the  Government,  that  every 
contest  of  the  kind  must  assume. 

"  Father  Tom "  was  employed  upon  a  remarkable 
exploit.  Mr.  Augustine  Butler,  the  lineal  descendant 
of  the  famous  Sir  Toby  Butler,  is  a  proprietor  in  Clare: 
he  is  a  liberal  Protestant,  but  supported  Mr.  Vesey 
Fitzgerald.  "  Father  Tom  "  proceeded  from  the  town 
of  Ennis  to  the  country  chapel  where  Mr.  Butler's  free- 
holders were  assembled,  in  order  to  address  them ;  and 
Mr.  Butler,  with  an  intrepidity  which  did  him  credit, 
went  forward  to  meet  him.  It  was  a  singular  encounter 
in  the  house  of  God.  The  Protestant  landlord  called 
upon  his  freeholders  not  to  desert  him.  "Father 
Tom  "  rose  to  address  them  in  behalf  of  Mr.  O'Connell. 
He  is  not  greatly  gifted  with  a  command  of  decorated 
phraseology;  but  he  is  master  of  vigorous  language, 
and  has  a  power  of  strong  and  simple  reasoning,  which 
is  equally  intelligible  to  all  classes.  He  employs  the 

reverend  defendant  triumphed  over  her  virtue  by  a  promise  of  marriage, 
to  be  fiilfilled  on  his  becoming  a  Protestant  clergyman !  The  jury  was 
incredulous,  and  acquitted  Mr.  Maguire. 

*  The  "  bowl "  would  have  been  a  more  appropriate  image,  for  Mr. 
Maguire  was  noted  for  his  conviviality,  and  as  celebrated  for  his  punch 
as  for  his  polemics.  Perhaps,  like  the  parson,  in  the  history  of  Jonathan 
Wild  the  Great,  it  was  "  a  liquor  he  the  rather  preferred,  as  it  is  nowhere 
spoken  against  in  scripture." 


syllogism  of  the  schools  as  his  chief  weapon  in  argu- 
ment ;  but  uses  it  with  such  dexterity,  that  his  auditors 
of  the  humblest  class  can  follow  him  without  being 
aware  of  the  technical  expedient  of  logic  by  which  he 
masters  the  understanding. 

His  manner  is  peculiar :  it  is  not  flowery,  nor  decla- 
matory, but  is  short,  somewhat -abrupt,  and,  to  use  the 
French  phrase,  is  tranchant.  His  countenance  is 
adapted  to  his  mind,  and  is  expressive  of  the  reasoning 
and  controversial  faculties.  A  quick  blue  eye,  a  nose 
slightly  turned  up,  and  formed  for  the  tossing  off  of 
an  argument,  a  strong  brow,  a  complexion  of  mountain 
ruddiness,  and  thick  lips,  which  are  better  formed  for 
rude  disdain  than  for  polished  sarcasm,  are  his  charac- 
teristics. He  assailed  Mr.  Butler  with  all  his  powers, 
and  overthrew  him.  The  topic  to  which  he  addressed 
himself,  was  one  which  was  not  only  calculated  to  move 
the  tenants  of  Mr.  Butler,  but  to  stir  Mr.  Butler  him- 
self. He  appealed  to  the  memory  of  his  celebrated 
Catholic  ancestor,  of  which  Mr.  Butler  is  justly  proud. 
He  stated,  that  what  Sir  Toby  Butler  had  been, 
Mr.  O' Council  was ;  and  he  conjured  him  not  to  stand 
up  in  opposition  to  an  individual  whom  he  was  bound 
to  sustain  by  a  sort  of  hereditary  obligation."*  His 
appeal  carried  the  freeholders  away,  and  one  hundred 
and  fifty  votes  were  secured  to  Mr.  O'ConnelL 
Mr.  Maguire  was  seconded  in  this  achievement  by 
Mr.  Dominick  Ronayne,  a  barrister  of  the  Association, 
of  considerable  talents,  and  who  not  only  speaks  the 
English  language  with  eloquence,  but  is  master  of  the 

*  See  the  paper  on  The  Catholic  Bar,  where  the  author  has  collected 
some  very  interesting  particulars  respecting  a  man  who  took  a  very  dis- 
tinguished part  in  Irish  affairs,  before  and  after  the  Kevolution  of  1688. 

VOL.    II.  I 


Irish  tongue;  and,  throwing  an  educated  mind  into 
the  powerful  idiom  of  the  country,  wrought  with  un- 
common power  upon  the  passions  of  the  people. 

Mr.  Sheil  was  employed  as  counsel  for  Mr.  O'Connell 
before  the  assessor;  but  proceeded  to  the  county  of 
Clare  the  day  before  the  election  commenced.  On  his 
arrival,  he  understood  that  an  exertion  was  required 
in  the  parish  of  Corofin,  which  is  situate  upon  the 
estate  of  Sir  Edward  O'Brien,  who  had  given  all  his 
interest  to  Mr.  Vesey  Fitzgerald.  Sir  Edward  is  the 
most  opulent  resident  landlord  in  the  county.  In  the 
parish  of  Corofin  he  had  no  less  than  three  hundred 
votes ;  and  it  was  supposed  that  his  freeholders  would 
go  with  him.  Mr.  Shcil  determined  to  assail  him  in 
the  citadel  of  his  strength,  and  proceeded  upon  the 
Sunday  before  the  poll  commenced  to  the  chapel  of 
Corofin.  Sir  Edward  O'Brien  having  learned  that  this 
agitator  intended  this  trespass  upon  his  authority, 
resolved  to  anticipate  him,  and  set  off  in  an  equipage, 
drawn  by  four  horses,  to  the  mountains  in  which  Corofin 
is  situated. 

The  whole  population  came  down  from  their  resi- 
dences in  the  rocks,  which  are  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
town  of  Ennis,  and  advanced  in  large  bands,  waving 
green  boughs,  and  preceded  by  fifes  and  pipers,  upon 
the  road.  Their  landlord  was  met  by  them  on  his  way. 
They  passed  him  by  in  silence,  while  they  hailed  the 
demagogue  with  shouts,  and  attended  him  in  triumph 
to  the  chapel.  Sir  Edward  O'Brien  lost  his  resolution 
at  this  spectacle;  and  feeling  that  he  could  have  no 
influence  in  such  a  state  of  excitation,  instead  of  going 
to  the  house  of  Catholic  worship,  proceeded  to  the 
church  of  Corofin.  He  left  his  carriage  exactly  opposite 


the  doors  of  the  chapel,  which  is  immediately  con- 
tiguous, and  thus  reminded  the  people  of  his  Pro- 
testantism by  a  circumstance  of  which,  of  course, 
advantage  was  instantaneously  taken. 

Mr.  Sheil  arrived  with  a  vast  multitude  of  attendants 
at  the  chapel,  which  was  crowded  with  people,  who  had 
flocked  from  all  quarters ; — there  a  singular  scene  took 
place.  Father  Murphy,  the  parish  priest,  came  to  the 
entrance  of  the  chapel  dressed  in  his  surplice.  As  he 
came  forth,  the  multitude  fell  back  at  his  command, 
and  arranged  themselves  on  either  side,  so  as  to  form 
a  Line  for  the  reception  of  the  agitator.  Deep  silence 
was  imposed  upon  the  people  by  the  priest,  who  had  a 
voice  like  subterraneous  thunder,  and  appeared  to  hold 
them  in  absolute  dominion.  When  Mr.  Sheil  had 
reached  the  threshold  of  the  chapel,  Father  Murphy 
stretched  forth  his  hand,  and  welcomed  him  to  the 
performance  of  the  good  work.  The  figure  and  attitude 
of  the  priest  were  remarkable.  My  English  reader 
draws  his  ordinary  notion  of  a  Catholic  clergyman 
from  the  caricatures  which  are  contained  in  novels,  or 
represented  in  farces  upon  the  stage;  but  the  Irish 
priest,  who  has  lately  become  a  politician  and  a  scholar, 
has  not  a  touch  of  Foigardism  about  him;*  and  an 
artist  would  have  found  in  Father  Murphy  rather  a 
study  for  the  enthusiastic  Macbriar,  who  is  so  power- 
fully delineated  in  "  Old  Mortality,"  than  a  realization 
of  the  familiar  notions  of  a  clergyman  of  the  Church 
of  Rome. 

As  he  stood  surrounded  by  a  dense  multitude,  whom 
he  had  hushed  into  profound  silence,  he  presented  a 

*  From  Foigard,  the  sycophantic  Irish  priest  in  Farquhar's  comedy 
of  The  Beaux  Stratagem. 

i  2 


most  imposing  object.  His  form  is  tall,  slender,  and 
emaciated;  but  was  enveloped  in  his  long  robes,  that 
gave  him  a  peculiarly  sacerdotal  aspect.  The  hand 
which  he  stretched  forth  was  ample,  but  worn  to  a 
skinny  meagritude  and  pallor.  His  face  was  long, 
sunken,  and  cadaverous,  but  was  illuminated  by  eyes 
blazing  with  all  the  fire  of  genius,  the  enthusiasm  of 
religion,  and  the  devotedness  of  patriotism.  His  lank 
black  hair  fell  down  his  temples,  and  eyebrows  of  the 
same  colour  stretched  in  thick  straight  lines  along  a 
lofty  forehead,  and  threw  over  the  whole  countenance 
a  deep  shadow.  The  sun  was  shining  with  brilliancy, 
and  rendered  his  figure,  attired  as  it  was  in  white 
garments,  more  conspicuous.  The  scenery  about  him 
was  in  harmony ; — it  was  wild  and  desolate,  and  crags, 
with  scarce  a  blade  of  verdure  shooting  through  their 
crevices,  rose  everywhere  around  him.  The  interior 
of  the  chapel,  at  the  entrance  of  which  he  stood,  was 
visible.  It  was  a  large  pile  of  building,  consisting  of 
bare  walls,  rudely  thrown  up,  with  a  floor  of  clay,  and 
at  the  extremity  stood  an  altar  made  of  a  few  boards 
clumsily  put  together. 

It  was  on  the  threshold  of  this  mountain  temple  that 
the  envoy  of  the  Association  was  hailed  with  a  solemn 
greeting.  The  priest  proceeded  to  the  altar,  and  com- 
manded the  people  to  abstain,  during  the  divine  cere- 
mony, from  all  political  thinking  or  occupation.  He 
recited  the  mass  with  great  fervency  and  simplicity  of 
manner,  and  with  all  the  evidences  of  unaffected  piety. 
However  familiar  from  daily  repetition  with  the  ritual, 
he  pronounced  it  with  a  just  emphasis,  and  went 
through  the  various  forms  which  are  incidental  to  it 
with  singular  propriety  and  grace.  The  people  were 


deeply  attentive,  and  it  was  observable  that  most  of 
them  could  read;  for  they  had  prayer-books  in  their 
hands,  which  they  read  with  a  quiet  devotion.  Mass 
being  finished,  Father  Murphy  threw  his  vestments  off, 
and  without  laying  down  the  priest,  assumed  the  poli- 
tician. He  addressed  the  people  in  Irish,  and  called 
upon  them  to  vote  for  O'Connell  in  the  name  of  their 
country  and  of  their  religion. 

It  was  a  most  extraordinary  and  powerful  display  of 
the  externals  of  eloquence;  and  as  far  as  a  person 
unacquainted  with  the  language  could  form  an  estimate 
of  the  matter  by  the  effects  produced  upon  the  auditory, 
it  must  have  been  pregnant  with  genuine  oratory.  It 
will  be  supposed  that  this  singular  priest  addressed  his 
parishioners  in  tones  and  gestures  as  rude  as  the  wild 
dialect  to  which  he  was  giving  utterance.  His  action 
and  attitudes  were  as  graceful  as  an  accomplished  actor 
could  use  in  delivering  the  speech  of  Antony,  and  his 
intonations  were  soft,  pathetic,  denunciatory,  and  con- 
juring, according  as  his  theme  varied,  and  as  he  had 
recourse  to  different  expedients  to  influence  the  people. 
The  general  character  of  this  strange  harangue  was  im- 
passioned and  solemn,  but  he  occasionally  had  recourse 
to  ridicule,  and  his  countenance  at  once  adapted  itself 
with  a  happy  readiness  to  derision.  The  finest  spirit  of 
sarcasm  gleamed  over  his  features,  and  shouts  of 
laughter  attended  his  description  of  a  miserable  Catho- 
lic who  should  prove  recreant  to  the  great  cause,,  by 
making  a  sacrifice  of  his  country  to  his  landlord. 

The  close  of  his  speech  was  peculiarly  effective.     He 

became  inflamed  by  the  power  of  his  emotions,  and 

while  he  raised  himself  into  the  loftiest  attitude  to  which 

ic  could  ascend,  he  laid  one  hand  on  the  altar,  and 


shook  the  other  in  the  spirit  of  almost  prophetic  admo- 
nition, and  as  his  eyes  blazed  and  seemed  to  start  from 
his  forehead,  thick  drops  fell  down  his  face,  and  his 
voice  rolled  through  lips  livid  -with  passion  and  covered 
with  foam.  It  is  almost  unnecessary  to  say  that  such 
an  appeal  was  irresistible.  The  multitude  burst  into 
shouts  of  acclamation,  and  would  have  been  ready  to 
mount  a  battery  roaring  with  cannon  at  his  command. 
Two  days  after  the  results  were  felt  at  the  hustings; 
and  while  Sir  Edward  O'Brien  stood  aghast,  Father 
Murphy  marched  into  Ennis  at  the  head  of  his  tenantry, 
and  polled  them  to  a  man  in  favour  of  Daniel  O'Con- 
nell.  But  I  am  anticipating. 

The  notion  which  had  gone  abroad  in  Dublin  that  the 
priests  were  lukewarm,  was  utterly  unfounded.  "\Vith 
the  exception  of»Dean  O'Shaughnessy,  who  is  a  relative 
of  Mr.  Fitzgerald  (and  for  whom  there  is  perhaps  much 
excuse),  and  a  Father  Coffey,  who  has  since  been 
deserted  by  his  congregation,  and  is  paid  his  dues  in 
bad  halfpence,  there  was  scarcely  a  clergyman  in  the 
county  who  did  not  use  his  utmost  influence  over  the 
peasantry.  On  the  day  on  which  Mr.  O'Connell  arrived, 
you  met  a  priest  in  every  street,  who  assured  you  that 
the  battle  should  be  won,  and  pledged  himself  that 
"  the  man  of  the  people  "  should  be  returned.  "  The 
man  of  the  people"  arrived  in  the  midst  of  the  loudest 
acclamations.  Near  thirty  thousand  people  were  crowded 
into  the  streets  of  Ennis,  and  were  unceasing  in  their 
shouts.  Banners  were  suspended  from  every  window, 
and  women  of  great  beauty  were  everywhere  seen 
waving  handkerchiefs  with  the  figure  of  the  patriot 
stamped  upon  them.  Processions  of  freeholders,  with 
their  parish  priests  at  their  heads,  were  marching  like 


troops  to  different  quarters  of  the  city;  and  it  was 
remarkable  that  not  a  single  individual  was  intoxicated. 
The  most  perfect  order  and  regularity  prevailed;  and 
the  large  bodies  of  police  which  had  been  collected  in 
the  town  stood  without  occupation.  These  were  evi- 
dences of  organization,  from  which  it  was  easy  to  form 
a  conjecture  as  to  the  result. 




[OCTOBEE,  1828.] 

THE  election  opened,  and  the  court-house  in  which 
the  Sheriff  read  the  writ,  presented  a  very  new  and 
striking  scene.  On  the  left-hand  of  the  Sheriff  stood  a 
Cabinet-minister,  attended  by  the  whole  body  of  the 
aristocracy  of  the  county  of  Clare.  Their  appearance 
indicated  at  once  their  superior  rank  and  their  pro- 
found mortification.  An  expression  of  bitterness  and  of 
wounded  pride  was  stamped  in  various  modifications  of 
resentment  upon  their  countenances ;  while  others,  who 
were  in  the  interest  of  Mr.  Fitzgerald,  and  who  were 
small  Protestant  proprietors,  affected  to  look  big  and 
important,  and  swelled  themselves  into  gentry  upon  the 
credit  of  voting  for  the  minister. 

On  the  right  hand  of  the  Sheriff  stood  Mr.  O'Connell, 
with  scarcely  a  single  gentleman  by  his  side ;  for  most 
even  of  the  Catholic  proprietors  had  abandoned  him 
and  joined  the  ministerial  candidate.  But  the  body  of 
the  court  presented  the  power  of  Mr.  O'Connell  in  a 
mass  of  determined  peasants,  amongst  whom  black 
coats  and  sarcerdotal  visages  were  seen  felicitously 


intermixed,  outside  the  balustrade  of  the  gallery  on  the 
left  hand  of  the  Sheriff.  Before  the  business  began,  a 
gentleman  was  observed  on  whom  every  eye  was  turned. 
He  had  indeed  chosen  a  most  singular  position;  for 
instead  of  sitting  like  the  other  auditors  on  the  seats  in  the 
gallery,  he  leaped  over  it,  and,  suspending  himself  above 
the  crowd,  afforded  what  was  an  object  of  wonder  to  the 
great  body  of  the  spectators,  and  of  indignation  to  the 

The  attire  of  the  individual  who  was  thus  perched  in 
this  dangerous  position  was  sufficiently  strange.  He 
had  a  coat  of  Irish  tabinet,  with  glossy  trowsers  of  the 
same  national  material ;  he  wore  no  waistcoat ;  a  blue 
shirt  lined  with  streaks  of  white  was  open  at  his  neck, 
in  which  the  strength  of  Hercules  and  the  symmetry  of 
Antinous,  were  combined ;  a  broad  green  sash,  with  a 
medal  of  "  the  Order  of  Liberators  "  at  the  end  of  it, 
hung  conspicuously  over  his  breast ;  and  a  profusion  of 
black  curls,  curiously  festooned  about  his  temples, 
shadowed  a  very  handsome  and  expressive  countenance, 
a  great  part  of  which  was  occupied  by  whiskers  of  a 
bushy  amplitude.  "Who,  Sir,  are  you?"  exclaimed 
the  High- Sheriff,  in  a  tone  of  imperious  melancholy, 
which  he  had  acquired  at  Canton,  where  he  had  long 
resided  in  the  service  of  the  East  India  Company. 
But  I  must  pause  here,  and  even  at  the  hazard  of  breaking 
the  regular  thread  of  the  narration,  I  cannot  resist  the 
temptation  of  describing  the  High- Sheriff. 

When  he  stood  up  with  his  wand  of  office  in  his 
hand,  the  contrast  between  him  and  the  aerial  gentle- 
man whom  he  was  addressing,  was  to  the  highest 
degree  ludicrous.  Of  the  latter  some  conception  lias 
already  been  given.  He  looked  a  chivalrous  dandy, 


who,  under  the  most  fantastic  apparel,  carried  the  spirit 
and  intrepidity  of  an  exceedingly  fine  fellow.  Mr. 
High-Sheriff  had,  at  an  early  period  of  his  life,  left  his 
native  county  of  Clare,  and  had  migrated  to  China, 
where,  if  I  may  judge  from  his  manners  and  demeanour, 
he  must  have  been  in  immediate  communication  with 
a  Mandarin  of  the  first  class,  and  made  a  Chinese  func- 
tionary his  favourite  model.  I  should  conjecture  that 
he  must  long  have  presided  over  the  packing  of  Bohea, 
and  that  some  tincture  of  that  agreeable  vegetable  had 
been  infused  into  his  complexion.  An  Oriental  sedate- 
ness  and  gravity  are  spread  over  a  countenance  upon 
which  a  smile  seldom  presumes  to  trespass.  He  gives 
utterance  to  intonations  which  were  originally  con- 
tracted in  the  East,  but  have  been  since  melodized  by 
his  religious  habits  into  a  puritanical  chant  in  Ireland. 
The  Chinese  language  is  monosyllabic,  and  the  Sheriff 
has  extended  its  character  to  the  English  tongue ;  for 
he  breaks  all  his  words  into  separate  and  elaborate 
divisions,  to  each  of  which  he  bestows  a  due  quantity 
of  deliberate  intonation.  Upon  arriving  in  Ireland,  he 
addicted  himself  to  godliness,  having  previously  made 
great  gains  in  China,  and  he  has  so  contrived  as  to 
impart  the  cadences  of  Wesley  to  the  pronunciation 
of  Confucius. 

Such  was  the  aspect  of  the  great  public  functionary, 
who,  rising  with  a  peculiar  magisteriality  of  altitude 
and  stretching  forth  the  emblem  of  his  power,  inquired 
of  the  gentleman  who  was  suspended  from  the  gallery 
who  he  was. — "  My  name  is  O'  Gorman  Mali  on,"  was 
the  reply,  delivered  with  a  firmness  which  clearly 
showed  that  the  person  who  had  conveyed  this  piece  of 
intelligence  thought  very  little  of  a  High- Sheriff,  and  a 


great  deal  of  O'Gorman  Mahon.  The  Sheriff  had  been 
offended  by  the  general  appearance  of  Mr.  Mahon,  who 
had  distracted  the  public  attention  from  his  own  con- 
templation ;  but  he  was  particularly  irritated  by  observ- 
ing the  insurgent  symbol  of  "  the  Order  of  Liberators" 
dangling  at  his  breast.  "  I  tell  that  gentleman,"  said 
the  Sheriff,  "  to  take  off  that  badge."  There  was  a 
moment's  pause,  and  then  the  following  answer  was 
slowly  and  articulately  pronounced : — "  This  gentleman 
(laying  his  hand  on  his  breast)  tells  that  gentleman 
(pointing  with  the  other  to  the  Sheriff),  that  if  that 
gentleman  presumes  to  touch  this  gentleman,  this 
gentleman  will  defend  himself  against  that  gentleman, 
or  any  other  gentleman,  while  he  has  got  the  arm  of 
a  gentleman  to  protect  him." 

This  extraordinary  sentence  was  followed  by  a  loud 
burst  of  applause  from  all  parts  of  the  court-house. 
The  High- Sheriff  looked  aghast.  The  expression  of 
self-satisfaction  and  magisterial  complacency  passed  off 
from  his  visage,  and  he  looked  utterly  blank  and  dejected. 
After  an  interval  of  irresolution,  down  he  sat.  "  The 
soul"  of  O'Gorman  Mahon  (to  use  Curran's  expression) 
"walked  forth  in  its  own  majesty;"  he  looked  "re- 
deemed, regenerated,  and  disenthralled."  The  medal 
of  "  the  Order  of  Liberators"  was  pressed  to  his  heart. 
O'Connell  surveyed  him  with  gratitude  and  admiration ; 
and  the  first  blow  was  struck,  which  sent  dismay  into 
the  heart  of  the  party  of  which  the  Sheriff  was  con- 
sidered to  be  an  adherent. 

This  was  the  opening  incident  of  this  novel  drama. 
When  the  sensation  which  it  had  created  had  in  some 
degree  subsided,  the  business  of  the  day  went  on.  Sir 
Edward  O'Brien  proposed  Mr.  Vesey  Fitzgerald  as  a 


proper  person  to  serve  in  Parliament.  Sir  Edward  had 
upon  former  occasions  been  the  vehement  antagonist 
of  Mr.  Fitzgerald,  and  in  one  instance  a  regular  battle 
had  been  fought  between  the  tenantry  of  both  parties. 
It  was  supposed  that  this  feud  had  left  some  acrimonious 
feelings  which  were  not  quite  extinct  behind,  and  many 
conjectured  that  the  zeal  of  Sir  Edward  in  favour  of 
his  competitor  was  a  little  feigned.  This  notion  was 
confirmed  by  the  circumstance  that  Sir  Edward  O'Brien's 
son  (the  member  for  Ennis)  had  subscribed  to  the 
Catholic  Hent,  was  a  member  of  the  Association,  and 
had  recently  made  a  vigorous  speech  in  Parliament  in 
defence  of  that  body.*  It  is,  however,  probable  that 
the  feudal  pride  of  Sir  Edward  O'Brien,  which  was 
deeply  mortified  by  the  defection  of  his  vassals,  absorbed 
every  other  feeling,  and  that,  however  indifferent  he 
might  have  been  on  Mr.  Fitzgerald's  account,  yet  that 
he  was  exceedingly  irritated  upon  his  own.  He  ap- 
peared at  least  to  be  profoundly  moved,  and  had  not 
spoken  above  a  few  minutes  when  tears  fell  from  his 

He  has  a  strong  Irish  character  impressed  upon  him. 
It  is  said  that  he  is  lineally  descended  from  the  Irish 
emperor,  Brian-Borue ;  and  indeed  he  has  some  resem- 
blance to  the  sign-post  at  a  tavern  near  Clontarf,  in 
which  the  image  of  that  celebrated  monarch  is  repre- 
sented. He  is  squat,  bluff,  and  impassioned.  An 
expression  of  good  nature,  rather  than  of  good  humour, 
is  mixed  up  with  a  certain  rough  consciousness  of  his 
own  dignity,  which  in  his  most  familiar  moments  he 
never  lays  aside ;  for  the  Milesian  predominates  in  his 
demeanour,  and  his  royal  recollections  wait  perpetually 

*  Mr.  William  Smith  O'Brien,  second  son  of  Sir  Edward. 


upon  him.  He  is  a  great  favourite  with  the  people, 
who  are  attached  to  the  descendants  of  the  ancient 
indigenous  families  of  the  country,  and  who  see  in  Sir 
Edward  O'Brien  a  good  landlord,  as  well  as  the  repre- 
sentative of  Brian  Borue. 

I  was  not  a  little  astonished  at  seeing  him  weep  upon 
the  hustings.  It  was,  however,  observed  to  me,  that 
he  is  given  to  the  "  melting  mood,"  although  his  tears 
do  not  fall  like  the  gum  of  "  the  Arabian  tree."  In 
the  House  of  Commons  he  once  produced  a  great  effect 
by  bursting  into  tears,  while  he  described  the  misery  of 
the  people  of  Clare,  although  at  the  same  time,  his 
granaries  were  full.  It  was  said  that  his  hustings  pathos 
was  of  the  same  quality,  and  arose  from  the  peculiar 
susceptibility  of  the  lacrymatory  nerves,  and  not  from 
any  very  nice  fibres  about  the  heart ;  still  I  am  con- 
vinced that  his  emotion  was  genuine,  and  that  he  was 
profoundly  touched.*  He  complained  that  he  had 
been  deserted  by  his  tenants,  although  he  had  deserved 
well  at  their  hands ;  and  exclaimed  that  the  country 
was  not  one  fit  for  a  gentleman  to  reside  in,  when  pro- 
perty lost  all  its  influence,  and  things  were  brought  to 
such  a  pass.  The  motion  was  seconded  by  Sir  A. 
Fitzgerald  in  a  few  words.  Mr.  Gore,  a  gentleman  of 
very  large  estate,  took  occasion  to  deliver  his  opinions 
in  favour  of  Mr.  Fitzgerald ;  and  Mr.  O' Gorman  Mahon 
and  Mr.  Steele  proposed  Mr.  O'Connell. 

It  then  fell  to  the  rival  candidates  to  speak,  and  Mr. 
Vesey  Fitzgerald,  having  been  first  put  in  nomination, 
first  addressed  the  freeholders.  He  seemed  to  me  to 

*  Old  Campion,  in  his  Historic  of  Ireland,  mentions  an  ancient 
proverbiid  expression  "to  weepe  Irish."  See  the  first  book  of  his  history, 
the  chapter  on  "  The  dispositions  of  the  people." 


be  about  five-and-forty  years  of  age,  his  hair  being 
slightly  marked  with  a  little  edging  of  scarcely  percep- 
tible silver,  but  the  care  with  which  it  was  distributed 
and  arranged,  showed  that  the  cabinet  minister  had 
not  yet  entirely  dismissed  his  Lothario  recollections. 
I  had  heard,  before  I  had  even  seen  Mr.  Fitzgerald, 
that  he  was  in  great  favour  with  the  Calistas  at  Almack's; 
and  I  was  not  surprised  at  it,  on  a  minute  inspection 
of  his  aspect  and  deportment.  It  is  not  that  he  is  a 
handsome  man,  (though  he  is  far  from  being  the 
reverse),  but  that  there  is  an  air  of  blended  sweetness 
and  assurance,  of  easy  intrepidity  and  gentle  graceful- 
ness about  him,  which  are  considered  to  be  eminently 
winning.  His  countenance,  though  too  fully  circular, 
and  a  little  tinctured  with  vermilion,  is  agreeable. 
The  eyes  are  of  a  bright  hazel,  and  have  an  expression 
of  ever  earnest  frankness,  which  an  acute  observer 
might  suspect,  while  his  mouth  is  full  of  a  strenuous 
solicitude  to  please. 

The  moment  he  rose,  I  perceived  that  he  was  an 
accomplished  gentleman:  and  when  I  had  heard  him 
utter  a  few  sentences,  I  was  satisfied  that  he  was  a  most 
accomplished  speaker.  He  delivered  one  of  the  most 
effective  and  dexterous  speeches  which  it  has  ever  been 
my  good  fortune  to  hear.  There  were  evident  marks 
of  deep  pain  and  of  fear  to  be  traced  in  his  features, 
which  were  not  free  from  the  haggardness  of  many  an 
anxious  vigil ;  but  though  he  was  manifestly  mortified 
in  the  extreme,  he  studiously  refrained  from  all  exaspe- 
rating sentiment  or  expression.  He  spoke  at  first  with 
a  graceful  melancholy,  rather  than  a  tone  of  impassioned 
adjuration.  He  intimated  that  it  was  rather  a  measure 
of  rigorous  if  not  unjustifiable  policy,  to  display  the 


power  of  the  Association  in  throwing  an  individual  out 
of  Parliament  who  had  been  the  warm  and  uniform 
advocate  of  the  Catholic  cause  during  his  whole  political 
life.  He  enumerated  the  instances  in  which  he  had 
exerted  himself  in  behalf  of  that  body  which  were  now 
dealing  with  him  with  such  severity,  and  referred  to  his 
services  with  regard  to  the  College  of  Maynooth. 

The  part  of  his  speech  which  was  most  powerful, 
related  to  his  father.  The  latter  had  opposed  the 
Union,  and  had  many  claims  upon  the  national  grati- 
tude.'34' The  topic  was  one  which  required  to  be  most 
delicately  touched,  and  no  orator  could  treat  it  Avith  a 
more  exquisite  nicety  than  Mr.  Fitzgerald.  He  became, 
as  he  advanced,  and  the  recollection  of  his  father  pressed 
itself  more  immediately  upon  his  mind,  more  impas- 
sioned. At  the  moment  he  was  speaking,  his  father, 
to  whom  he  is  most  tenderly  attached,  and  by  whom 
he  is  most  beloved,  was  lying  upon  a  bed  from  whence 
it  was  believed  that  he  would  never  rise,  and  efforts 
had  been  made  to  conceal  from  the  old  man  the  contest 
in  which  his  son  was  involved.  It  is  impossible  to  mis- 
take genuine  grief,  and  when  Mr.  Fitzgerald  paused 
for  an  instant,  and  turning  away,  wiped  off  the  tears 
that  came  streaming  from  his  eyes,  he  won  the  sym- 
pathies of  every  one  about  him.  There  were  few  who 
did  not  give  the  same  evidence  of  emotion ;  and  when 
he  sat  down,  although  the  great  majority  of  the 
audience  were  strongly  opposed  to  him,  and  were 

*  The  father  of  Mr.  Vesey  Fitzgerald  was  the  Right  Honourable 
James  Fitzgerald,  who]  in  1799  threw  up  his  office  of  Prime  Serjeant, 
in  order  to  oppose  the  measure  of  the  Legislative  Union — an  act  of 
patriotism  and  self-devotion  which  justly  entitled  him  to  the  respect  and 
gratitude  of  Irishmen. 


enthusiasts  in  favour  of  the  rival  candidate,  a  loud  and 
unanimous  burst  of  acclamation  shook  the  Court-house. 

Mr.  O'Connell  rose  to  address  the  people  in  reply. 
It  was  manifest  that  he  considered  a  great  exertion  to 
"be  requisite  in  order  to  do  away  the  impression  which 
his  antagonist  had  produced.  It  was  clear  that  he  was 
collecting  all  his  might,  to  those  who  were  acquainted 
with  the  workings  of  his  physiognomy.  Mr.  O'Connell 
bore  Mr.  Fitzgerald  no  sort  of  personal  aversion,  but 
he  determined,  in  this  exigency,  to  have  little  mercy 
on  his  feelings,  and  to  employ  all  the  power  of  vitupe- 
ration of  which  he  was  possessed,  against  him.  This 
was  absolutely  necessary ;  for  if  mere  dexterous  fencing 
had  been  resorted  to  by  Mr.  O'Connell,  many  might 
have  gone  away  with  the  opinion  that,  after  all,  Mr. 
Fitzgerald  had  been  thanklessly  treated  by  the  Catholic 
body.  It  was  therefore  disagreeably  requisite  to  render 
him,  for  the  moment,  odious. 

Mr.  O'Connell  began  by  awakening  the  passions  of 
the  multitude  in  an  attack  on  Mr.  Fitzgerald's  allies. 
Mr.  Gore  had  lauded  him  highly.  This  Mr.  Gore  is 
of  Cromwellian  descent,  and  the  people  detest  the 
memory  of  the  Protector  to  this  day.  There  is  a  tradition 
(I  know  not  whether  it  has  the  least  foundation)  that 
the  ancestor  of  this  gentleman's  family  was  a  nailer  by 
trade  in  the  Puritan  army.  Mr.  O'Connell,  without 
any  direct  reference  to  the  fact,  used  a  set  of  meta- 
phors, such  as  "  striking  the  nail  on  the  head," — 
"  putting  a  nail  into  a  coffin,"  which  at  once  recalled 
the  associations  which  were  attached  to  the  name  of 
Mr.  Gore ;  and  roars  of  laughter  assailed  that  gentle- 
man on  every  side.  Mr.  Gore  has  the  character  of 
being  not  only  very  opulent,  but  of  bearing  a  regard 

VOL.  II.  K 


to  liis  possessions  proportioned  to  their  extent.  No- 
thing is  so  unpopular  as  prudence  in  Ireland;-  and 
Mr.  O'Connell  rallied  Mr.  Gore  to  such  a  point  upon 
this  head,  and  that  of  his  supposed  origin,  that  the 
latter  completely  sunk  under  the  attack.  He  next  pro- 
ceeded to  Mr.  Fitzgerald,  and,  having  drawn  a  picture 
of  the  late  Mr.  Perceval,  he  turned  round  and  asked  of 
the  rival  candidate,  with  what  face  he  could  call  himself 
their  friend,  when  the  first  act  of  his  political  life  was 
to  enlist  himself  under  the  banners  of  "the  bloody 
Perceval."  This  epithet  (whether  it  be  well  or  ill 
deserved  is  not  the  question)  was  sent  into  the  hearts 
of  the  people  with  a  force  of  expression,  and  a  furious 
vehemence  of  voice,  that  created  a  great  sensation 
amongst  the  crowd,  and  turned  the  tide  against  Mr. 
Fitzgerald.  "  This  too,"  said  Mr.  O'Connell,  "  is  the 
friend  of  Peel, — the  bloody  Perceval,  and  the  candid 
and  manly  Mr.  Peel, — and  he  is  our  friend !  and  he  is 
everybody's  friend !  The  friend  of  the  Catholic  was 
the  friend  of  the  bloody  Perceval,  and  is  the  friend  of 
the  candid  and  manly  Mr.  Peel !" 

It  is  unnecessary  to  go  through  Mr.  O'Connell's 
speech.  It  was  stamped  with  all  his  powerful  charac- 
teristics, and  galled  Mr.  Fitzgerald  to  the  core.  That 
gentleman  frequently  muttered  an  interrogatory,  "Is 
this  fair?"  when  Mr.  O'Connell  was  using  some  legiti- 
mate sophistication  against  him.  He  seemed  particu- 
larly offended  when  his  adversary  said,  "  I  never  shed 
tears  in  public,"  which  was  intended  as  a  mockery  of 
Mr.  Fitzgerald's  references  to  his  father.  It  will  be 
thought  by  some  sensitive  persons  that  Mr.  O'Connell 
was  not  quite  warranted  in  this  harsh  dealing,  but  he 
had  no  alternative.  Mr.  Fitzgerald  had  made  a  very 


powerful  speech,  and  the  effect  was  to  be  got  rid  of. 
In  such  a  warfare  a  man  must  not  pause  in  the  selec- 
tion of  his  weapons,  and  Mr.  O'Connell  is  not  the  man 
to  hesitate  in  the  use  of  the  rhetorical  sabre. 

Nothing  of  any  peculiar  interest  occurred  after 
Mr.  O'ConnelPs  speech  upon  the  first  day.  On  the 
second  the  polling  commenced;  and  on  that  day,  in 
consequence  of  an  expedient  adopted  by  Mr.  Fitz- 
gerald's committee,  the  parties  were  nearly  equal.  A 
Catholic  freeholder  cannot,  in  strictness,  vote  at  an 
election  without  making  a  certain  declaration  upon 
oath  respecting  his  religious  opinions,  and  obtaining  a 
certificate  of  his  having  done  so  from  a  magistrate.  It 
is  usual  for  candidates  to  agree  to  dispense  with  the 
necessity  of  taking  this  oath.  It  was,  however,  of 
importance  to  Mr.  Fitzgerald  to  delay  the  election; 
and  with  that  view  his  committee  required  that  the 
declaration  should  be  taken.  Mr.  O'Connell's  com- 
mittee were  unprepared  for  this  form,  and  it  was  with 
the  utmost  difficulty  that  magistrates  could  be  procured 
to  attend  to  receive  the  oath.  It  was  therefore  impos- 
sible, on  the  first  day,  for  Mr.  O'Connell  to  bring  his 
forces  into  the  field,  and  thus  the  parties  appeared  nearly 
equal.  To  those  who  did  not  know  the  real  cause  of 
this  circumstance,  it  appeared  ominous,  and  the  O'Con- 
ncllites  looked  sufficiently  blank;  but  the  next  "day 
everything  was  remedied. 

The  freeholders  were  sworn  en  masse.  They  were 
brought  into  a  yard  inclosed  within  four  walls. 
Twenty-five  were  placed  against  each  wall,  and  they 
simultaneously  repeated  the  oath  When  one  batch  of 
swearers  had  been  disposed  of,  the  person  who  adminis- 
tered the  declaration,  turned  to  the  adjoining  division, 

X  2 


and  despatched  them.  Thus  he  went  through  the 
quadrangle,  and  in  the  course  of  a  few  minutes  was 
able  to  discharge  one  hundred  patriots  upon  Mr.  Fitz- 
gerald. It  may  be  said  that  an  oath  ought  to  be  more 
solemnly  administered.  In  reply,  it  is  only  necessary 
to  observe,  that  the  declaration  in  question  related 
principally  to  "the  Pretender,"  and  when  the  legis- 
lature persevere  in  compelling  the  name  of  God  to  be 
thus  taken  in  vain,  the  ritual  becomes  appropriately 
farcical,  and  the  manner  of  the  thing  is  only  adapted 
to  the  ludicrous  matter  upon  which  it  is  legally  requisite 
that  Heaven  should  be  attested.  The  oath  which  is 
imposed  upon  a  Roman  Catholic  is  a  violation  of  the 
first  precept  of  the  decalogue. 

This  species  of  machinery  having  been  thus  applied 
to  the  art  of  swearing,  the  effects  upon  the  poll  soon 
became  manifest,  and  Mr.  O'Connell  ascended  to  a 
triumphant  majority.  It  became  clear  that  the  land- 
lords had  lost  all  their  power,  and  that  their  struggles 
were  utterly  hopeless.  Still  they  persevered  in  drag- 
ging the  few  serfs  whom  they  had  under  their  control 
to  the  hustings,  and  in  protracting  the  election.  It 
was  Mr.  Fitzgerald's  own  wish,  I  believe,  to  abandon 
the  contest,  when  its  ultimate  issue  was  already  certain; 
but  his  friends  insisted  that  the  last  man  whom  they 
could  command  should  be  polled  out.  Thus  the  elec- 
tion was  procrastinated.  In  ordinary  cases  the  interval 
between  the  first  and  the  last  day  of  polling  is  mono- 
tonous and  dull;  but  during  the  Clare  election,  so 
many  ludicrous  and  extraordinary  incidents  were  every 
moment  occurring,  as  to  relieve  any  attentive  observer 
from  every  influence  of  ennui. 

The  writer  of  this  article  was  under  the  necessity  of 


remaining  during  the  day  in  the  Sheriff's  booth,  where 
questions  of  law  were  chiefly  discussed,  but  even  here 
there  was  much  matter  for  entertainment.  The  Sheriff 
afforded  a  perpetual  fund  of  amusement.  He  sat  with 
his  wand  of  office  leaning  against  his  shoulder,  and 
always  ready  for  his  grasp.  When  there  was  no  actual 
business  going  forward,  he  still  preserved  a  magisterial 
dignity  of  deportment,  and  with  half-closed  eye-lids,  and 
throwing  back  his  head,  and  forming  with  his  chin  an 
obtuse  angle  with  the  horizon,  reproved  any  indulgence 
in  illicit  mirth  which  might  chance  to  pass  amongst 
the  Bar.  The  gentlemen  who  were  professionally  en- 
gaged having  discovered  the  chief  foible  of  the  Sheriff, 
which  consisted  in  the  most  fantastical  notions  of  him- 
self, vied  with  each  other  in  playing  upon  this  weak- 
ness. "  I  feel  that  I  address  myself  to  the  first  man  of 
the  county,"  was  the  usual  exordium  with  which  each 
legal  argument  was  opened. 

The  Sheriff,  instead  of  perceiving  the  sneer  which 
involuntarily  played  round  the  lips  of  the  mocking 
sycophant,  smiled  with  an  air  of  Malvolio  condescen- 
sion, and  bowed  his  head.  Then  came  some  noise  from 
the  adjoining  booths,  upon  which  the  Sheriff  used  to 
start  up  and  exclaim,  "  I  declare  I  do  not  think  that  I 
am  treated  with  proper  respect — verily  I'll  go  forth  and 
quell  this  tumult — Fll  show  them  I  am  the  first 
man  in  the  county,  and  Fll  commit  somebody."  With 
that,  "  the  first  man  in  the  county,"  with  a  step  slightly 
accelerated  by  his  resentment  at  a  supposed  indignity 
to  himself,  used  to  proceed  in  quest  of  a  riot,  but 
generally  returned  with  a  good-humoured  expression 
of  face,  observing, — "  It  was  only  Mr.  O'Connell,  and 
I  must  say  when  I  remonstrated  with  him,  he  paid  me 


every  sort  of  proper  respect.  He  is  quite  a  different 
person  from  what  I  had  heard.  But  let  nobody  imagine 
that  I  was  afraid  of  him.  Fd  commit  him,  or  Mr.  Vesey 
Fitzgerald,  if  I  was  not  treated  with  proper  respect; 
for  by  virtue  of  my  office,  I  am  the  first  man  in  the 
county."  This  phrase  of  the  Sheriff  became  so  fami- 
liar, that  a  set  of  wags,  who  in  their  intervals  of 
leisure,  had  set  about  practising  mimicry,  emulated 
each  other  in  repeating  it,  and  succeeded  in  producing 
various  pleasant  imitations  of  the  "  first  man  in  the 

These  vagaries  enlivened  occupations  which  in  tlicir 
nature  were  sufficiently  dull.  But  the  Sheriff's  booth 
afforded  matter  more  deserving  of  note  than  his  singu- 
larities. Charges  of  undue  influence  were  occasionally 
brought  forward,  which  exhibited  the  character  of  the 
election  in  its  strongest  colours.  One  incident  I  par- 
ticularly remember.  An  attorney  employed  by  Mr. 
Fitzgerald  rushed  in  and  exclaimed  that  a  priest  was 
terrifying  the  voters.  This  accusation  produced  a 
powerful  effect.  The  counsel  for  Mr.  O'Connell  defied 
the  attorney  to  make  out  his  charge.  The  assessor  very 
properly  required  that  the  priest  should  attend;  and 
behold  Father  Murphy  of  Corofin ! 

His  solemn  and  spectral  aspect  struck  every  body. 
He  advanced  with  fearlessness  to  the  bar,  behind  which 
the  Sheriff  was  seated,  and  inquired  what  the  charge 
was  which  had  been  preferred  against  him,  with  a 
smile  of  ghastly  derision.  "  You  were  looking  at  my 
voters,"  cries  the  attorney.  "But  I  said  nothing,'"' 
replied  the  priest,  "and  I  suppose  that  I  am  to  be 
permitted  to  look  at  my  parishioners."  "Not  with 
such  a  face  as  that ! "  cried  Mr.  Dogherty,  one  of 


Mr.  Fitzgerald's  counsel.  This  produced  a  loud  laugh ; 
for,  certainly,  the  countenance  of  Father  Murphy  was 
fraught  with  no  ordinary  terrors.  "  And  this,  then/* 
exclaimed  Mr.  O'ConnelFs  counsel,  "  is  the  charge  you 
bring  against  the  priests  ?  Let  us  see  if  there  be  an 
Act  of  Parliament  which  prescribes  that  a  Jesuit  shall 
wear  a  mask."  At  this  instant,  one  of  the  agents  of 
Mr.  (yConnell  precipitated  himself  into  the  room,  and 
cried  out,  "Mr.  Sheriff,  we  have  no  fair  play — Mr. 
Singleton  is  frightening  his  tenants — he  caught  hold 
of  one  of  them  just  now,  and  threatened  vengeance 
against  him." 

This  accusation  came  admirably  apropos.  "  What ! " 
exclaimed  the  advocate  of  Mr.  O' Council,  "  is  this  to  be 
endured  ?  Do  we  live  in  a  free  country,  and  under  a 
constitution  ?  Is  a  landlord  to  commit  a  battery  with 
impunity,  and  is  a  priest  to  be  indited  for  his  physiog- 
nomy, and  to  be  found  guilty  of  a  look?"  Thus  a 
valuable  set-off  against  Father  Murphy's  eyebrows  was 
obtained.  After  a  long  debate,  the  assessor  decided 
that,  if  either  a  priest  or  a  landlord  actually  interrupted 
the  poll,  they  should  be  indiscriminately  committed; 
but  thought  the  present  a  case  only  for  admonition. 
Father  Murphy  was  accordingly  restored  to  his  physiog- 
nomical functions. 

The  matter  had  been  scarcely  disposed  of,  when  a 
loud  shout  was  heard  from  the  multitude  outside  the 
Court-house,  which  had  gathered  in  thousands,  and  yet 
generally  preserved  a  profound  tranquillity.  The  large 
window  in  the  Sheriff's  booth  gave  an  opportunity  of 
observing  whatever  took  place  in  the  square  below ;  and, 
attracted  by  the  tremendous  uproar,  every  body  ran  to 
see  what  was  going  on  amongst  the  crowd.  The  tumult 


was  produced  by  the  arrival  of  some  hundred  free- 
holders from  Kilrush,  with  their  landlord,  Mr.  Vandeleur, 
at  their  head.  He  stood  behind  a  carriage,  and,  with 
his  hat  off,  was  seen  vehemently  addressing  the  tenants 
who  followed  him.  It  was  impossible  to  hear  a  word 
which  he  uttered;  but  his  gesture  was  sufficiently 
significant ;  he  stamped,  and  waved  his  hat,  and  shook 
his  clenched  hand.  While  he  thus  adjured  them,  the 
crowd  through  which  they  were  passing,  assailed  them 
with  cries,  "  Vote  for  your  country,  boys  !  Vote  for  the 
old  religion ! — Three  cheers  for  liberty  ! — Down  with 
Vesey,  and  hurra  for  O'Connell ! "  These  were  the 
exclamations  which  rent  the  air,  as  they  proceeded. 
They  followed  their  landlord  until  they  had  reached  a 
part  of  the  square  where  Mr.  O'Connell  lodged,  and 
before  which  a  large  platform  had  been  erected,  which 
communicated  with  the  window  of  his  apartment,  and 
to  which  he  could  advance  whenever  it  was  necessary 
to  address  the  people.  When  Mr.  Vandeleur's  free- 
holders had  attained  this  spot,  Mr.  O'Connell  rushed 
forward  on  the  platform,  and  lifted  up  his  arm.  A 
tremendous  shout  succeeded,  and  in  an  instant  Mr. 
Vandeleur  was  deserted  by  his  tenants. 

This  platform  exhibited  some  of  the  most  remarkable 
scenes  which  were  enacted  in  this  strange  drama  of 
"  The  Clare  Election/'  It  was  sustained  by  pillars  of 
wood,  and  stretched  out  several  feet  from  the  wall  to 
which  it  was  attached.  Some  twenty  or  thirty  persons 
could  stand  upon  it  at  the  same  time.  A  large  quantity 
of  green  boughs  were  wreathed  about  it ;  and  from  the 
sort  of  bower  which  they  formed,  occasional  orators 
addressed  the  people  during  the  day.  Mr.  M'Dermot, 
a  young  gentleman  from  the  county  of  Galway,  of 


considerable  fortune,  and  a  great  deal  of  talent  as  a 
speaker,  used  to  harangue  the  multitude  with  great 
effect.  Father  Sheehan,  a  clergyman  from  Waterford, 
who  had  been  mainly  instrumental  in  the  overthrow 
of  the  Beresfords,  also  displayed  from  this  spot  his 
eminent  popular  abilities.  A  Dr.  Kenny,  a  Waterford 
surgeon,  thinking  that  "the  times  were  out  of  joint," 
came  "to  set  them  right/'  Father  Maguire,  Mr. 
Lawless,  indeed  the  whole  company  of  orators,  per- 
formed on  this  theatre  with  indefatigable  energy.  Mirth 
and  declamation,  and  anecdote  and  grotesque  delinea- 
tion, and  mimicry,  were  all  blended  together  for  the 
public  entertainment. 

One  of  the  most  amusing  and  attractive  topics  was 
drawn  from  the  adherence  of  Father  Coffey  to  Mr. 
Fitzgerald.  His  manners,  his  habits,  his  dress,  were 
all  selected  as  materials  for  ridicule  and  invective ;  and 
puns,  not  the  less  effective  because  they  were  obvious, 
were  heaped  upon  his  name.  The  scorn  and  detestation 
with  which  he  was  treated  by  the  mob,  clearly  proved 
that  a  priest  has  no  influence  over  them  when  he 
attempts  to  run  counter  to  their  political  passions. 
He  can  hurry  them  on  in  the  career  into  which  their 
own  feelings  impel  them,  but  he  cannot  turn  them  into 
another  course.  Many  incidents  occurred  about  this 
rostrum,  which,  if  matter  did  not  crowd  too  fast  upon 
me,  I  should  stop  to  detail.  I  have  not  room  for  a 
minute  narration  of  all  that  was  interesting  at  this 
election,  which  would  occupy  a  volume,  and  must 
limit  myself  to  one,  but  that  a  very  striking  circum- 

The  generality  of  the  orators  were  heard  with  loud 
and  clamorous  approbation,  but,  at  a  late  hour,  one 


evening,  and  when  it  was  growing  rapidly  dark,  a  priest 
came  forward  on  the  platform,  who  addressed  the 
multitude  in  Irish.  There  was  not  a  word  uttered  by 
the  people.  Ten  thousand  peasants  were  assembled 
before  the  speaker,  and  a  profound  stillness  hung  over 
the  living,  but  almost  breathless  mass.  For  minutes 
they  continued  thus  deeply  attentive,  and  seemed  to  be 
struck  with  awe  as  he  proceeded.  Suddenly,  I  saw  the 
whole  multitude  kneel  down,  in  one  concurrent  genu- 
flection. They  were  engaged  in  silent  prayer,  and 
when  the  priest  arose  (for  he  too  had  knelt  down  on 
the  platform),  they  also  stood  up  together  from  their 
orison.  The  movement  was  performed  with  the  facility 
of  a  regimental  evolution.  I  asked  (being  unacquainted 
with  the  language)  what  it  was  that  had  occasioned 
this  extraordinary  spectacle?  and  was  informed  that 
the  orator  had  stated  to  the  people  that  one  of  his  own 
parishioners,  who  had  voted  for  Mr.  Fitzgerald,  had 
just  died;  and  he  called  upon  the  multitude  to  pray  to 
God  for  the  repose  of  his  soul,  and  the  forgiveness  of 
the  offence  which  he  had  committed  in  taking  the 
Bribery  Oath.  Money,  it  seems,  had  been  his  induce- 
ment to  give  his  suffrage  against  Mr.  O'Connell. 
Individuals,  in  reading  this,  will  exclaim,  perhaps, 
against  these  expedients  for  the  production  of  effect 
upon  the  popular  passions.  Let  me  observe  in  paren- 
thesis, that  the  fault  of  all  this  (if  it  is  to  be  condemned) 
does  not  lie  with  the  Association,  with  the  priesthood, 
or  with  the  people,  but  with  the  law,  which  has,  by  its 
system  of  anomalies  and  alienations,  rendered  the 
national  mind  susceptible  of  such  impressions.  But  I 

Thus  it  was  the  day  passed,  and  it  was  not  until 

•  THE   CLABE   ELECTION.  139 

nearly  nine  o'clock  that  those  who  were  actively  en- 
gaged in  the  election  went  to  dinner.  There  a  new 
scene  was  opened.  In  a  small  room  in  a  mean  tavern, 
kept  by  a  Mrs.  Cannody,  the  whole  body  of  leading 
patriots,  counsellors,  attorneys,  and  agents,  with  divers 
interloping  partakers  of  election  hospitality,  were  cram- 
med and  piled  upon  one  another,  while  Mr.  O'Connell  sat 
at  the  head  of  the  feast  almost  overcome  with  fatigue, 
but  yet  sustained  by  that  vitality  which  success  pro- 
duces. Enormous  masses  of  beef,  pork,  mutton,  turkeys, 
tongues,  and  fowl  were  strewed  upon  the  deal  boards, 
at  which  the  hungry  masticators  proceeded  to  their 
operations.  For  some  time  nothing  was  heard  but  the 
clatter  of  the  utensils  of  eating,  interrupted  by  an  occa- 
sional hob-nobbing  of  "  The  Counsellor/'  who,  with  his 
usual  abstinence,  confined  himself  to  water.  The  crav- 
ings of  the  stomach  having  been  satisfied,  the  more 
intellectual  season  of  potations  succeeded.  A  hundred 
tumblers  of  punch,  with  circular  slices  of  lemon,  dif- 
fused the  essence  of  John  Barleycorn  in  profuse  and 
fragrant  streams.  Loud  cries  for  hot  water,  spoons, 
and  materials,  were  everywhere  heard,  and  huge  jugs 
were  rapidly  emptied  and  replenished  by  waiters,  who 
would  have  required  ubiquity  to  satisfy  all  the  demands 
upon  their  attention.  Toasts  were  then  proposed 
and  speeches  pronounced,  and  the  usual  "hip,  hip, 
hurra ! "  with  unusual  accompaniments  of  exultation, 

The  feats  of  the  day  were  then  narrated ; — the  blank 
looks  of  Ned  Hickman,  whose  face  had  lost  all  its 
natural  hilarity,  and  looked  at  the  election  like  a  full 
moon  in  a  storm ;  the  shroud-coloured  physiognomy  of 
Mr.  Sampson;  and  the  tears  of  Sir  Edward  O'Brien, 


were  alternately  the  subjects  of  merriment.  Mr.  Why  te 
was  then  called  upon  for  an  imitation  of  the  Sheriff, 
when  he  used  to  ride  upon  an  elephant  at  Calcutta. 
But  in  the  midst  of  this  conviviality,  which  was  height- 
ened by  the  consciousness  that  there  was  no  bill  to  be 
paid  by  gentlemen  who  were  the  guests  of  their  country, 
and  long  before  any  inebriating  effect  was  observable,  a 
solemn  and  spectral  figure  used  to  stride  in,  like  the 
ghost  of  Hamlet,  and  the  same  deep  churchyard  voice 
which  had  previously  startled  my  ears  raised  its  awful 
peal,  while  it  exclaimed  "  The  wolf,  the  wolf  is  on  the 
walk.  Shepherds  of  the  people,  what  do  you  here  ?  Is 
it  meet  that  you  should  sit  carousing  and  in  joyance, 
while  the  freeholders  remain  unprovided,  and  tempta- 
tion, in  the  shape  of  famine,  is  amongst  them  ?  Arise, 
I  say,  arise  from  your  cups, — the  wolf,  the  wolf  is  on 
the  walk!" 

Such  was  the  disturbing  and  heart-appalling  adjura- 
tion of  Father  Murphy  of  Corofin,  whose  enthusiastic 
sense  of  duty  never  deserted  him,  and  who,  when  the 
feast  was  unfinished,  entered  like  the  figure  of  Death 
which  the  Egyptians  employed  at  their  banquets.  He 
walked  round  the  room  with  a  measured  pace,  like  the 
envoy  of  another  world,  chasing  the  revellers  before 
him,  and  repeating  the  same  dismal  warning — "The 
wolf,  the  wolf  is  upon  the  walk  !" 

Nothing  was  comparable  to  the  aspect  of  Father 
Murphy  upon  these  occasions,  except  the  physiognomy 
of  Mr.  Lawless.  This  gentleman,  who  had  been  use- 
fully exerting  himself  during  the  whole  day,  somewhat 
reasonably  expected  that  he  should  be  permitted  to 
enjoy  the  just  rewards  of  patriotism  for  a  few  hours 
without  any  nocturnal  molestation.  It  was  about  the 


time  that  lie  had  just  commenced  his  second  tumbler, 
and  when  the  exhilarating  influence  of  his  eloquent 
chalices  was  beginning  to  display  itself,  that  the  dismal 
cry  was  wont  to  come  upon  him.  The  look  of  piteous 
despair  with  which  he  surveyed  this  unrelenting  foe  to 
conviviality,  was  almost  as  ghastly  as  that  of  his  merci- 
less disturber ;  and  as,  like  another  Tantalus,  he  saw 
the  draughts  of  pleasantness  hurried  away,  a  school- 
master, who  sat  by  him,  and  who  "  was  abroad"  during 
the  election,  used  to  exclaim — 


A  labris  sitiens  fugientia  captat 

It  was  in  vain  to  remonstrate  against  Father  Murphy, 
who  insisted  that  the  whole  company  should  go  forth  to 
meet  "  the  wolf  upon  the  walk." 

Upon  going  down  stairs,  the  lower  apartments  were 
found  thronged  with  freeholders  and  priests.  To  the 
latter  had  been  assigned  the  office  of  providing  food  for 
such  of  the  peasants  as  lived  at  too  great  distance  from 
the  town  to  return  immediately  home;  and  each  clergy- 
man was  empowered  to  give  an  order  to  the  victuallers 
and  tavern-keepers  to  furnish  the  bearer  with  a  certain 
quantity  of  meat  and  beer.  The  use  of  whiskey  was 
forbidden.  There  were  two  remarkable  features  ob- 
servable in  the  discharge  of  this  office.  The  peasant, 
who  had  not  tasted  food  perhaps  for  twenty-four  hours, 
remained  in  perfect  patience  and  tranquillity  until  his 
turn  arrived  to  speak  "to  his  reverence;"  and  the 
Catholic  clergy  continued  with  unwearied  assiduity, 
and  the  most  amiable  solicitude,  though  themselves 
quite  exhausted  with  fatigue,  in  the  performance  of  this 
necessary  labour.  There  they  stayed  until  a  late  hour 


in  the  morning,  and  until  every  claimant  had  been  con- 
tented. It  is  not  wonderful  that  such  men,  animated 
by  such  zeal,  and  operating  upon  so  grateful  and  so 
energetic  a  peasantry,  should  have  effected  what  they 
succeeded  in  aceomplisliing. 



[XOTEJIBEE,   1828.] 

THE  poll  at  length  closed;  and,  after  an  excellent 
argument  delivered  by  the  assessor,  Mr.  Richard 
Keatinge,  he  instructed  the  Sheriff  to  return  Mr. 
O'Connell  as  duly  elected.*  The  Court-house  was 
again  crowded,  as  upon  the  first  day,  and  Mr.  Fitz- 
gerald appeared  at  the  head  of  the  defeated  aristocracy. 
They  looked  profoundly  melancholy.  Mr.  Fitzgerald 
himself  did  not  affect  to  disguise  the  deep  pain  which 
he  felt ;  but  preserved  that  gracefulness  and  perfect 
good  temper  which  had  characterized  him  during  the 
contest,  and  which,  at  its  close,  disarmed  hostility  of  all 
its  rancour.  Mr.  O'Connell  made  a  speech  distin- 
guished by  just  feeling  and  good  taste,  and  begged  that 

*  Mr.  Keatinge  is  the  present  Judge  of  the  Prerogative  Court  in 
Ireland.  The  polling  terminated  on  the  5th  July,  1828,  the  election 
having  lasted  six  days.  The  votes  were,  for  O'Connell  2,057,  for  Fitz- 
gerald 982 — majority  1,075.  The  question  whether  Mr.  O'Connell, 
being  a  Roman  Catholic,  could  be  legally  returned,  was  formally  argued 
before  the  Assessor,  who  ruled  that  the  election  was  valid ;  leaving  it  to 
be  decided  by  the  House  of  Commons  what  oaths  were  necessary  to 
qualify  a  Roman  Catholic  to  sit  and  vote. 


Mr.  Fitzgerald  would  forgive  him,  if  lie  had  upon  the 
first  day  given  him  any  sort  of  offence.  Mr.  Fitzgerald 
came  forward  and  unaffectedly  assured  him,  that  what- 
ever was  said  should  he  forgotten.  He  was  again  hailed 
with  universal  acclamation,  and  delivered  a  speech,  which 
could  not  surpass,  in  good  judgment  and  persuasiveness, 
that  with  which  he  had  opened  the  contest,  but  was  not 
inferior  to  it.  He  left  an  impression,  which  hereafter 
will,  in  all  probability,  render  his  return  for  the  county 
of  Clare  a  matter  of  certainty;  and,  upon  the  other 
hand,  I  feel  convinced  that  he  has  himself  carried  away 
from  the  scene  of  that  contention,  in  which  he  sustained 
a  defeat,  but  lost  no  honour,  a  conviction  that  not  only 
the  interests  of  Ireland,  but  the  safety  of  the  empire, 
require  that  the  claims  of  seven  millions  of  his  fellow- 
citizens  should  be  conceded.  Mr.  Fitzgerald,  during 
the  progress  of  the  election,  could  not  refrain  from 
repeatedly  intimating  his  astonishment  at  what  he  saw, 
and  from  indulging  in  melancholy  forebodings  of  the 
events,  of  which  these  incidents  are  perhaps  but  the 
heralds.  To  do  him  justice,  he  appeared  at  moments 
utterly  to  forget  himself,  and  to  be  absorbed  in  the 
melancholy  presages  which  pressed  themselves  upon 
him.  "  Where  is  all  this  to  end  ?"  was  a  question  fre- 
quently put  in  his  presence,  and  from  which  he  seemed 
to  shrink. 

At  the  close  of  the  poll,  Mr.  Sheil  delivered  a  speech, 
in  which  the  views  of  the  writer  of  this  article  were 
expressed ;  and  as  no  faithful  account  of  what  he  said 
upon  that  occasion  appeared  in  the  London  papers,  an 
extract  from  his  observations  will  be  justified  not  by 
any  merit  in  the  composition  as  a  piece  of  oratory,  but 
by  the  sentiments  of  the  speaker,  which  appear  to  me  to 
be  just,  and  were  suggested  by  the  scenes  in  which  he 


had  taken  a  part.  The  importance  of  the  subject  may 
give  a  claim  to  attention,  which  in  other  instances  the 
speaker  may  not  be  entitled  to  command.  He  spoke  in 
the  following  terms : — 

"I  own  that  I  am  anxious  to  avail  myself  of  this 
opportunity  to  make  a  reparation  to  Mr.  Fitzgerald. 
Before  I  had  the  honour  of  hearing  that  gentleman, 
and  of  witnessing  the  mild  and  conciliatory  demeanour 
by  which  he  is  distinguished,  I  had  in  another  place 
expressed  myself  with  regard  to  his  political  conduct, 
in  language  to  which  I  believe  that  Mr.  Fitzgerald  re- 
ferred upon  the  first  day  of  the  election,  and  which  was 
perhaps  too  deeply  tinctured  with  that  virulence,  which 
is  almost  inseparable  from  the  passions  by  which  this 
country  is  so  unhappily  divided.  It  is  but  an  act  of 
justice  to  Mr.  Fitzgerald  to  say,  that,  however  we  may 
be  under  the  necessity  of  opposing  him  as  a  Member  of 
an  Administration  hostile  to  our  body,  it  is  impossible 
to  entertain  towards  him  a  sentiment  of  individual 
animosity;  and  I  confess,  that,  after  having  observed 
the  admirable  temper  with  which  he  encountered  his 
antagonists,  I  cannot  but  regret  that,  before  I  had  the 
means  of  forming  a  just  estimate  of  his  personal  cha- 
racter, I  should  have  indulged  in  remarks,  in  which  too 
much  acidity  may  have  been  infused. 

"  The  situation  in  which  Mr.  Fitzgerald  was  placed, 
was  peculiarly  trying  to  his  feelings.  He  had  been  long 
in  possession  of  this  County.  Though  we  considered 
him  as  an  inefficient  friend,  we  were  not  entitled  to 
account  him  an  opponent.  Under  these  circumstances 
it  may  have  appeared  harsh,  and  perhaps  unkind,  that 
we  should  have  selected  him  as  the  first  object  for  the 
manifestation  of  our  power ;  another  would  have  found 

VOL.  II.  L 


it  difficult  not  to  give  way  to  the  language  of  resentment 
and  of  reproach,  but  so  far  from  doing  so,  his  defence 
of  himself  was  as  strongly  marked  by  forbearance  as  it 
was  by  ability.  I  thought  it,  however,  not  altogether 
impossible  that  before  the  fate  of  this  election  was 
decided,  Mr.  Fitzgerald  might  have  been  merely  prac- 
tising an  expedient  of  wily  conciliation,  and  that  when 
he  appeared  so  meek  and  self-controlled  in  the  midst  of 
a  contest  which  would  have  provoked  the  passions  of  any 
ordinary  man,  he  was  only  stifling  his  resentment,  in  the 
hope  that  he  might  succeed  in  appeasing  the  violence  of 
the  opposition  with  which  he  had  to  contend. 

"  But  Mr.  Fitzgerald,  in  the  demeanour  which  he  has 
preserved  to-day,  after  the  election  has  concluded  with 
his  defeat,  has  given  proof  that  his  gentleness  of  deport- 
ment was  not  affected  and  artificial ;  and,  now  that  he 
has  no  object  to  gain,  we  cannot  but  give  him  as  ample 
credit  for  his  sincerity,  as  we  must  give  him  for  that 
persuasive  gracefulness  by  which  his  manners  are  dis- 
tinguished. Justly  has  he  said  that  he  has  not  lost  a 
friend  in  this  country  ;  and  he  might  have  added  that, 
so  far  from  having  incurred  any  diminution  of  regard 
among  those  who  were  attached  to  him,  he  has  appeased 
to  a  great  extent  the  vehemence  of  that  political  enmity 
in  which  the  associate  of  Mr.  Peel  was  not  very  un- 
naturally held. 

"  But,  Sir,  while  I  have  thus  made  the  acknowledg- 
ment which  was  due  to  Mr.  Fitzgerald,  let  me  not  dis- 
guise my  own  feelings  of  legitimate,  but  not  I  hope 
offensive  exultation  at  the  result  of  this  great  contest, 
that  has  attracted  the  attention  of  the  English  people 
beyond  all  example.  I  am  not  mean  enough  to  indulge 
in  any  contumelious  vaunting  over  one  who  has  sus- 
tained his  defeat  with  so  honourable  a  magna  iiimity 


The  victory  which  has  been  achieved,  has  been  obtained 
not  so  much  over  Mr.  Fitzgerald,  as  over  the  faction 
with  which  I  excuse  him  to  a  great  extent  for  having 
been  allied.  A  great  display  of  power  has  been  made 
by  the  Catholic  Association,  and  that  manifestation  of 
its  influence  over  the  national  mind,  I  regard  as  not 
only  a  very  remarkable,  but  a  very  momentous  incident. 
Let  us  consider  what  has  taken  place,  in  order  that  we 
may  see  this  singular  political  phenomenon  in  its  just 
light.  It  is  right  that  we  attentively  survey  the  extra- 
ordinary facts  before  us,  in  order  that  we  may  derive 
from  them  the  moral  admonitions  which  they  are  cal- 
culated to  supply.  What  then  has  happened?  Mr. 
Fitzgerald  was  promoted  to  a  place  in  the  Duke  of 
Wellington's  councils,  and  the  representation  of  this 
great  County  became  vacant.  The  Catholic  Association 
determined  to  oppose  him,  and  at  first  view  the  under- 
taking seemed  to  be  desperate.  Not  a  single  Protestant 
gentleman  could  be  procured  to  enter  the  lists,  and  in 
the  want  of  any  other  candidate,  Mr.  O'Connell  stood 
forward  on  behalf  of  the  people.* 

"  Mr.  Vesey  Fitzgerald  came  into  the  field  encom- 
passed with  the  most  signal  advantages.  His  father  is 
a  gentleman  of  large  estate,  and  had  been  long  and 
deservedly  popular  in  Ireland.  Mr.  Fitzgerald  himself, 

*  It  is  a  curious  fact,  that  the  idea  of  a  movement  pregnant  with  re- 
sults so  important  to  the  Catholic  cause,  occurred  first  to  a  Protestant  gen- 
tleman of  the  name  of  Sir  David  Roose,  who  had  in  the  previous  year  been 
sheriff  of  Dublin.  Eoose  suggested  it  to  Mr.  Patrick  Vincent  Fitzpatrick, 
one  of  Mr.  CXConnell's  most  intimate  and  devoted  friends,  to  whose  memory 
it  then  recurred  that  Mr.  John  Keogh,  an  experienced  Cathoh'c  leader  of 
the  past  generation,  had  frequently  given  an  opinion  that  emancipation 
would  only  be  achieved  by  the  return  of  a  Catholic  to  Parliament,  under 
the  existing  laws.  See  the  papers  entitled  "  Catholic  Leaders  and 
Associations,"  where  the  subject  ia  again  introduced, 

L   2 


inheriting  a  portion  of  the  popular  favour  with  a  favour- 
ite name,  had  for  twenty  years  been  placed  in  such 
immediate  contiguity  with  power,  that  he  was  enabled 
to  circulate  a  large  portion  of  the  influence  of  Govern- 
ment through  this  fortunate  district.  There  is  scarcely 
a  single  family  of  any  significance  among  you,  which 
does  not  labour  under  Mr.  Fitzgerald's  obligations.  At 
this  moment  it  is  only  necessary  to  look  at  him,  with 
the  array  of  aristocracy  beside  him,  in  order  to  per- 
ceive upon  what  a  high  position  for  victory  he  was 
placed.  He  stands  encompassed  by  the  whole  gentry 
of  the  county  of  Clare,  who,  as  they  stood  by  him  in  the 
hour  of  battle,  come  here  to  cover  his  retreat.  Almost 
every  gentleman  of  rank  and  fortune  appears  as  his 
auxiliary;  and  the  gentry,  by  their  aspect  at  this 
instant,  as  well  as  by  their  devotedness  during  the 
election,  furnish  evidence  that  in  his  person  their  own 
cause  was  to  be  asserted. 

"  To  this  combination  of  favourable  circumstances, — 
to  the  promising  friend,  to  the  accomplished  gentleman, 
to  the  eloquent  advocate,  at  the  head  of  all  the  patri- 
cian opulence  of  the  County,  what  did  we  oppose? 
We  opposed  the  power  of  the  Catholic  Association,  and 
with  that  tremendous  engine  we  have  beaten  the  Cabi- 
net Minister,  and  the  phalanx  of  aristocracy  by  which 
he  is  surrounded,  to  the  ground.  Why  do  I  mention 
these  things?  Is  it  for  the  purpose  (God  forbid  that 
it  should)  of  wounding  the  feelings  or  exasperating  the 
passions  of  any  man  ?  No  !  but  in  order  to  exhibit  the 
almost  marvellous  incidents  which  have  taken  place,  in 
the  light  in  which  they  ought  to  be  regarded,  and  to 
present  them  in  all  their  appalling  magnitude.  Pro- 
testants who  hear  me,  Gentlemen  of  the  County  Clare, 
you  whom  I  address  with  boldness,  perhaps,  but  cer- 


tainly  not  with  any  purpose  to  give  you  offence,  let  me 
entreat  your  attention. 

"A  Baronet  of  rank  and  fortune,  Sir  Edward  O'Brien, 
has  asked  whether  this  was  a  condition  of  things  to  be 
endured ;  he  has  expatiated  upon  the  extraordinary  in- 
fluence which  has  been  exercised  in  order  to  effect  these 
signal  results;  and,  after  dwelling  upon  many  other 
grounds  of  complaint,  he  has  with  great  force  inveighed 
against  the  severance  which  we  have  created  between 
the  landlord  and  tenant. — Let  it  not  be  imagined  that 
I  mean  to  deny  that  we  have  had  recourse  to  the  expe- 
dients attributed  to  us;  on  the  contrary,  I  avow  it. 
We  have  put  a  great  engine  into  action,  and  applied 
the  entire  force  of  that  powerful  machinery  which  the 
law  has  placed  under  our  control.  We  are  masters  of 
the  passions  of  the  people,  and  we  have  employed  our 
dominion  with  a  terrible  effect.  But,  Sir,  do  you,  or 
any  man  here,  imagine  that  we  could  have  acquired 
this  dreadful  ability  to  sunder  the  strongest  ties  by 
which  the  different  classes  of  society  are  fastened,  unless 
we  found  the  materials  of  excitement  in  the  state  of 
society  itself?  Do  you  think  that  Mr.  Daniel  O'Con- 
nell  has  himself,  and  by  the  single  powers  [of  his  own 
mind,  unaided  by  any  external  co-operation,  brought 
the  country  to  this  great  crisis  of  agitation?  Mr. 
O'Connell,  with  all  his  talents  for  excitation,  would  have 
been  utterly  powerless  and  incapable,  unless  he  had 
been  allied  with  a  great  conspirator  against  the  public 
peace ;  and  I  will  tell  you  who  that  confederate  is — it 
is  the  Law  of  the  land  itself  that  has  been  Mr.  O'Con- 
nelFs  main  associate,  and  that  ought  to  be  denounced  as 
the  mighty  agitator  of  Ireland.  The  rod  of  oppression 
is  the  wand  of  this  potent  enchanter  of  the  passions, 
and  the  book  of  his  spells  is  the  Penal  Code.  Break 


tlie  wand  of  this  political  Prospero,  and  take  from  him 
the  volume  of  his  magic,  and  he  will  evoke  the  spirits 
which  are  now  under  his  control,  no  longer. 

"  But  why  should  I  have  recourse  to  illustration  which 
may  be  accounted  fantastical,  in  order  to  elucidate  what 
is  in  itself  so  plain  and  obvious  ?  Protestant  gentle- 
men, who  do  me  the  honour  to  listen  to  me,  look,  I  pray 
you,  a  little  dispassionately  at  the  real  causes  of  the  events 
which  have  taken  place  amongst  you.  I  beg  of  you  to 
put  aside  your  angry  feelings  for  an  instant,  and  believe 
me  that  I  am  far  from  thinking  that  you  have  no  good 
ground  for  resentment.  It  must  be  most  painful  to  the 
proprietors  of  this  County  to  be  stripped  in  an  instant 
of  all  their  influence ;  to  be  left  destitute  of  all  sort  of 
sway  over  their  dependents,  and  to  see  a  few  demagogues 
and  priests  usurping  their  natural  authority.  This  feel- 
ing of  resentment  must  be  aggravated  by  the  conscious- 
ness that  they  have  not  deserved  such  a  return  from 
their  tenants ;  and  as  I  know  Sir  Edward  O'Brien  to  be 
a  truly  benevolent  landlord,  I  can  well  conceive  that 
the  apparent  ingratitude  with  which  he  was  treated,  has 
added  to  the  pain  which  every  landlord  must  experience; 
and  I  own  that  I  was  not  surprised  to  sec  tears  bursting 
from  his  eyes,  while  his  face  was  inflamed  with  the  emo- 
tions to  which  it  was  not  in  human  nature  that  he 
should  not  give  way. 

"  But  let  Sir  Edward  O'Brien,  and  his  fellow-pro- 
prietors, who  are  gathered  about  him,frecollcct,  that  the 
facility  and  promptitude  with  which  the  peasantry  have 
thrown  off  their  allegiance,  are  owing  not  so  much  to 
any  want  of  just  moral  feeling  on  the  part  of  the  people, 
as  to  the  operation  of  causes  for  which  the  people  arc 
not  to  blame.  In  rio  other  country,  except  in  this, 
would  such  a  revolution  have  been  effected.  Wherefore? 


— Because  in  no  other  country  are  the  people  divided 
by  the  law  from  their  superiors,  and  cast  into  the  hands 
of  a  set  of  men,  who  are  supplied  with  the  means  of 
national  excitement  by  the  system  of  Government 
under  which  we  live.  Surely  no  man  can  believe  that 
such  an  anomalous  body  as  the  Catholic  Association 
could  exist,  excepting  in  a  community  which  had  been 
alienated  from  the  State  by  the  State  itself.  The  dis- 
content and  the  resentment  of  seven  millions  of  the 
population  have  generated  that  domestic  government 
winch  sways  through  the  force  of  public  opinion,  and 
uses  the  national  passions  as  the  instruments  for  the 
execution  of  its  will.  From  that  body  there  has  now 
been  issuing,  for  many  years,  a  continuous  supply  of 
exciting  matter,  which  has  overflowed  the  nation's 
mind.  The  lava  has  covered  and  inundated  the  whole 
country,  and  is  still  flowing,  and  will  continue  to  flow 
from  its  volcanic  source.  But,  if  I  may  so  say,  the 
Association  is  but  the  crater  in  which  the  fiery  matter 
finds  a  vent,  while  its  fountain  is  in  the  depth  of  the  law 
itself.  It  would  be  utterly  impossible,  if  all  men  were 
placed  upon  equality  of  citizenship,  and  there  were  no 
exasperating  distinctions  amongst  us,  to  create  any 
artificial  causes  of  discontent.  Let  men  declaim  for  a 
century,  with  far  higher  powers  than  any  Catholic 
agitator  is  endowed  with,  and  if  they  have  no  real 
ground  of  public  grievance  to  rest  upon,  their  harangues 
will  be  empty  sound  and  idle  air.  But  when  what  they 
tell  the  people  is  true — when  they  are  sustained  by  sub- 
stantial facts,  then  effects  are  produced,  of  which  what 
has  taken  place  at  this  election  is  only  an  example. 
The  whole  body  of  the  people  being  grievously  inflamed 
and  rendered  susceptible,  the  moment  any  incident 
such  as  this  election,  occurs,  all  the  popular  passions 


start  simultaneously  up,  and  bear  down  every  obstacle 
before  them.  Do  not,  therefore,  be  surprised  that  the 
peasantry  should  thus  at  once  throw  off  their  allegiance 
to  you,  when  they  are  under  the  operation  of  emotions 
which  it  would  be  wonderful  if  they  could  resist.  The 
feeling  by  which  they  are  now  actuated  would  make 
them  not  only  vote  against  their  landlords,  but  would 
make  them  rush  into  the  field,  scale  the  batteries  of  a 
fortress,  and  mount  the  breach;  and,  gentlemen,  give 
me  now  leave  to  ask  you,  whether,  after  a  due  reflec- 
tion upon  the  motives  by  which  your  vassals  (for  so 
they  are  accounted)  are  governed,  you  will  be  disposed 
to  exercise  any  measure  of  severity  in  their  regard. 

"  I  hear  it  said,  that  before  many  days  go  by,  there 
will  be  many  tears  shed  in  the  hovels  of  your  slaves, 
and  that  you  will  take  a  terrible  vengeance  of  their 
treason.  I  trust  in  God  that  you  will  not,  when  your 
own  passions  have  subsided,  and  your  blood  has  had 
time  to  cool,  persevere  in  such  a  cruel,  and  let  me  add, 
such  an  unjustifiable  determination.  Consider,  gentle- 
men, whether  a  great  allowance  should  not  be  made  for 
the  offence  which  they  have  committed.  If  they  are, 
as  you  say  they  are,  under  the  influence  of  fanaticism, 
I  would  say  to  you,  that  such  an  influence  affords  many 
circumstances  of  extenuation,  and  that  you  should  for- 
give them,  'for  they  know  not  what  they  do/  They 
have  followed  their  priests  to  the  hustings,  and  they 
would  follow  them  to  the  scaffold.  But  you  will  ask, 
wherefore  should  they  prefer  their  priests  to  their  land- 
lords, and  have  purer  reverence  for  the  altars  of  their 
religion,  than  for  the  counter  on  which  you  calculate 
your  rents  ?  Ah,  gentlemen,  consider  a  little  the  rela- 
tion in  which  the  priest  stands  towards  the  peasant. 
Let  us  put  the  priest  into  one  scale,  and  the  landlord 


into  the  other,  and  let  us  see  which  should  preponderate. 
I  will  take  an  excellent  landlord  and  an  excellent  priest. 
The  landlord  shall  be  Sir  Edward  O'Brien,  and  the 
priest  shall  be  Mr.  Murphy  of  Corofin.  Who  is  Sir 
Edward  O'Brien  ?  A  gentleman  who  has  a  great  for- 
tune, who  lives  in  a  splendid  mansion,  and  who,  from 
the  windows  of  a  palace,  looks  upon  possessions  almost 
as  wide  as  those  which  his  ancestors  beheld  from  the 
summit  of  their  feudal  towers.  His  tenants  pay  him 
their  rent  twice  a-year,  and  they  have  their  land  at  a 
moderate  rate.  So  much  for  the  landlord. 

"  I  come  now  to  Father  Murphy  of  Corofin.  Where 
does  he  reside?  In  an  humble  abode,  situate  at  the 
foot  of  a  mountain,  and  in  the  midst  of  dreariness  and 
waste.  He  dwells  in  the  midst  of  his  parishioners,  and 
is  their  benefactor,  their  friend,  their  father.  It  is  not 
only  in  the  actual  ministry  of  the  sacraments  of  religion 
that  he  stands  as  an  object  of  affectionate  reverence 
among  them.  I  saw  him,  indeed,  at  his  altar,  sur- 
rounded by  thousands,  and  felt  myself  the  influence  of 
his  contagious  and  enthusiastic  devotion.  He  addressed 
the  people  in  the  midst  of  a  rude  edifice,  and  in  a  lan- 
guage which  I  did  not  understand ;  but  I  could  perceive 
what  a  command  he  has  over  the  minds  of  his  devoted 
followers.  But  it  is  not  merely  as  the  celebrator  of  the 
rites  of  Divine  Worship  that  he  is  dear  to  his  flock .;  he 
is  their  companion,  the  mitigator  of  their  calamities,  the 
soother  of  their  afflictions,  the  trustee  of  their  hearts, 
the  repository  of  their  secrets,  the  guardian  of  their 
interests,  and  the  sentinel  of  their  death-beds.  A 
peasant  is  dying — in  the  midst  of  the  winter's  night,  a 
knock  is  heard  at  the  door  of  the  priest,  and  he  is  told 
that  his  parishioner  requires  his  spiritual  assistance — 
the  wind  is  howling,  the  snow  descends  upon  the  hills, 


and  the  rain  and  storm  beat  against  his  face;  yet  he 
goes  forth,  hurries  to  the  hovel  of  the  expiring  wretch, 
and  taking  his  station  beside  the  mass  of  pestilence  of 
which  the  bed  of  straw  is  composed,  bends  to  receive 
the  last  whisper  which  unloads  the  heart  of  its  guilt, 
though  the  lips  of  the  sinner  should  be  tainted  with 
disease,  and  he  should  exhale  mortality  in  his  breath. 

"  Gentlemen,  this  is  not  the  language  of  artificial 
declamation — this  is  not  the  mere  extravagance  of  rhe- 
torical phrase.  This,  every  word  of  this,  is  the  truth 
— the  notorious,  palpable,  and  unquestionable  truth. 
You  know  it,  every  one  of  you  know  it  to  be  true ;  and 
now  let  me  ask  you  can  you  wonder  for  a  moment  that 
the  people  should  be  attached  to  their  clergy,  and 
should  follow  their  ordinances  as  if  they  were  the  in- 
junctions of  God  ?  Gentlemen,  forgive  me,  if  I  ven- 
ture to  supplicate,  on  behalf  of  your  poor  tenants,  for 
mercy  to  them.  Pardon  them,  in  the  name  of  that 
God  who  will  forgive  you  your  offences  in  the  same 
measure  of  compassion  which  you  will  show  to  the 
trespasses  of  others.  Do  not,  in  the  name  of  that 
Heaven  before  whom  every  one  of  us,  whether  landlord, 
priest,  or  tenant,  must  at  last  appear — do  not  prosecute 
these  poor  people :  don't  throw  their  children  out  upon 
the  public  road — don't  send  them  forth  to  starve,  to 
shiver,  and  to  die.  For  God's  sake,  Mr.  Fitzgerald, 
and  for  your  own  sake,  and  as  you  are  a  gentleman  and 
a  man  of  honour,  interpose  your  influence  with  your 
friends,  and  redeem  your  pledge.  I  address  myself 
personally  to  you.  On  the  first  day  of  the  election 
you  declared  that  you  would  deprecate  all  persecution 
by  the  landlords,  and  that  you  were  the  last  to  wish 
that  harsh  and  vindictive  measures  should  be  employed. 
I  believe  you — and  now  I  call  upon  you  to  redeem  that 


pledge  of  merer,  to  fulfil  that  noble  engagement,  to 
perform  that  great  moral  promise.  You  will  cover 
yourself  with  honour  by  so  doing,  in  the  same  way  that 
you  will  share  in  the  ignominy  that  will  attend  upon 
any  expedients  of  rigour.  Before  you  leave  this 
country  to  assume  your  high  functions,  employ  your- 
self diligently  in  this  work  of  benevolence,  and  enjoin 
your  friends  with  that  eloquence  of  which  you  are  the 
master,  to  refrain  from  cruelty,  and  not  to  oppress  their 

"  Tell  them,  sir,  that  instead  of  busying  themselves 
in  the  worthless  occupation  of  revenge,  it  is  much  fitter 
that  they  should  take  the  political  condition  of  their 
country  into  their  deep  consideration.  Tell  them  that 
they  should  address  themselves  to  the  Legislature,  and 
implore  a  remedy  for  these  frightful  evils.  Tell  them 
to  call  upon  the  men,  in  whose  hands  the  destiny  of  this 
great  empire  is  placed,  to  adopt  a  system  of  conciliation 
and  of  peace,  and  to  apply  to  Ireland  the  great  canon  of 
political  morality,  which  has  been  so  powerfully  ex- 
pressed by  the  poet — 'pads  imponere  morem.'  Our 
manners,  our  habits,  our  laws  must  be  changed.  The 
evil  is  to  be  plucked  out  at  the  root.  The  cancer  must 
be  cut  out  of  the  breast  of  the  country.  Let  it  not  be 
imagined  that  any  measure  of  disfranchisement,  that 
any  additional  penalty,  will  afford  a  remedy.  Things 
have  been  permitted  to  advance  to  a  height  from  which 
they  cannot  be  driven  back. 

"Protestants,  awake  to  a  sense  of  your  condition. 
Look  round  you.  "What  have  you  seen  during  this 
election?  Enough  to  make  you  feel  that  this  is  not 
mere  local  excitation,  but  that  seven  millions  of  Irish 
people  are  completely  arrayed  and  organised.  That 
which  you  behold  in  Clare,  you  would  behold,  under 


similar  circumstances,  in  every  county  in  the  kingdom. 
Did  you  mark  our  discipline,  our  subordination,  our 
good  order,  and  that  prophetic  tranquillity,  which  is  far 
more  terrible  than  any  ordinary  storm?  You  have 
seen  sixty  thousand  men  under  our  command,  and  not 
a  hand  was  raised,  and  not  a  forbidden  word  was 
uttered  in  that  amazing  multitude.  You  have  beheld 
an  example  of  our  power  in  the  almost  miraculous 
sobriety  of  the  people.  Their  lips  have  not  touched 
that  infuriating  beverage  to  which  they  are  so  much 
attached,  and  their  habitual  propensity  vanished  at  our 
command.  What  think  you  of  all  this?  Is  it  meet 
and  wise  to  leave  us  armed  with  such  a  dominion? 
Trust  us  not  with  it;  strip  us  of  this  appalling  des- 
potism ;  annihilate  us  by  concession ;  extinguish  us 
with  peace ;  disarray  us  by  equality ;  instead  of  angry 
slaves,  make  us  contented  citizens;  if  you  do  not, 
tremble  for  the  result."* 

*  The  sequel  of  the  Clare  Election  was  briefly  this.  In  the  interval 
between  Mr.  O'Connell's  return  and  the  meeting  of  Parliament,  on  the 
6th  February,  1829,  the  Cabinet  yielded  to  the  course  of  events,  and  the 
Catholic  Question  was  in  fact  carried.  To  avoid  embarrassing  the  Govern- 
ment, Mr.  O'Connell  waited  until  the  Relief  Bill  was  passed,  and  then 
presented  himself  to  the  House  of  Commons,  claiming  to  sit  and  vote 
under  the  provisions  of  the  new  law,  having  been  duly  elected.  He 
argued  his  own  case  with  consummate  ability  at  the  bar,  but  it  was 
decided,  on  the  motion  of  the  Solicitor-General,  that  "having  been 
returned  before  the  commencement  of  the  Act  he  was  not  entitled  to  sit 
or  vote  without  first  taking  the  oath  of  Supremacy."  The  lawyers  in 
the  House  took  different  views  of  the  question,  which  was  probably 
decided  at  least  as  much  by  party  feelings  as  by  legal  principles.  Some 
members  of  the  House,  who  were  not  lawyers,  were  for  giving  Mr. 
O'Connell  the  benefit  of  the  doubt  that  unquestionably  existed  on  the 
point  of  law.  Mr.  Wynn  suggested  a  declaratory  act  in  Mr.  O'Connell's 
favour.  But  neither  of  these  courses  was  taken.  A  new  writ  was 
ordered  for  the  county  of  Clare,  and  Mr.  O'Connell  was  again  returned 
without  opposition. 



[NOTEMBEB,   1828.] 

CATHOLIC  Associations  have  been  of  very  long  exist- 
ence. The  Confederates  of  1642  were  the  precursors  of 
the  Association  of  1828.  The  Catholics  entered  into  a 
league  for  the  assertion  of  their  civil  rights.  They 
opened  their  proceedings  in  the  City  of  Kilkenny, 
where  the  house  is  shown  in  which  their  assemblies 
were  held.  They  established  two  different  bodies  to 
represent  the  Catholic  people,  namely,  a  general  assem- 
bly, and  a  supreme  council.  The  first  included  all  the 
lords,  prelates,  and  gentry  of  the  Catholic  body;  and 
the  latter  consisted  of  a  few  select  members,  chosen  by 
the  general  assembly  out  of  the  different  provinces,  who 
acted  as  a  kind  of  executive,  and  were  recognised  as 
their  supreme  magistrates.  These  were  "the  Con- 
federates." Carte,  in  his  Life  of  Ormonde,  calls  them 
"an  Association."  He  adds,  that  the  first  result  of 
their  union  was  an  address  to  the  King,  in  which  they 
demanded  justice,  and  besought  him  "  timely  to  assign 
a  place  where  they  might  with  safety  express  their 
grievances."  On  receiving  this  address,  the  King 


issued  a  commission  under  the  great  seal,  empowering 
the  commissioners  to  treat  with  "  the  Confederates/'  to 
receive  in  writing  what  they  had  to  say  or  propound, 
and  to  transmit  it  to  his  Majesty.  This  commission 
was  dated  the  llth  of  January,  1642.  Ormonde  says, 
in  one  of  his  letters,  that  "the  Lords  Justices  used 
every  endeavour  to  prevent  the  success  of  the  com- 
mission, and  to  impede  the  pacification  of  the  country/' 
The  supreme  council  of  "  the  Confederates"  was  sitting 
at  Ross,  and  a  despatch  was  transmitted  by  the  Lords 
Justices  to  them,  in  which  the  phrase  "odious  rebellion" 
was  applied  to  their  proceedings. 

At  this  insult  they  took  fire — they  had  arms  in  their 
hands,  and  returned  an  answer,  in  which  they  stated 
"that  it  would  be  a  meanness  beyond  expression  in 
them  who  fought  in  the  condition  of  loyal  subjects,  to 
come  in  the  repute  of  rebels  to  set  down  their  grievances. 
We  take  God  to  witness,"  added  they,  "  that  there  are 
no  limits  set  to  the  scorn  and  infamy  that  arc  cast 
upon  us,  and  we  will  be  in  the  esteem  of  loyal  sub- 
jects, or  die  to  a  man  1"  A  terrible  civil  war  en- 
sued. On  the  28th  of  July,  1646,  Lord  Digby  pub- 
lished a  proclamation  of  peace  with  the  Confederates. 
The  Pope's  Nuncio,  Einuccini,  induced  the  former  to 
reject  the  terms.  The  war  raged  on.  At  length,  in 
1648,  Ormonde  concluded  a  treaty  with  them;  but 
soon  after  Cromwell  landed  in  Ireland,  and  crushed  the 
Catholics  to  the  earth. 

Thus  an  early  precedent  of  a  Catholic  Association  is 
to  be  found  at  the  distance  of  upwards  of  a  hundred 
and  eighty-six  years.  I  pass  over  the  events  of  the 
Revolution.  The  penal  code  was  enacted.  From  the 
Revolution  to  the  reign  of  George  the  Second,  the 


Catholics  were  so  depressed  and  abject,  that  they  did 
not  dare  to  petition,  and  their  very  silence  was  fre- 
quently the  subject  of  imputation,  as  affording  evidence 
of  a  discontented  and  dissatisfied  spirit.  Upon  the 
accession  of  George  the  Second,  in  1727,  Lord  Delvin, 
and  the  principal  of  the  Roman  Catholic  gentry,  pre- 
sented a  servile  address,  to  be  laid  by  the  Lord  Justices 
before  the  Throne.  They  were  in  a  condition  so  utterly 
despicable  and  degraded,  that  not  even  an  answer  was 
returned.  But  Primate  Boulter,  who  was  a  shrewd 
and  sagacious  master  of  all  the  arts  of  colonial  tyranny, 
in  a  letter  to  Lord  Carteret,  intimates  his  apprehension 
at  this  first  act  since  the  Revolution,  of  the  Catholics 
as  a  community;  and  immediately  after  they  were 
deprived  of  the  elective  franchise  by  the  1st  Geo.  II. 
ch.  9,  sec.  7. 

The  next  year  came  a  Bill  which  was  devised  by 
Primate  Boulter,  to  prevent  Roman  Catholics  from 
acting  as  solicitors.  Here  we  find,  perhaps,  the  origin 
of  the  Catholic  rent.  Several  Catholics  in  Cork  and  in 
Dublin  raised  a  subscription  to  defray  the  expense  of 
opposing  the  Bill,  and  an  apostate  priest  gave  informa- 
tion of  this  conspiracy  (for  so  it  was  called)  to  bring  in 
the  Pope  and  the  Pretender.  The  transaction  was 
referred  to  a  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons, 
who  actually  reported  that  five  pounds  had  been  col- 
lected, and  resolved  "  That  it  appeared  to  them,  that 
under  pretence  of  opposing  heads  of  bills,  sums  of 
money  had  been  collected,  and  a  fund  established  by 
the  Popish  inhabitants  of  this  kingdom,  highly  detri- 
mental to  the  Protestant  interest."  These  were  the 
first  efforts  of  the  Roman  Catholics  to  obtain  relief,  or, 
rather,  to  prevent  the  imposition  of  additional  burthens. 


They  did  not,  however,  act  through  the  medium  of  a 
.committee  or  association. 

It  was  in  the  year  1757,   upon   the   appointment 
of  the  Duke  of  Bedford  to  the  viceroyalty  of  Ireland, 
that  a  committee  was  for  the  first  time  formed,   of 
which  the  great  model,  perhaps,  was  to  be  discovered 
in  "the  Confederates"  of  1642;  and  ever  since  that 
period,  the  affairs  of  the  body  have  been  more  or  less 
conducted  through  the  medium  of   assemblies  of  a 
similar  character.     The  Committee  of  1757  may  be 
justly  accounted  the  parent  of  the  great  convention 
which  has  since  brought  its  enormous  seven  millions 
into  action.     The  members  of  the  Committee  formed  in 
that  year  were  delegated  and  actually  chosen  by  the 
people.     They  were  a  parliament  invested  with  all  the 
authority  of  representation.     Their  first  assembly  was 
held  in  a  tavern  called  "The  Globe,"  in  Essex-street, 
Dublin.     After  some  sittings,  Mr.  "VVyse,  of  Waterford, 
the  ancestor  of  the  gentleman  who  has  lately  made  so 
conspicuous  a  figure  in  Catholic  politics,  proposed  a 
plan  of  more  extended  delegation,  which  was  at  once 
adopted.     In  1759,  this  body  was  brought  into  recog- 
nition by  the  State ;  for,  upon  the  alarm  of  the  invasion 
of  Conflans,  the  Roman  Catholic  Committee  prepared  a 
loyal  address,  which  was  presented  to  John  Ponsonby, 
the  then  speaker,  by  Messrs.  Crump  and  Mac  Dermot, 
two  delegates,  to  be  transmitted  by  him  to  the  Lord 
Lieutenant.      A  gracious  answer  to  this  address  was 
returned,  and  published  in  the  Gazette.     The  Speaker 
summoned  the  two  delegates  to  the  House  of  Commons, 
and  the  address  was  then  read.     Mr.  Mac  Dermot,  in 
the  name  of  his  body,  thanked  the  Speaker  for  his  con- 


This  was  the  first  instance  in  which  the  political 
existence  of  the  Irish  Catholics  was  acknowledged, 
through  the  medium  of  their  Committee.  This  recog- 
nition, however,  was  not  followed  by  any  immediate 
relaxation  of  the  penal  code.  Twelve  years  elapsed 
before  any  legislative  measure  was  introduced  which 
indicated  a  more  favourable  disposition  towards  the 
Catholic  community,  if,  indeed,  the  llth  and  12th  of 
George  the  Third  can  be  considered  as  having  con- 
ferred any  boon  upon  that  degraded  people.  The 
statute  was  entitled  "An  Act  for  the  reclaiming  of 
unprofitable  bogs/'  and  it  enabled  Papists  to  take  fifty 
acres  of  unprofitable  bog  for  sixty-one  years,  with  half 
an  acre  of  arable  land  adjoining,  provided  that  it  should 
not  be  within  one  mile  of  a  town. 

The  provisions  of  this  Act  of  Parliament  indicate  to 
what  a  low  condition  the  great  mass  of  the  population 
had  been  reduced,  and  illustrate  the  justice  of  Swift's 
remark,  that  the  Papists  had  become  mere  hewers  of 
wood  and  drawers  of  water.  However,  the  first  step 
was  taken  in  the  progress  of  concession ;  and  every  day 
the  might  of  numbers,  even  destitute  of  all  territorial 
possession,  pressed  more  and  more  upon  the  Govern- 
ment. The  Catholic  Committee  pursued  its  course, 
and  in  1777  extorted  the  first  important  relaxation ;  for 
they  acquired  the  right  of  taking  leases  for  nine  hun- 
dred and  ninety-nine  years,  and  their  landed  property 
was  made  descendible  and  deviseable,  in  the  same 
manner  as  Protestant  estates.  In  1782,  the  difficulties 
of  the  Government  augmented,  and  the  Catholic  Com- 
mittee pressed  the  consideration  of  their  claims  upon 
the  ministry.  By  the  21st  and  22nd  of  George  the 
Third,  Papists  were  enabled  to  purchase  and  dispose  of 

VOL.    II.  M 


landed  property,  and  were  placed,  in  that  respect,  upon 
an  equality  with  Protestants.  Thus  they  were  rashly 
left  beyond  the  state,  but  were  furnished  with  that 
point  from  which  the  engine  of  their  power,  has  been 
since  wielded  against  it. 

From  1782  until  1793,  no  farther  concessions  were 
made;  but  the  Catholics  increased  in  power,  until,  in 
1792,  their  Committee  assumed  a  formidable  aspect. 
Theobald  Wolfe  Tone,  in  his  Memoirs,  gives  the  fol- 
lowing account  of  what  may  be  termed  the  Association 
of  that  period: — "The  General  Committee  of  the 
Catholics,  which,  since  the  year  1782,  has  made  a  dis- 
tinguished figure  in  the  politics  of  Ireland,  was  a  body 
composed  of  their  bishops,  their  country  gentlemen, 
and  of  a  certain  number  of  merchants  and  traders,  all 
resident  in  Dublin,  but  named  by  the  Catholics  in  the 
different  towns  corporate  to  represent  them.  The  ori- 
ginal object  of  this  institution  was  to  obtain  the  repeal 
of  a  partial  and  oppressive  tax  called  Quarterage,  which 
was  levied  on  the  Catholics  only ;  aud  the  Government, 
which  found  the  Committee  at  first  a  convenient  instru- 
ment on  some  occasions,  connived  at  their  existence. 

"  So  degraded  was  the  Catholic  mind  at  the  period  of 
the  formation  of  their  Committee,  and  long  after,  that 
they  were  happy  to  be  allowed  to  go  up  to  the  Castle 
with  an  abominable  slavish  address  to  each  successive 
Viceroy ;  of  which,  moreover,  until  the  accession  of 
the  Duke  of  Portland  in  1782,  so  little  notice  Avas 
taken,  that  his  grace  was  the  first  who  condescended  to 
give  them  an  answer  (N.  B.  this  is  a  mistake) ;  and, 
indeed,  for  above  twenty  years,  the  sole  business  of  the 
General  Committee  was  to  prepare  and  deliver  in  those 
records  of  their  depression.  The  effort  which  an  honest 


indignation  had  called  forth  at  the  time  of  the  Volun- 
teer Convention  of  1783,  seemed  to  have  exhausted 
their  strength,  and  they  sunk  back  into  their  primitive 
nullity.  Under  this  appearance  of  apathy,  however,, 
a  new  spirit  was  gradually  arising  in  the  body,  owing 
principally  to  the  exertions  and  the  example  of  one 
man,  John  Keogh,  to  whose  services  his  country,  and 
more  especially  the  Catholics,  are  singularly  indebted. 
In  fact,  the  downfal  of  feudal  tyranny  was  acted  in 
little  on  the  theatre  of  the  General  Committee,  The 
influence  of  their  clergy  and  of  their  barons  was  gra- 
dually undermined ;  and  the  third  estate,  the  com- 
mercial interest,  rising  in  wealth  and  power,  was 
preparing  by  degrees  to  throw  off  the  yoke,  in  the 
imposing,  or  at  least  continuing  of  which,  the  leaders 
of  the  body,  I  mean  the  prelates  and  the  aristocracy, 
to  their  disgrace  be  it  spoken,  were  ready  to  concur. 
Already  had  those  leaders,  acting  in  obedience  to  the 
orders  of  the  Government,  which  held  them  in  fetters, 
suffered  one  or  two  signal  defeats  in  the  Committee, 
owing  principally  to  the  talents  and  address  of  John 
Keogh ;  the  parties  began  to  be  denned,  and  a  sturdy 
democracy  of  new  men,  with  bolder  views  and  stronger 
talents,  soon  superseded  the  timid  counsels  and  slavish 
measures  of  the  ancient  aristocracy." 

Until  John  Keogh  appeared  amongst  them,  and 
asserted  that  superiority  in  public  assemblies  which 
genius  and  enterprise  will  always  obtain  over  the 
sluggish  pride  of  inert  and  apathetic  rank,  the  pro- 
ceedings of  the  Committee  had  been,  as  Tone  here 
intimates,  under  the  control  of  the  Catholic  aristocracy. 
They  were  the  sons  of  men  who  had  lived  in  the  period 
of  utter  Catholic  degradation ;  and  many  of  them  re- 
al 2 


membered  the  time  -when  the  privileges  of  a  gentleman 
were  denied  to  a  Catholic  nobleman,  and  a  Popish  peer 
was  not  allowed  to  wear  a  sword  !  They  had  contrived 
to  retain  their  properties  by  expedients  which  \vcre 
calculated  to  debase  their  political  spirit ;  and  it  is  not 
very  wonderful  that  even  when  the  period  had  arrived 
when  they  might  hold  themselves  erect,  they  did  not 
immediately  divest  themselves  of  that  stoop,  which  the 
long  habit  of  bearing  burthens  had  of  necessity  given. 
Accordingly,  they  opposed  the  measures  of  a  bold  and 
adventurous  character,  which  the  plebeian  members  of 
the  Committee  had  suggested ;  and  at  last  adopted  the 
preposterous  expedient  of  seceding  from  the  body. 

Wolfe  Tone,  who  was  secretary  to  the  Committee, 
and  whose  evidence  is  of  great  value,  gives  the  following 
account  of  this  incident: — "The  Catholics,"  he  says, 
' '  were  rapidly  advancing  in  political  spirit  and  informa- 
tion. Every  month,  every  day,  as  the  Revolution  in 
France  went  prosperously  forward,  added  to  their  cou- 
rage and  their  force,  and  the  hour  seemed  at  last 
arrived  when,  after  a  dreary  oppression  of  above  one- 
hundred  years,  they  were  once  more  to  appear  in  the 
political  theatre  of  their  country.  They  saw  the  bril- 
liant prospect  of  success,  which  events  in  France  opened 
to  their  view,  and  they  determined  to  avail  themselves 
with  promptitude  of  that  opportunity  which  never 
returns  to  those  who  omit  it.  For  this  the  active 
members  of  the  General  Committee  resolved  to  set  on 
foot  an  immediate  application  to  Parliament,  praying 
or  a  repeal  of  the  penal  laws.  The  first  difficulty  they 
had  to  surmount  arose  in  their  own  body ;  their  peers, 
their  gentry,  as  they  affected  to  call  themselves,  and 
heir  prelates,  either  reduced  or  intimidated  by  Govern- 


ment,  gave  the  measure  all  possible  opposition;  and, 
at  length,  after  a  long  contest,  in  which  both  parties 
strained  every  nerve,  and  produced  the  whole  of  their 
strength,  the  question  was  decided  on  a  division  in  the 
Committee,  by  a  majority  of  at  least  six  to  one,  in 
favour  of  the  intended  application. 

"  The  triumph  of  the  young  democracy  was  complete ; 
but,  though  the  aristocracy  was  defeated,  they  Avere 
not  yet  entirely  broken  down.  By  the  instigation  of 
Government,  they  had  the  meanness  to  secede  from  the 
General  Committee,  to  disown  their  acts,  and  even  to 
publish  in  the  papers,  that  they  did  not  wish  to  embar- 
rass the  Government,  by  advancing  their  claims  of 
emancipation.  It  is  difficult  to  conceive  such  a  degree 
of  political  degradation.  But  what  will  not  the  tyranny 
of  an  execrable  system  produce  in  time  ?  Sixty-eight 
gentlemen,  individually  of  high  spirit,  were  found,  who 
publicly,  and  in  a  body,  deserted  their  party,  and  their 
own  just  claims,  and  even  sanctioned  this  pitiful  deser- 
tion by  the  authority  of  their  signatures.  Such  an 
effect  had  the  operation  of  the  penal  laws  on  the  Catho- 
lics of  Ireland,  as  proud  a  race  as  any  in  all  Europe  \" 

The  secession  of  the  aristocracy  did  not  materially 
enfeeble  the  people.  New  exertions  were  made  by  the 
democracy.  A  plan  of  more  general  and  faithful  repre- 
sentation was  devised  by  Mr.  M'Keon,  which  converted 
the  Committee  into  a  complete  Catholic  parliament. 
Members  were  elected  for  every  county  in  Ireland,  and 
regularly  came  to  Dublin  to  attend  the  meetings  of  this 
extraordinary  convention.  At  the  head  of  this  assembly 
was  the  individual  of  whom  Wolfe  Tone  makes  such 
honourable  mention,  John  Keogh. 

He  was,  in  the  years  1792  and  1793,  the  unrivalled 


leader  of  the  Catholic  body.  He  belonged  to  the 
middle  class  of  life,  and  kept  a  silk  mercer's  shop  in 
Parliament  Street,  where  he  had  accumulated  consider- 
able wealth.  His  education  had  corresponded  with  his 
original  rank,  and  he  was  without  the  graces  and 
refinements  of  literature;  but  he  had  a  vigorous  and 
energetic  mind,  a  great  command  of  pure  diction,  a 
striking  and  simple  earnestness  of  manner,  great  powers 
of  elucidation,  singular  dexterity,  and  an  ardent,  in- 
trepid, and  untameable  energy  of  character.  His  figure 
was  rather  upon  a  small  scale ;  but  he  had  great  force 
of  countenance,  an  eye  of  peculiar  brilliancy,  and  an 
expression  in  which  vehement  feelings  and  the  delibe- 
rative faculties  were  combined.  He  was  without  a 
competitor  in  the  arts  of  debate;  occasionally  more 
eloquent  speeches  were  delivered  in  the  Catholic  con- 
vention, but  John  Keogh  was  sure  to  carry  the  measure 
which  he  had  proposed,  however  encountered  with 
apparently  superior  powers  of  declamation.* 

*  As  a  proof  of  the  political  sagacity  of  this  eminent  Catholic  leader, 
it  is  worth  mentioning  that,  after  his  retirement  from  public  lift1,  In- 
frequently expressed  a  strong  opinion  that  the  Catholics  would  never 
be  emancipated  until  -a  Catholic  should  be  returned  to  Parliament :  as 
Mr.  O'Connell  was,  many  years  afterwards,  at  the  great  Clare  election. 
The  reason  Mr.  Keogh  used  to  give  for  this  opinion  was,  that  such  an 
event  would  tend  powerftilly  to  moderate  the  anti-Catholic  feelings  of 
the  English  people,  by  bringing  into  play  their  equally  characteristic 
jealousy  of  the  constitutional  privileges  of  the  subject.  At  all  events,  as  a 
political  prediction,  the  fact  is  curious,  and  deserves  to  be  recorded.  The 
Editor  is  indebted  for  it  to  Mr.  P.  Vincent  Fitzpatrick,  who,  when 
a  young  man,  had  frequently  seen  Mr.  Keogh  in  his  retirement,  and 
heard  him  inculcate  what  he  considered  the  secret  of  Catholic  success, 
When  the  occasion  arose,  in  1828,  Mr.  Fitzpatrick  pressed  the  authority 
of  Keogh  earnestly  upon  Mr.  O'Connell,  who  was  slow  to  perceive  the 
importance  of  the  step,  although  when  induced  to  take  it,  he  displayed 
his  customary  vigour  and  enthusiasm. 


Wolfe  Tone  has  greatly  praised  him  in  several 
passages  of  his  work ;  but  there  are  occasional  remarks 
in  the  diary  which  was  kept  by  that  singular  person, 
when  secretary  to  the  Catholic  Committee,  in  which 
statements  unfavourable  to  John  Keogh  are  expressed. 
This  diary  was  never  intended  for  publication,  and  is 
written  in  a  very  easy  and  familiar  style.  He  calls  John 
Keogh  by  the  name  of  "  Gog,"  and  represents  him  as 
exceedingly  subtle,  dexterous  and  cunning,  and  anxious 
to  such  an  extent  to  do  everything  himself,  as  to  oppose 
good  measures  when  they  were  suggested  by  others. 
He  might  have  had  this  fault,  but  as  Wolfe  Tone  wrote 
down  the  ephemeral  impressions  which  were  made  upon 
him  by  occasional  incidents  in  his  journal,  it  is  more 
reasonable  to  look  at  the  general  result  of  the  observa- 
tions on  this  able  man,  which  are  to  be  found  in  his 
autobiography,  than  to  the  remarks  which  were  com- 
mitted every  day  to  his  tablets.  As  secretary  to  the 
Catholics,  he  was  himself  liable  to  be  sometimes 
thwarted  by  Mr.  Keogh ;  and  it  is  likely  that,  under 
the  influence  of  some  small  annoyances,  he  has  set 
down  in  his  journal  some  strictures  upon  his  friend. 

Afterwards,  however,  when  Wolfe  Tone  was  in  France, 
he  reverts  in  the  diary,  subsequently  kept  by  him,  to 
John  Keogh,  and,  when  far  away,  voluntarily  writes  a 
high  encomium  upon  the  leader  of  the  Irish  Catholics. 
It  is  to  be  collected  from  his  work,  that  John  Keogh 
had  a  deep  hostility  to  England,  and  that  he  was  dis- 
posed to  favour  the  enterprise  of  Wolfe  Tone.  How- 
ever, he  did  not  in  Ireland,  escape  the  usual  charges  of 
corruption.  In  the  year  1793,  he  negotiated  with  the 
Minister  the  terms  upon  which  the  partial  emancipa- 
tion, which  was  then  granted  to  the  Catholics,  was  to 


be  conceded.  Whenever  a  leader  of  the  people  is 
brought  into  contact  with  authority,  he  will  incur 
injurious  surmises,  should  the  result  not  correspond 
with  popular  expectation.  It  was  said,  that  had  John 
Keogh  insisted  upon  complete  emancipation,  everything 
would,  in  that  moment  of  emergency,  have  been  ob- 
tained. It  was  insinuated,  and  for  a  long  time  believed, 
that  he  received  a  large  sum  of  money  as  a  remunera- 
tion for  his  complaisance ;  but  there  is  no  sort  of  proof 
that  he  sold  his  country,  and  his  opulence  should,  by 
generous  men,  who  are  slow  to  believe  in  the  degrada- 
tion of  human  nature,  be  rather  referred  to  his  honour- 
able industry  in  his  trade,  than  to  any  barter  of  the 
liberties  of  Ireland  It  is  difficult  to  determine  whether, 
if  the  Catholics  had  been  peremptory  in  their  requisi- 
tion for  equality,  they  could  have  forced  the  Minister 
to  yield.  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  they  would  have 
encountered  obstacles  in  the  mind  of  the  late  King, 
which  could  not  have  been  overcome ;  and  it  must  be 
acknowledged,  that  for  what  was  obtained  (and  that 
was  much),  his  country  is  principally  indebted  to  Mr. 
Keogh,  and  to  the  Committee  of  which  he  was  the 

In  1793  the  elective  franchise  was  obtained.  The 
seed  was  then  cast,  of  which  we  have  seen  the  fruits  in 
the  elections  of  "Waterford,  and  Louth,  and  Clare. 

*  Mr.  Charles  Butler  observes  in  his  "Reminiscences,  that  when  dele- 
gates from  Ireland  were  appointed  to  negotiate  with  Mr.  Pitt,  in  1793, 
"Mr.  Keogh  was  the  soul  of  the  delegation;  he  possessed  a  complete 
knowledge  of  the  subject;  uncommon  strength  of  understanding,  firm- 
ness, and  a  solemn  imposing  manner,  with  an  appearance  of  great 
humility."  Mr.  Butler  then  relates  a  remarkable  interview  which 
Keogh  and  the  other  delegates  had  with  Mr.  Dundas  (afterwards 
Lord  Melville)  and  other  members  of  the  Government.  There  u;is 


Great  joy  prevailed  through  the  Catholic  body,  who 
felt  that  they  had  now  gained,  for  the  first  time,  a 
footing  in  the  state,  and  were  armed  with  the  power,  if 
not  of  bursting  open,  of  at  least  knocking  loudly  at 
the  gates  of  the  constitution.  For  some  time  the 
question  lay  at  rest.  The  rebellion  then  broke  out — 
the  Union  succeeded — and  the  Catholic  cause  was 
forgotten.  It  was  not  even  debated  in  the  British 
House  of  Commons  until  the  year  1805,  when  the 
measure  was  lost  by  an  immense  majority. 

John  Keogh  being  advanced  in  life,  had  retired,  in  a 
great  degree,  from  public  proceedings,  and  confined 
himself  to  his  residence  at  Mount  Jerome,  in  the  vicinity 
of  Dublin.  He  had  been  previously  defeated  in  a 
public  assembly  by  a  young  barrister,  who  had  begun 
to  make  a  figure  at  the  Bar,  to  which  he  was  called  in 
the  year  1798,  and  who,  the  moment  he  took  a  part  in 
politics,  made  a  commanding  impression.  This  barrister 
was  Daniel  O'Connell,  who,  in  overthrowing  the  previous 
leader  of  the  body  upon  a  question  connected  with  the 

a  long  conference  and  then  ensued  a  short  silence,  which  was  broken 
by  Mr.  Keogh,  who  addressed  Mr.  Dundas  and  said,  "  There  was  one 
thing  which  it  was  essential  that  he  should  know,  and  of  which  he 
(Mr.  Dundas)  had  not  the  slightest  conception.  It  was  extraordinary 
that  a  person  of  Mr.  Dundas's  high  station  and  his  humble  lot  should  be 
in  the  same  room,  yet  since  it  had  so  happened,  he  wished  to  avail  him- 
self of  the  opportunity  of  making  the  disclosure,  but  could  not  think  of 
doing  so  without  Mr.  Dundas's  permission  and  promise  not  to  be 
offended."  The  promise  was  given,  and  then  Keogh  said,  "  You,  Mr. 
Dundas,  know  nothing  of  Ireland."  Mr.  Dundas  was  surprised,  but 
good  humouredly  said  he  believed  Mr.  Keogh  was  mistaken  there ;  for 
though  he  had  never  been  in  Ireland,  he  had  conversed  with  many 
Irishmen j  "I  have  drunk  many  a  good  bottle  of  wine,"  he  added, 
"  with  Lord  Hillsborough,  Lord  Clare,  and  the  Beresfords."  "  Yes,  Sir," 
said  Keogh,  "  I  believe  you  have ;  you  drank  many  a  good  bottle  of 
wine  with  them  before  you  went  to  war  with  America." 


propriety  of  persevering  to  petition  the  legislature,  gave 
proof  of  the  extraordinary  abilities  which  have  been 
since  so  successfully  developed.  Mr.  Keogh  was 
mortified,  but  his  infirmities,  without  reference  to  any 
pain  which  he  might  have  suffered,  were  a  sufficient 
inducement  to  retire  from  the  stage  where  he  had 
long  performed  the  principal  character  with  such 
just  applause. 

Mr.  O'Connell  was,  however,  too  deeply  engaged  in 
his  professional  pursuits  to  dedicate  as  much  of  his 
attention  and  of  his  time,  as  he  has  since  bestowed,  to 
political  concerns;  and,  indeed,  the  writer  of  this 
article  remembers  the  time,  when  his  power  of  public 
speaking,  and  of  influencing  popular  assemblies,  was  by 
no  means  so  great  as  it  has  since  become.  The  fortune 
with  which  he  came  to  the  Bar  (for  his  father  and 
uncle  were  then  alive)  was  not  considerable,  and  it 
was  of  more  importance  to  him  to  accumulate  legal 
knowledge  and  pecuniary  resources  than  to  obtain  a 
very  shining  political  name.  So  much  has  been  already 
written  with  respect  to  this  eminent  individual,  and  the 
public  are  so  well  acquainted  with-  the  character  of  his 
mind  and  talents,  that  it  is  not  necessary  to  expatiate 
upon  them. 

Another  person  appeared  after  the  secession  of 
John  Keogh,  of  very  great  abilities,  with  whose  name 
the  English  public  have  been  less  familiar.  Mr.  Dennis 
Scully,  the  eldest  son  of  a  gentleman  of  large  property 
in  the  county  of  Tipperary,  and  who  had  been  called  to 
the  Bar,  obtained  by  his  admirable  writings  an  influence 
almost  equal  to  that  of  Mr.  O'Connell  in  the  Catholic 
Committee,  which  was  revived  in  all  its  vigour,  and 
became  the  object  of  Mr.  Saurin's  prosecutions  in  1811. 
Mr.  Scully  had,  upon  his  entrance  into  public  life, 


written  some  pamphlets  in  support  of  Government,  and 
it  was  believed  that  his  marriage  to  a  lady,  who  was 
related  to  Lady  Hardwicke,  had  given  a  determination 
to  his  opinions.  When  Lord  Hardwicke  was  in 
Ireland,  Mr.  Scully  was  a  good  deal  sought  for  at  the 
Castle.  His  first  writings,  however,  were  mere  juvenile 
effusions,  and  he  afterwards  felt  that  the  only  means  of 
obtaining  justice  for  Ireland,  was  by  awakening  a  deep 
sense  of  their  injuries  among  the  great  mass  of  the 
people.  Accordingly  the  character  of  his  compositions 
was  materially  changed ;  and  from  his  study  in  Merrion 
Square  there  issued  a  succession  of  powerful  and 
inflammatory  writings.*  A  newspaper,  of  which  Mr. 
JEneas  Mac  Donnel  was  named  the  editor,  was  estab- 
lished by  Mr.  O'Connell  and  Mr.  Scully;  and  both 
those  gentlemen,  but  especially  the  latter,  contributed 
their  money  and  their  talents  to  its  support.  The 
wrongs  of  the  country  were  presented  in  the  most 
striking  view ;  and  while  the  Government  looked  with 
alarm  on  these  eloquent  and  virulent  expositions  of  the 
condition  of  the  people,  the  people  were  excited  to  a 
point  of  discontent,  to  which  they  had  never  before 
been  raised. 

*  It  is  to  be  remembered  that  (although  Mr.  Pitt  was  then  Minister) 
the  Irish  Government  of  Lord  Hardwicke  was  neither  illiberal  nor  anti- 
catholic.  Both  Mr.  Plnnket  and  Mr.  Bushe  held  office  nnder  it.  Mr. 
Scully's  support,  therefore,  of  Lord  Hardwicke  was  by  no  means  (as 
might  be  inferred  from  the  remarks  in  the  text)  inconsistent  with  his 
strenuous  opposition  to  the  Government  of  the  Duke  of  Richmond  and 
Mr.  Saurin.  Mr.  Scully  was  a  decided  enemy  to  French  or  revolutionary 
principles,  and  the  object  of  his  early  writings  was  chiefly  to  dissuade  his 
Roman  Catholic  countrymen  from  looking  to  France  for  aid  in  their 
domestic  struggles.  Upon  this  ground  an  Irish  Roman  Catholic  might 
have  supported  the  Government  in  1803  without  any  compromiie  of  his 


Mr.  Scully  gained  great  influence  over  the  public 
mind  by  these  services.  His  work  upon  the  penal  code, 
which  is  an  admirable  digest  of  the  laws,  and  of  their 
results,  set  a  crown  upon  his  reputation.  No  book  so 
able,  so  convincing,  and  uniting  so  much  philosophy 
with  so  much  eloquence,  had  yet  appeared.  It  brought 
the  whole  extent  of  Catholic  suffering  at  once  under 
view,  and  condensed  and  concentrated  the  evils  of  the 
country.  This  work  created  an  unprecedented  impres- 
sion, and  gave  to  its  author  an  ascendancy  in  the  councils 
of  the  Catholic  Committee.  He  was  greatly  inferior  to 
Mr.  O'Connell  as  a  speaker,  but  was  considered  fully 
as  able  in  preliminary  deliberation.  The  measures  of 
the  body  were  generally  believed  to  be  of  his  suggestion, 
and  it  was  said  that  he  had  gained  a  paramount 
influence  over  Mr.  O'Connell  himself.  "  The  witchery 
resolutions,"  as  they  are  generally  designated,  for  they 
related  to  the  influence  of  an  enchantress  of  fifty  over 
the  King,  were  supposed  to  be  his  composition,  and  it 
was  alleged  that  he  omitted  no  efforts,  in  conjunction 
with  the  late  Lord  Donoughmore,  to  cause  them  to  be 
carried.  The  resolutions  passed  at  the  "  Black  Abbey" 
at  Kilkenny,  were  also  framed  by  Mr.  Scully,  who 
narrowly  escaped  incarceration  for  his  lucubrations. 
Mr.  John  Magee,  the  proprietor  of  the  Evening  Post, 
and  Mr.  Fitzpatrick,  were  imprisoned  for  his  sins ;  but 
I  have  always  understood  that  Mr.  Scully  made  them  a 
compensation  for  their  sufferings  on  his  account.*  He 

*  Mr.  Magee,  the  proprietor  of  the  Dublin  Evening  Post,  was  prose- 
cuted and  suffered  imprisonment  for  the  publication  of  what  were  called 
the  "Black  Abbey  Resolutions;"  but  whether  these  resolutions  were 
drawn  by  Mr.  Scully,  or  not,  it  is  obvious  that  he  was  not  more  respon- 
sible for  them  than  any  other  person  who  took  a  part  in  the  proceedings 
of  the  meeting.  It  is  rather  too  much,  therefore,  to  say  that  Mr.  Magee 


became  an  object  of  great  detestation  "with  the  Protes- 
tant party,  and  of  corresponding  partiality  with  Ms 
own.  But  in  the  height  of  his  political  influence  the 
death  of  his  father,  and  a  domestic  lawsuit,  which 
ingrossed  all  his  mind,  induced  him  to  retire  in  a  great 
measure  from  public  life ;  and  afterwards  the  decay  of 
health  prevented  him  from  taking  any  part  in  the 
proceedings  of  the  body. 

The  Catholics  have  sustained  a  great  loss  in  him. 
His  large  property,  his  indefatigable  industry,  his 
profound  sense  of  the  injustice  which  his  country  had 
suffered,  and  the  eloquent  simplicity  with  which  he 
gave  it  expression,  rendered  him  adequate  to  the  part 
which  had  devolved  upon  him.  His  manner  and  aspect 
were  in  singular  contrast  and  opposition  to  his  political 
tendencies.  In  utterance  he  was  remarkably  slow  and 
deliberate,  and  wanted  energy  and  fire.  His  cadences 
were  singularly  monotonous,  every  sentence  ending 
with  a  sort  of  see-saw  of  the  voice,  which  was  by  no 
means  natural  or  agreeable.  His  gesture  was  plain 
and  unaffected,  and  it  was  easier  to  discover  his  emotions 
by  the  trembling  of  his  fingers  than  by  his  countenance. 
For  his  hand  would,  under  the  influence  of  strong 

was  imprisoned  for  what  are  playfully  called  Mr.  Scully's  "  sins."  With 
respect  to  Mr.  Fitzpatrick  the  case  is  different.  He  was  prosecuted,  as 
publisher,  for  reflections  on  the  Government  contained  in  Mr.  Scully's 
book  on  the  Penal  Laws,  which  Mr.  Shcil  has  so  highly  and  so  justly 
eulogized.  The  prosecution  was  one  of  the  numerous  vindictive  proceed- 
ings of  the  worst  days  of  Irish  misgovernment — the  autocracy  of  Mr. 
Saurin,  when  the  administration  of  justice  was  notoriously  a  mockery. 
The  author  paid  the  heavy  fine  that  was  imposed  upon  the  publisher, 
and  though  Mr.  Fitzpatrick  (a  man  of  learning  and  considerable  political 
importance)  was  also  imprisoned,  that  portion  of  his  sentence  caused  no 
interruption  of  his  friendship  with  Mr.  Scully. 


feeling  or  passion,  shake  and  quiver  like  an  aspen  leaf, 
while  his  countenance  looked  like  marble.  It  was 
impossible  to  detect  his  sensations  in  his  features.  A 
deep  smile  played  over  his  mouth,  whether  he  was 
indulging  in  mirthful,  in  pleasurable,  or  sarcastic 
observation.  He  had  some  resemblance  to  Bonaparte, 
in  figure,  when  the  latter  grew  round  and  corpulent, 
but  was  more  unwieldy.  I  have  often  thought,  too, 
that  in  his  massive  and  meditative  features,  I  could 
trace  an  imperial  likeness. 

It  was  about  sixteen  or  seventeen  years  ago  that  this 
gentleman  made  so  distinguished  a  figure  in  the 
Catholic  Committee.  There  were  many  others  who, 
at  that  time,  took  an  active  share  in  Catholic  politics, 
and  who  are  since  either  dead,  or  have  retreated  from 
publicity.  The  late  Lord  French  was  among  the 
most  remarkable.  He  was  a  very  tall,  brawny,  pallid, 
and  ghastly  looking  man,  with  a  peculiarly  revolutionary 
aspect,  and  realized  the  ideal  notions  which  one  forms 
of  the  men  who  are  most  likely  to  become  formidable 
and  conspicuous  in  the  midst  of  a  political  convulsion. 
He  had  a  long  and  oval  visage,  of  Avhich  the  eyebrows 
were  thick  and  shaggy,  and  whose  aquiline  nose  stood 
out  in  peculiar  prominence,  while  a  fierce  smile  sat 
upon  cheeks  as  white  as  parchment,  and  his  eyes  glared 
with  the  spirit  that  sat  within  them.  His  manners 
were  characterized  by  a  sort  of  drawling  urbanity, 
which  is  observable  among  the  ancient  Catholic  gentry 
of  Connaught;  and  he  was  studiously  and  sometimes 
painfully  polite.  He  was  not  a  scholar,  and  must  have 
received  an  imperfect  education.  But  his  mind  was 
originally  a  powerful  one,  and  his  deep  voice,  which 
rolled  out  in  a  peculiarly  melancholy  modification  of 


the  Irish  brogue,  had  a  dismal  and  appalling  sound. 
He  spoke  with  fluency  a  diction  which  belonged  exclu- 
sively to  him.  It  was  pregnant  with  vigorous  but 
strange  expression,  which  was  illustrated  by  gesture  as 
bold,  but  as  wild.  He  was  an  ostentatious  duellist, 
and  had  frequent  recourse  to  gladiatorial  intimations. 
Pride  was  his  leading  trait  of  character,  and  he  fell  a 
victim  to  it.  He  had  connected  himself  with  a  bank 
in  Dublin,  and  having  become  bankrupt,  rather  than 
brook  the  examination  of  the  commissioners  at  the 
Exchange,  he  put  himself,  in  a  paroxysm  of  insanity,  to 
death.  I  thought  him,  with  all  his  defects,  a  lover  of 
his  country. 

It  would  be  difficult  to  imagine  two  persons  more 
strongly  opposite  in  character  and  in  manner  than  Lord 
French,  and  the  Premier  Catholic  nobleman  the  Earl 
of  Fiiigal.  He  has  since  left  to  his  able  and  intelligent 
son  the  office  which  he  so  long  and  usefully  filled,  as 
head  of  the  Catholic  body;  but,  about  the  period  of 
which  I  am  speaking,  he  was  the  chief,  in  point  of 
rank,  of  the  Irish  Catholics,  and  presided  at  their 
meetings.  Lord  Fingal  is  one  of  the  most  amiable  and 
kind  men,  whom  it  has  been  my  good  fortune  to  have 
been  ever  acquainted  with.  Without  the  least  shadow 
of  arrogance,  and  although  incapable  of  hurting  the 
feelings  of  any  man,  he  still  preserves  his  patrician 
dignity  unimpaired,  and  commands  the  respect,  as  well 
as  the  partiality,  of  every  one  who  approaches  him. 
Although  not  equal  to  his  son  in  intellectual  power,  he 
has  excellent  sense  and  admirable  discretion.  He  has 
made  few  or  no  mistakes  in  public  life,  and  very  often, 
by  his  coolness  and  discretion,  has  prevented  the 
adoption  of  rash  and  injudicious  measures.  His 


manners  are  disarming;  and  I  have  understood  upon 
good  authority,  that  when  in  London,  where  he  used 
almost  annually  to  go,  as  head  of  the  Catholic  body,  he 
has  mitigated,  by  the  charm  of  his  converse,  the 
hostility  of  some  of  his  most  rancorous  political 
opponents.  As  a  speaker,  he  is  without  much  ability ; 
but  there  is  a  gentleness  and  a  grace  about  him  which 
supply  the  place  of  eloquence,  and  render  his  audience 
so  favourable  to  him,  that  he  has  often  succeeded  in 
persuading,  where  others  of  greater  faculty  might  have 
employed  the  resources  of  oratory  in  vain. 

An  individual,  who  is  now  dead,  abut  this  time  made 
a  great  sensation,  not  only  in  the  Catholic  Association, 
but  through  the  empire.  This  was  the  once  famous 
Doctor  Drumgoole,  whom  Lord  Kenyon  seems  deter- 
mined not  to  allow  to  remain  in  peace.  He  was  the 
grand  anti-vetoist,  and  was,  I  believe,  a  most  sincere 
and  unaffected  sentinel  of  religion.  He  kept  watch 
over  the  Catholic  hierarchy,  and  took  the  whole  body 
of  the  clergy  under  his  vigilant  protection.  It  was, 
however,  a  speech  which  he  delivered  at  the  Shakspeare 
Gallery  in  Exchequer- street,  at  a  Catholic  meeting, 
that  tended  chiefly  to  give  him  notoriety.  He  assailed 
the  tenets  of  the  established  religion  with  a  good  deal 
of  that  sort  of  candour,  which  Protestants  at  that 
period  regarded  as  the  height  of  presumption,  but 
which  is  now  surpassed  every  day  by  the  harangues  of 
the  orators  of  the  Catholic  Association. 

The  Doctor's  speech  may  be  considered  as  a  kind  of 
epoch  in  Catholic  politics;  for  he  was  the  first  who 
ventured  to  employ  against  the  opponents  of  emancipa- 
tion the  weapons  which  are  habitually  used  against  the 
professors  of  the  Roman  Catholic  religion.  Men  who 


swear  that  the  creed  of  the  great  majority  of  Christians 
is  idolatrous  and  superstitious,  should  not  be  very 
sensitive  when  their  controversial  virulence  is  turned 
upon  them.  The  moment  Doctor  Drumgoole's 
philippic  on  the  Reformation  appeared,  a  great  out- 
cry took  place,  and  Roman  Catholics  were  not  wanting 
to  modify  and  explain  away  the  Doctor's  scholastic 
vituperation.  He  himself,  however,  was  fixed  and 
stubborn  as  the  rock  on  which  he  believed  that  his 
doctrines  were  built.  No  kind  of  apology  could  be 
extorted  from  him.  He  was,  indeed,  a  man  of  a 
peculiarly  stubborn  and  inflexible  cast  of  mind.  It 
must,  however,  be  admitted,  that  for  every  position 
which  he  advanced,  he  was  able  to  adduce  very  strong 
and  cogent  reasoning.  He  was  a  physician  by  pro- 
fession, but  in  practice  and  in  predilection  he  was  a 
theologian  of  the  most  uncompromising  sort.  He  had 
a  small  fortune,  which  rendered  him  independent  of 
patients,  and  he  addicted  himself,  strenuously  and 
exclusively,  to  the  study  of  the  scholastic  arts. 

He  was  beyond  doubt  a  very  well-informed  and  a 
clever  man.  He  had  a  great  command  of  speech,  and  yet 
was  not  a  pleasing  speaker.  He  was  slow,  monotonous, 
and  invariable.  His  countenance  was  full  of  medical 
and  theological  solemnity,  and  he  was  wont  to  carry  a 
huge  stick  with  a  golden  head,  on  which  he  used  to 
press  both  his  hands  in  speaking;  and  indeed,  from  the 
manner  in  which  he  swayed  his  body,  and  knocked  his 
stick  at  the  end  of  every  period  to  the  ground,  which  he 
accompanied  with  a  species  of  strange  and  guttural 
"  hem ! "  he  seemed  to  me  a  kind  of  rhetorical  paviour, 
who  was  busily  engaged  in  making  the  great  road  of 
liberty,  and  paving  the  way  to  emancipation.  The 

VOL.  n.  N 


Doctor  was  in  private  life  a  very  good  and  gentle- 
natured  man.  You  could  not  stir  the  placidity  of  his 
temper,  unless  you  touched  upon  the  Veto ;  and  upon 
that  point  he  was  scarcely  master  of  himself. 

I  remember  well,  years  after  all  discussion  upon  the 
subject  had  subsided,  when  I  was  in  Paris,  on  a  visit  at 
the  house  of  a  friend  of  the  Doctor's  and  my  own,  he 
suddenly  walked  in,  just  after  his  arrival  from  Rome. 
I  had  not  seen  him  for  a  considerable  time,  but  I  had 
scarcely  asked  him  how  he  was,  when  he  reverted  to 
the  Veto;  and  a  debate  (it  was  in  the  year  1819)  was 
immediately  opened  on  the  subject.  Some  Irish 
gentlemen  dropped  casually  in;  they  all  took  their 
share  in  the  argument.  The  eloquence  of  the  different 
disputants  became  inflamed :  the  windows  towards  the 
street  had  been  left  unhappily  open;  a  crowd  of 
Frenchmen  collected  outside,  and  the  other  inhabitants 
of  the  house  gathered  at  the  doors  to  hear  the  dis- 
cussion. It  was  only  after  the  Doctor,  who  was  still 
under  the  influence  of  Vetophobia,  had  taken  his  leave, 
that  I  perceived  the  absurdity  of  the  incident.  A 
volume  of  Gil  Bias  was  on  the  table  where  we  happened 
to  have  been  assembled,  and  by  accident  I  lighted  on 
the  passage  in  which  he  describes  the  Irish  disputants 
at  Salamanca — "  Je  rencontrois  quelquefois  des  figures 
Hibernoises.  II  falloit  nous  voir  disputer,"  &c.  We 
are  a  strange  people,  and  deserve  our  designation  at  the 
foreign  universities,  where  it  was  proverbially  said  of 
the  Irish  that  they  were  "  ratione  furentes." 

There  were  others  besides  the  persons  whom  I  have 
described,  who  at  this  juncture  took  a  part  in  Ca- 
tholic politics,  and  who  are  deserving  of  mention; 
but  as  they  have  recently  made  a  figure  even  more 


conspicuous  than  at  the  Catholic  Committee,  I  reserve 
them  for  subsequent  delineation.  The  only  other 
person  whom  I  remember  as  worthy  of  much  note,  and 
who  has  retired  from  Catholic  assemblies,  was  Peter 
Bodkin  Hussey.  Peter  was  a  very  droll,  sarcastic,  and 
amusing  debater.  He  dealt  almost  exclusively  in 
irouy,  and  employed  a  good  deal  of  grotesque  imagery 
in  his  orations,  which,  if  it  did  not  instruct,  served  at 
least  the  purposes  of  entertainment.  He  had  a  very 
rubicund  and  caustic  countenance,  that  was  surmounted 
with  a  profusion  of  red  hair ;  and  from  his  manner  and 
aspect  he  was  not  unhappily  designated  as  "  red  pre- 
cipitate." I  don't  know  from  what  motive  he  has 
retired  from  political  life;  but,  though  he  is  still  young, 
he  has  not  recently  appeared  at  any  Roman  Catholic 

These  were  the  individuals  who,  besides  the  per- 
formers who  still  continue  on  the  boards,  chiefly  figured 
at  the  Catholic  Committee,  which  in  the  year  1811, 
was  made  the  object  of  a  prosecution  by  Mr.  Saurin. 
Mr.  Kirwan  and  Doctor  Sheridan  were  indicted,  under 
the  Irish  Convention  Act,  for  having  been  elected  to 
sit  in  the  Catholic  Parliament.  The  Government 
strained  every  nerve  to  procure  a  conviction.  Mr. 
Saurin  commenced  his  speech  in  the  following  words: — 
<e  My  Lords,  and  Gentlemen  of  the  Jury,  I  cannot  but 
congratulate  you  and  the  public  that  the  day  of  justice 
has  at  length  arrived  •"  and  the  then  Solicitor- General 
the  present  Chief-Justice  Bushe,  in  speaking  of  the 
Committee,  constituted  as  it  was,  concluded  his  oration 
thus: — "Compare  such  a  constitution  with  the  esta- 
blished authorities  of  the  land,  all  controlled,  confined 
to  their  respective  spheres,  balancing  and  gravitating 

N  2 


to  each  other — all  symmetry,  all  order,  all  harmony. 
Behold,  on  the  other  hand,  this  prodigy  in  the  political 
hemisphere,  with  eccentric  course  and  portentous 
glare,  bound  by  no  attraction,  disdaining  any  orbit, 
disturbing  the  system,  and  affrighting  the  world." 
Upon  the  first  trial  the  Catholic  Committee  were 
acquitted ;  but  upon  the  second  the  Attorney-General 
mended  his  hand,  and  the  jury  having  been  packed, 
the  comet  was  put  out.* 

The  Catholic  Committee,  as  a  representative  body 
elected  by  the  people,  and  consisting  of  a  certain 
number  of  members  delegated  from  each  town  and 
county,  ceased  to  exist.  A  great  blow  had  been  struck 
at  the  cause,  and  a  considerable  time  elapsed  before 
Ireland  recovered  from  it.  The  Russian  war  ensued, 
and  Bonaparte  fell.  The  hopes  of  the  Catholics  fell 
with  the  peace.  A  long  interval  elapsed,  in  which 
nothing  very  important  or  deserving  of  record  took 
place.  A  political  lethargy  spread  itself  over  the  great 
body  of  the  people,  and  the  assemblies  of  the  Catholics 
became  more  unfrequent,  and  their  language  more 
despondent  and  hopeless  than  it  had  ever  before  been. 
The  unfortunate  differences  which  had  taken  place 
between  the  aristocracy  and  the  great  body  of  the 
people  respecting  the  Veto,  had  left  many  traces  of 
discord  behind,  and  divided  them  from  each  other; 
they  no  longer  exhibited  any  very  formidable  object 
to  their  antagonists. 

*  Two  of  the  delegates  were  tried,  Doctor  Sheridan,  and  Mr.  Kirwan, 
a  merchant.  The  first  was  acquitted,  the  second  found  guilty.  The 
punishment  was  only  nominal,  the  Government  declaring  itself  satisfied 
with  the  assertion  and  vindication  of  the  law. — See  the  sketch  of  Mr. 
Bushe,  then  Solicitor  General,  in  the  first  volume. 


Thus  matters  stood  till  the  year  1821,  when  the 
King  intimated  his  intention  to  visit  Ireland.  The 
nation  awoke  at  this  intelligence ;  and  it  was  believed 
by  the  Catholics,  and  surmised  by  the  Protestants,  that 
their  sovereign  could  scarcely  mean  to  visit  this  portion 
of  his  dominions  from  any  idle  curiosity,  or  from  an 
anxiety  to  play  the  principal  part  in  a  melodramatic 
procession  through  the  Irish  metropolis.  It  was 
reasonably  concluded  that  he  must  have  intended  to 
come  as  the  herald  of  national  tranquillity,  and  as  the 
great  pacificator  of  his  people.  Before  his  arrival, 
the  two  parties  formed  a  temporary  amnesty;  and 
Mr.  O'Connell,  who  had  gained  the  first  eminence  in 
his  profession,  and  had  become  the  undisputed  leader 
of  the  Catholic  body,  used  his  best  endeavours  to  effect 
a  reconciliation  between  the  Orangemen  of  the  Cor- 
poration and  the  Irish  Catholics.  Sir  Benjamin 
Bloomfield  arrived  in  Dublin  before  his  master,  and 
intimated  the  Royal  anxieties  that  all  differences  and 
animosities  should  be  laid  aside.  Accordingly,  it  was 
agreed  that  a  public  dinner  should  be  held  at  Morrison's 
tavern,  where  the  leaders  of  both  factions  should  pledge 
each  other  in  libations  of  everlasting  amity.  This 
national  festivity  took  place ;  and  from  the  vehement 
protestations  on  both  sides,  it  was  believed  by  many 
that  a  lasting  reconciliation  had  been  effected. 
Master  Ellis  and  Mr.  O'Connell  almost  embraced 
each  other. 

The  King  arrived ;  the  Catholics  determined  not  to 
intrude  their  grievances  upon  him.  Accordingly  our 
gracious  Sovereign  passed  rather  an  agreeable  time  in 
Dublin.  He  was  hailed  with  tumultuous  hurras 
wherever  he  passed ;  and  in  return  for  the  enthusiastic 


reception  which  he  had  found,  he  directed  Lord  Sid- 
mouth  to  write  a  letter,  recommending  it  to  the  people 
to  be  united.  His  Majesty  shortly  afterwards  set  sail, 
with  tears  in  his  eyes,  from  Kingstown.  For  a  little 
while  the  Catholics  continued  under  the  miserable 
deception  under  which  they  had  laboured  during  the 
Royal  sojourn,  but  when  they  found  that  no  intention 
existed  to  introduce  a  change  of  system  into  Ireland — 
that  the  King's  visit  seemed  an  artifice,  and  Lord  Sid- 
mouth's  epistle  meant  nothing — and  that  while  men 
were  changed,  measures  continued  substantially  un- 
altered, they  began  to  perceive  that  some  course  more 
effectual  than  a  loyal  solicitude  not  to  disturb  the 
repose  of  Majesty  should  be  adopted. 

The  present  Catholic  Association  rose  out  of  the 
disappointment  of  the  people.  Its  foundations  were 
laid  by  Mr.  O'Connell,  in  conjunction  with  Mr.  Shril. 
They  both  happened  to  meet  at  the  house  of  a  common 
friend  in  the  mountains  of  Wicklow,  and  after  exchang- 
ing their  opinions  on  the  deplorable  state  to  which 
the  Catholic  mind  had  been  reduced,  and  the  utter 
want  of  system  and  organization  in  the  body,  it  u  as 
agreed  by  those  gentlemen  that  they  should  both  sign 
an  address  to  the  Irish  Catholics,  and  inclose  it  to  the 
principal  members  of  the  body.  This  proceeding  was 
considered  presumptuous  by  many  of  the  individuals 
to  whom  their  manifesto  was  directed;  and  under 
other  circumstances,  perhaps,  it  might  be  regarded  as 
an  instance  of  extreme  self-reliance;  but  it  was  abso- 
lutely necessary  that  some  endeavour  should  be  made 
to  rouse  the  national  mind  from  the  torpor  into  which 
it  had  fallen.  A  very  thin  meeting,  which  did  not 
consist  of  more  than  about  twenty  individuals,  was 


held  at  a  tavern  set  up  by  a  man  of  the  name  of 
Dempsey,  in  S  ackville- street ;  and  it  was  there  deter- 
mined that  something  should  be  done. 

The  foundations  of  the  Association  were  then  laid, 
and  it  must  be  owned  that  its  first  meetings  afforded 
few  indications  of  the  importance  and  the  magnitude 
to  which  it  was  destined  to  be  raised.  The  attendance 
was  so  thin,  and  the  public  appeared  so  insensible  to 
the  proceedings  which  took  place  in  those  small  con- 
vocations, that  it  is  almost  surprising  that  the  enter- 
prise was  not  relinquished  in  despair.  The  Association 
in  its  origin  was  treated  with  contempt,  not  only  by 
its  open  adversaries,  but  Catholics  themselves  spoke  of 
it  with  derision,  and  spurned  at  the  walls  of  mud, 
which  their  brethren  had  rapidly  thrown  up,  and  which 
were  afterwards  to  become  "alta3  msenia  Romse." 
At  length,  however,  the  men  who  had  formerly  been 
active  in  Catholic  affairs  were  got  together,  and  the 
great  body  of  the  people  were  awakened  from  their 
insensibility.  The  powerful  appeals  of  Daniel  O'Connell, 
who  now  began  to  develop  even  greater  abilities  than  he 
had  before  exhibited,  and  whose  ambition  was  excited 
by  the  progress  which  he  had  made  in  his  profession, 
stirred  the  mind  of  Ireland.  The  aristocracy,  who  had 
been  previously  alienated,  had  forgotten  many  affronts 
which  had  been  put  upon]  them,  and  began  to  reunite 
themselves  with  the  people. 

Lord  Killeen,  the  son  of  the  Earl  of  Fingal,  came 
forward  as  the  representative  of  his  father  and  of  the 
Catholic  nobility.*  He  was  free  from  the  habits  of  sub- 
mission which  the  Catholic  aristocracy  had  contracted 

*  The  present  Earl  of  FingaL 


at  the  period  of  their  extreme  depression,  and  was 
animated  by  an  ardent  consciousness  of  the  rights 
which  were  withheld  from  him.  This  young  nobleman 
threw  himself  into  a  zealous  co-operation  with  Mr. 
O'Connell,  and  by  his  abilities  aided  the  impression 
which  his  rank  and  station  were  calculated  to  produce. 
His  example  was  followed  by  other  noblemen;  and 
Lord  Gormanstown,  a  Catholic  peer  of  great  fortune 
and  of  very  ancient  descent,  although  hitherto  unused 
to  public  life,  appeared  at  the  Catholic  Association. 
This  good  man  had  laboured  for  many  years  under  the 
impression  that  the  Catholics  were  frustrating  their  ov.rn 
objects  by  the  violence  with  which  they  were  pursued, 
and  had  in  consequence  absented  himself  from  their 
assemblies ;  but  at  length  the  delusion  passed  awny. 
His  example  was  followed  by  the  Earl  of  Kenmare,  who, 
though  he  did  not  actually  attend  the  Association  (for 
he  abhors  popular  exhibition),  sent  in  the  authority  of 
his  name,  and  his  pecuniary  contribution. 

Thus  the  aristocracy  was  consolidated  with  the  Catho- 
lic democracy,  and  Mr.  O'Connell  began  to  wield  them 
both  with  the  power  of  which  new  manifestations  were 
every  day  given.  In  a  little  time  a  general  movement 
was  produced  through  the  country ;  the  national  atten- 
tion was  fixed  upon  the  deliberations  of  the  body  which 
had  thus  started  up  from  the  ruins  of  the  old  Catholic 
Committee;  its  meetings  became  crowded  to  excess. 
The  newspapers  teemed  with  vehement  harangues ;  and 
the  public  mind,  heated  and  excited  by  these  impas- 
sioned and  constantly  repeated  appeals,  began  to  exhibit 
an  entirely  different  character. 

The  junction  of  the  aristocracy  and  of  the  democracy 
was  a  most  important  achievement.  But  this  con- 


fedcracy  was  greatly  strengthened  by  the  alliance  of 
another  and  still  more  powerful  body,  the  Catholic 
priesthood  of  Ireland.  The  sympathy  which  the  clergy 
have  manifested  in  the  efforts  of  the  Association,  and 
the  political  part  which  they  have  lately  played,  are  to 
be  referred,  in  a  great  measure,  to  the  influence  of  a 
very  greatly  gifted  man.  Doctor  Doyle,  the  Catholic 
Bishop  of  Kildare  and  Leighlin,  is  certainly  among  the 
most  remarkable  men  who  have  appeared  in  this  strange 
state  of  things,  and  has  most  essentially  contributed  to 
the  moral  and  political  feeling  which  has  grown  up 
amongst  the  people. 

He  was  educated  at  an  university  in  Portugal,  where 
it  was  not  very  likely  that  he  would  contract  any  very 
ardent  attachment  to  freedom,  but  his  original  love  of 
his  country  overcame  the  theology  of  Coimbra,  and  he 
returned  to  Ireland  with  a  mind  deeply  imbued  with 
learning,  fraught  with  eloquence,  and  burning  with 
patriotism.  He  was  for  some  time  a  professor  in  the 
ecclesiastical  college  at  Carlow,  and  before  he  was  made 
a  bishop  was  unknown  as  a  politician.  But  the  crosier 
had  been  scarcely  placed  in  his  hands,  when  he  raised 
it  in  the  cause  of  his  country.  He  wrote,  and  his 
writings  were  so  strikingly  eloquent  in  diction  and 
powerful  in  reasoning,  that  they  at  once  invited  the 
attention  of  the  public.  He  fearlessly  broached  doc- 
trines which  not  only  startled  the  Government,  but 
gave  alarm  to  some  of  the  hoary  professors  at  Maynooth. 

In  the  following  passage  in  his  letter  to  Mr.  Robert- 
son, after  speaking  of  the  likelihood  of  a  rebellion  and 
a  French  invasion,  he  says — "  The  Minister  of  England 
cannot  look  to  the  exertions  of  the  Catholic  priesthood : 
they  have  been  ill-treated,  and  they  may  yield  for  a 


moment  to  the  influence  of  nature,  though  it  be  opposed 
to  grace.  This  clergy,  with  a  few  exceptions,  are  from 
the  ranks  of  the  people ;  they  inherit  their  feelings ; 
they  are  not,  as  formerly,  brought  up  under  despotic 
governments ;  and  they  have  imbibed  the  doctrines  of 
Locke  and  Paley,  more  deeply  than  those  of  Bellarmine, 
or  even  of  Bossuet,  on  the  divine  right  of  kings.  They 
know  much  more  of  the  principles  of  the  constitution, 
than  they  do  of  passive  obedience.  If  a  rebellion  were 
raging  from  Carrickfergus  to  Cape  Clear,  no  sentence 
of  excommunication  would  ever  be  fulminated  by  a 
Catholic  prelate." 

This  announcement  of  what  is  now  obviously  the 
truth,  created  a  sort  of  consternation.  Lord  Wellesley, 
it  is  said,  in  order  to  neutralize  the  effects  of  this  fierce 
episcopal  warning,  appealed  to  Maynooth;  and  from 
Maynooth  there  issued  a  document  in  which  it  is  well 
understood  that  the  students,  and  even  the  President, 
Dr.  Crotty,  did  not  agree,  but  to  which  the  names  of  five 
of  the  theological  professors  were  attached.  The  per- 
sons who  were  mainly  instrumental  in  getting  up  a 
declaration  in  favour  of  passive  obedience  (which  is, 
however,  more  mitigated  than  the  famous  proclamation 
of  servility  which  issued  from  the  University  of  Oxford), 
were  two  old  French  Doctors  of  the  Sorbonne,  who  had 
found  bread  in  the  Irish  College,  Monsieur  de  la  Hogue 
and  Monsieur  Fra^ois  D'Anglade.  These  individuals 
belonged,  when  in  their  own  country,  to  the  "aucien 
regime ;"  and,  with  a  good  deal  of  learning,  imported 
into  Ireland  a  very  strong  relish  for  submission.  The 
following  was  their  protest  against  Dr.  Doyle : — 

"  Royal  Catholic  College  of  St.  Patrick,  Maynooth. — 
In  consequence  of  recent  public  allusions  to  the  domes- 


tic  education  of  the  Catholic  Clergy,  we,  the  under- 
signed Professors  of  the  Roman  Catholic  College  of 
Maynooth,  deem  it  a  duty  which  we  owe  to  Religion, 
and  to  the  country,  solemnly  and  publicly  to  state,  that 
in  our  respective  situations,  we  have  uniformly  incul- 
cated allegiance  to  our  gracious  Sovereign,  respect  for 
the  constituted  authorities,  and  obedience  to  the 

"In  discharging  this  solemn  duty,  we  have  been 
guided  by  the  unchangeable  principles  of  the  Catholic 
Religion,  plainly  and  forcibly  contained  in  the  following 
precepts  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul : — 

"  'Be  ye  subjects  therefore  to  every  human  creature 
for  God's  sake ;  whether  it  be  to  the  King,  as  excelling, 
or  to  governors  sent  by  him,  for  the  punishment  of  evil 
doers,  and  for  the  praise  of  the  good;  for  so  is  the  will 
of  God,  that  by  doing  well  you  may  put  to  silence  the 
ignorance  of  foolish  men,  as  free  and  not  as  making 
liberty  a  cloak  for  malice,  but  as  the  servants  of  God. 
Honour  all  men.  Love  the  brotherhood.  Fear  God. 
Honour  the  King.  For  this  is  thanks-worthy,  if  for 
conscience  towards  God  a  man  endures  sorrows,  suffer- 
ing wrongfully.  For  what  glory  is  it,  if  committing 
sin,  and  suffering  for  it  you  endure?  But  if  doing 
well  you  suffer  patiently,  this  is  thanks-worthy  before 
God."  1st  Ep.  of  St.  Peter,  c.  2. 

"  *  Let  every  soul  be  subject  to  the  higher  powers  :  for 
there  is  no  power  but  from  God ;  and  those  that  are, 
are  ordained  of  God.  Therefore  he  that  resisteth  the 
power,  resisteth  the  ordinance  of  God.  And  they  that 
resist,  purchase  to  themselves  damnation.  For  Princes 
are  not  a  terror  to  the  good  work,  but  to  the  evil. 
Wilt  thou  then,  not  be  afraid  of  the  Power  ?  Do  that 


which  is  good,  and  thou  shalt  have  praise  for  the  same. 
— Wherefore  be  subject  of  necessity,  not  only  for  wrath, 
but  also  for  conscience  sake."  Ep.  to  the  Romans, 
c.  13. 

"  Our  commentaries  on  these  texts  cannot  be  better 
conveyed  than  in  the  language  of  Tertullian.  '  Chris- 
tians are  aware  who  has  conferred  their  power  on  the 
Emperors :  they  know  it  is  God,  after  whom  they  are 
first  in  rank,  and  second  to  no  other.  From  the  same 
source,  which  imparts  life,  they  also  derive  their  power. 
We  Christians  invoke  on  all  the  Emperors  the  blessings 
of  long  life,  a  prosperous  reign,  domestic  security,  a 
brave  army,  a  devoted  senate,  and  a  moral  people/ — 
Apology,  chap.  30. 

"  Into  the  sincerity  of  these  professions  we  challenge 
the  most  rigid  inquiry ;  and  we  appeal  with  confidence  to 
the  peaceable  and  loyal  conduct  of  the  Clergy  educated 
in  this  Establishment,  and  to  their  exertions  to  preserve 
the  public  order,  as  evidence  of  the  soundness  of  the 
principles  inculcated  in  this  College.  These  principles 
are  the  same  which  have  been  ever  taught  by  the 
Catholic  Church  :  and  if  any  change  has  been  wrought 
in  the  minds  of  the  Clergy  of  Ireland,  it  is,  that 
religious  obligation  is  here  strengthened  by  motives 
of  gratitude,  and  confirmed  by  sworn  allegiance,  from 
which  no  power  on  earth  can  absolve." 

Such  was  the  Sorbonne  manifesto,  which,  notwith- 
standing the  awful  names  of  La  Hogue  and  D'Anglade, 
was  laughed  at  by  the  Irish  priesthood.  The  reputation 
of  Dr.  Doyle  was  more  widely  extended  by  this  effort 
of  antiquated  divinity  to  suppress  him ;  and  the  Govern- 
ment found  additional  proofs  in  the  result  of  his  publi- 
cation of  the  unfortunate  truths  which  it  contained. 


I.  K.  L.,  the  name  by  which  Dr.  Doyle  is  generally 
known,  and  which  is  composed  of  the  initials  of  his 
titular  designation,  threw  into  the  Catholic  Association 
all  the  influence  of  his  sacred  authority ;  and,  having 
openly  joined  that  body,  increased  the  reverence  with 
which  the  people  had  previously  considered  its  proceed- 
ings, and  imparted  to  it  something  of  a  religious  cha- 
racter. The  example  which  was  given  by  Dr.  Doyle 
was  followed  by  other  dignitaries  of  the  church,  of 
whom  the  most  remarkable  are  Dr.  Murray,  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Dublin;  and  Doctor  Kelly,  the  Bishop  of 

Dr.  Murray  is  the  successor  of  the  late  Dr.  Troy. 
That  excellent  ecclesiastic  had  for  many  years  presided 
over  the  see  of  Dublin,  rather  with  the  prudence  and 
caution  which  had  been  acquired  in  times  of  political 
oppression,  than  with  the  energy  and  determination 
which  became  the  augmenting  power  of  the  Catholic 
body.  He  had  acquired  his  habits  at  an  epoch,  if  not 
of  servility,  of  oppression,  and  had  been  accustomed  to 
accomplish,  by  dexterous  acquiescence,  what  would  now 
be  insisted  upon  as  a  right.  During  the  Irish  rebellion 
he  is  said  to  have  shown  great  skill ;  and,  by  his  influ- 
ence at  the  Castle,  prevented  the  Roman  Catholic 
chapels  from  being  closed  up.  He  was  accounted  a 
good  divine,  but  had  neither  the  faculty  of  composition 
nor  of  speech.  He  had  received  his  education  at  Rome, 
and  was  a  member  of  the  order  of  St.  Dominic.  He 
had  the  look,  too,  of  a  holy  bon  vivant,  for  he  was  squat 
and  corpulent,  had  a  considerable  abdominal  plenitude, 
and  a  ruddy  countenance,  with  a  strong  determination 
of  blood  to  the  nose.  Yet  his  aspect  belied  him,  for  he 
was  conspicuous  for  the  simplicity  and  abstemiousness 


of  his  life ;  and  although  Lord  Norbury,  observing  Mr. 
jEneas  M'Donnel  descending  the  steps  of  his  house, 
exclaimed,  "  There  is  pious  ./Eneas  coming  from  the 
sack  of  Troy/'  and  by  the  celebrity  of  the  pun  extended 
to  the  Doctor  a  renown  for  hospitality,  the  latter  had 
scarcely  the  means  of  supporting  himself  in  a  manner 
consistent  with  his  clerical  station.  He  died  in  exceed- 
ing poverty,  for  one  guinea  only  was  found  in  his  pos- 
session. This  arose  partly  from  the  narrowness  of  his 
income,  and  partly  from  his  generous  disposition.  He 
had  about  eight  hundred  pounds  a-year,  and  expended 
it  on  the  poor. 

This  good  man  was  succeeded  by  the  present  Arch- 
bishop of  Dublin,  Dr.  Murray.  He  was  educated  in 
the  university  of  Salamanca,  but  his  mind  is  untarnished 
by  the  smoke  of  the  scholastic  lamp,  and  he  has  a  spirit 
of  liberty  within  him  which  shows  how  compatible  the 
ardent  citizen  is  with  the  enthusiastic  priest.  His 
manners  are  not  at  all  Spanish,  although  he  passed 
many  years  in  Spain  under  the  tuition  of  Dr.  Curtis, 
the  Catholic  Primate,  who  was  professor  of  Theology  in 
Salamanca,  and  is  one  of  its  peculiar  "Bachelors." 
Dr.  Curtis  is  almost  more  Spanish  than  the  Spanish 
themselves,  for  he  has  a  restlessness  of  gesture,  and  a 
flexibility  of  the  physiognomical  muscles,  which  surpass 
the  vivacity  of  Andalusia,  and  with  one  finger  laid  upon 
his  nose,  with  his  eyes  starting  from  his  head,  and  with 
the  other  hand  quivering  like  that  of  a  Chinese  juggler, 
he  presents  the  most  singular  spectacle  of  episcopal 
vivacity  at  the  age  of  ninety-one,  which  I  have  ever 
seen.  His  pupil  and  brother  Archbishop  of  Dublin  is 
meek,  composed,  and  placid,  and  has  an  expression  of 
patience,  of  sweetness,  and  benignity,  united  with 


strong  intellectual  intimations,  which  would  fix  the 
attention  of  any  ordinary  observer  who  chanced  to  see 
him  in  the  public  way.  He  has  great  dignity  and 
simplicity  of  deportment,  and  has  a  bearing  befitting 
his  rank  without  the  least  touch  of  arrogance.  His 
voice  is  singularly  soft  and  harmonious;  and  even  in 
reproof  itself,  he  does  not  put  his  Christian,  gentleness 
aside.  His  preaching  is  of  the  first  order.  It  is  diffi- 
cult to  hear  his  sermons  upon  charity  without  tears, 
and  there  is,  independently  of  the  charms  of  diction 
and  the  graces  of  elocution,  of  which  he  is  a  master,  an 
internal  evidence  of  his  own  profound  conviction  of  what 
he  utters,  that  makes  its  way  to  the  heart.  When  he 
stands  in  the  pulpit,  it  is  no  exaggeration  to  say,  that 
he  diffuses  a  kind  of  piety  about  him;  he  seems  to 
belong  to  the  holy  edifice,  and  it  may  be  said  of  him 
with  perfect  truth — 

"  At  chnrch,  with  meek  and  unaffected  grace, 
His  looks  adorn'd  the  venerable  place." 

It  is  obvious  that  such  a  man,  attended  by  all  the  influ- 
ence which  his  office,  his  abilities,  and  his  apostolic 
life  confer  upon  him,  must  have  added  great  weight  to 
the  proceedings  of  the  Association,  when,  with  a  zeal  in 
patriotism  corresponding  with  his  ardour  in  religion,  he 
caused  himself  to  be  enrolled  amongst  its  members. 

"The  contemplation  of  the  wrongs  of  my  country 
(he  exclaimed,  at  a  public  meeting  held  in  the  magnifi- 
cent Catholic  Cathedral  in  Marlborough-street) — the 
contemplation  of  the  wrongs  of  my  country  makes  my 
soul  burn  within  me  !" 

As  he  spoke  thus,  he  pressed  to  his  heart  the  hand 
which  the  people  were  accustomed  to  see  exalted  from 


the  altar  in  raising  the  Host  to  Heaven.  His  fine 
countenance  was  inflamed  with  emotion ;  and  his  whole 
frame  trembled  under  the  dominion  of  the  vehement 
feeling  by  which  he  was  excited. — These  are  the  men 
whom  our  Government,  in  its  wisdom,  have  placed  in 
alienation  from  the  state,  and  whose  character  has  been 
sketched  in  the  passage  which  I  have  quoted  from  the 
works  of  Dr.  Doyle. 



[NOVEMBEB,   1828.] 

ANXIOUS  to  witness  the  great  assembly  of  "  the  Men 
of  Kent,"  of  which  the  High  Sheriff  had  called  a 
meeting,  (having  appointed  twelve  o'clock  upon  Friday 
the  24th  of  October,  for  the  immense  gathering),  I 
proceeded  from  Rochester  to  Maidstone  at  an  early 
hour.  Upon  my  way,  I  saw  the  evidences  of  prodigious 
exertion  to  call  the  yeomanry  together,  and  from  the 
summit  of  a  hill  that  surmounts  a  beautiful  valley  near 
Maidstone,  I  beheld  a  long  array  of  waggons  moving 
slowly  towards  the  spot  which  had  been  fixed  by  the 
High  Sheriff  for  the  meeting.  The  morning  was  pecu- 
liarly fine  and  bright,  and  had  a  remnant  of  "  summer's 
lingering  bloom ;"  and  the  eye,  through  the  pure  air, 
and  from  the  elevated  spot  on  which  I  paused  to  survey 
the  landscape,  traversed  an  immense  and  glorious  pros- 
pect. The  fertile  county  of  Kent,  covered  with  all  the 
profusion  of  English  luxury,  and  exhibiting  a  noble 
spectacle  of  agricultural  opulence,  was  before  me ;  under 
any  circumstances  the  scene  would  have  attracted  my 

VOL.    II.  O 


attention,  but  upon  the  occasion  on  which  I  now  beheld 
it,  it  was  accompanied  by  circumstances  which  greatly 
added  to  its  influence,  and  lent  to  the  beauty  of  nature 
a  sort  of  moral  picturesque. 

The  whole  population  of  an  immense  district,  seemed 
to  have  swarmed  from  their  towns  and  cottages,  and 
filled  the  roads  and  avenues  which  led  to  the  great 
place  of  political  rendezvous.  In  the  distance  lay 
Penenden  Heath,  and  I  could  perceive  that  long  before 
the  hour  appointed  by  the  Sheriff  for  the  meeting,  large 
masses  had  assembled  upon  the  field,  where  the  struggle 
between  the  two  contending  parties  was  to  be  carried 
on.  After  looking  upon  this  extraordinary  spectacle, 
I  proceeded  on  my  journey.  I  passed  many  of  the 
Men  of  Kent,  who  were  going  on  foot  to  the  meeting; 
but  the  great  majority  were  conveyed  in  those  ponder*- 
ous  teams  which  are  used  for  the  purposes  of  conveying 
agricultural  produce ;  and,  indeed,  "  the  Men  of  Kent," 
who  were  packed  up  in  those  vehicles,  seemed  almost 
as  unconscious  as  the  ordinary  burthens  with  which 
their  heavy  vehicles  are  laden.  The  waggons  went  on 
in  their  dull  and  monotonous  rotation,  filled  with 
human  beings,  whose  faces  presented  a  vacant  blank,  in 
which  it  was  impossible  to  trace  the  smallest  interest  or 
emotion.  They  did  not  exchange  a  word  with  each 
other,  but  sat  in  their  waggons,  with  a  half  sturdy  and 
half  fatuitous  look  of  apathy,  listening  to  the  sound  of 
the  bells  which  were  attached  to  the  horses  by  which 
they  were  drawn,  and  as  careless  as  those  animals  of 
the  events  in  which  they  were  going  to  take  a  part. 

It  was  easy,  however,  to  perceive,  to  which  faction 
they  belonged ;  for  poles  were  placed  in  each  of  these 
waggons,  with  placards  attached  to  them,  on  -\vhich 


directions  were  given  to  the  loads  of  freeholders  to  vote 
for  their  respective  proprietors.  I  expected  to  have 
seen  injunctions  to  vote  for  Emancipation,  or  for  the 
Constitution,  or  against  Popery  and  Slavery;  these 
ordinances  would,  in  all  likelihood,  have  been  above  the 
comprehension  of  "the  Men  of  Kent;"  and  accordingly 
the  more  intelligible  words,  "  Vote  for  Lord  Winchil- 
sea,"  or  "  Vote  for  Lord  Darnley,"  were  inscribed  upon 
ihe  placards.  I  proceeded  to  my  place  of  destination, 
and  reached  Penenden  Heath. 

It  is  a  gently  sloping  amphitheatrical  declivity,  sur- 
rounded with  gradually  ascending  elevations  of  highly 
cultivated  ground,  and  presenting  in  the  centre  a  wide 
•space,  exceedingly  well  calculated  for  the  holding  of  a 
great  popular  assembly.  On  arriving,  I  found  a  great 
multitude  assembled  at  about  an  hour  before  the  meet- 
ing. A  large  circle  was  formed,  with  a  number  of 
waggons  placed  in  close  junction  to  each  other,  and 
forming  an  area  capable  of  containing  several  thousand 
persons.  There  was  an  opening  in  the  spot  imme* 
diately  opposite  the  Sheriff  for  the  reception  of  the 
people,  who  were  pouring  into  the  enclosure  and  had 
already  formed  a  dense  mass.  The  waggons  were  laden 
with  the  better  class  of  yeomen,  with  the  gentry  at 
their  head.  A  sort  of  hustings  was  raised  for  the 
Sheriff  and  his  friends,  with  chairs  in  the  front,  and 
from  this  point  the  waggons  branched  off  in  two  wings> 
that  on  the  left  of  the  Sheriff  being  allotted  to  the 
Protestant,  and  the  right  having  been  appropriated  to 
the  Catholic  party.  The  waggons  bore  the  names  of 
the  several  persons  to  whom  they  belonged,  and  were 
designated  as  "  Lord  Winchilsea's,"  or  "  Lord  Darn- 
Jey's,"  or,  as  "The  Committee's,"  and  ensigns  were 

O   2 


displayed  from  them  which  indicated  the  opinions  of 
their  respective  occupiers. 

The  moment  I  ascended  one  of  the  waggons,  where 
all  persons  were  indiscriminately  admitted,  I  saw  that 
the  Protestants,  as  they  called  themselves,  had  had  the 
advantage  in  preparation,  and  that  they  were  well 
arrayed  and  disciplined.  Of  this  the  effects  produced 
by  Lord  Winchilsea's  arrival  afforded  strong  proof;  for 
the  moment  he  entered,  there  was  a  simultaneous 
waving  of  hats  by  his  party,  and  the  cheering  was  so 
well  ordered  and  regulated  that  it  was  manifest  that 
every  movement  of  the  faction  was  preconcerted  and 
arranged.  The  appearance  of  Lord  Darnley,  of  Lord 
Radnor,  and  the  other  leaders  of  the  Catholic  party, 
was  not  hailed  with  the  same  concurrence  of  applause 
from  their  supporters;  not  that  the  latter  were  not 
warmly  zealous,  but  that  they  had  not  been  disciplined 
with  the  same  care. 

I  anxiously  watched  for  the  coming  of  Cobbett  and 
of  Hunt.  I  not  only  desired  to  see  two  persons  of 
whom  I  had  heard  so  much,  but  to  ascertain  the  extent 
of  their  influence  upon  the  public  mind.  Cobbett,  I 
understood,  had,  before  the  meeting  took  place,  suc- 
ceeded in  throwing  discord  into  the  ranks  of  the  liberal 
party.  He  had  intimated  that  he  would  move  a  peti- 
tion against  tithes — to  this  Lord  Darnley  vehemently 
objected,  and  asked  very  reasonably  how  he  could,  as 
a  peer  of  the  realm,  co-operate  in  such  a  proposal. 
Several  others,  however,  although  they  greatly  disap- 
proved of  Cobbett's  proposition  in  the  abstract,  were 
disposed  to  support  any  expedient  which  would  have 
the  effect  of  extinguishing  the  Brunswick  faction.  It 
had  therefore  been  decided  first,  to  try  whether  the 


Brunswick  measure  could  not  be  got  rid  of,  without 
having  recourse  to  any  substitute,  and  in  the  event  of 
failing  in  that  course,  to  sustain  Cobbett' s  amendment. 
Cobbett  had  dined  the  preceding  day  at  Maidstone, 
with  about  a  hundred  farmers,  and  had  been  very  well 
received.  He  there  gave  intimations  of  his  intended 
proposition  against  the  Church.  His  friends  said  that 
he  had  devoted  great  care  to  his  petition,  and  that  he 
plumed  himself  upon  it.  I  thought  it  exceedingly  pro- 
bable that  he  would  succeed  in  carrying  his  measure, 
especially  as  he  had  obtained  a  signal  triumph  at  a 
meeting  connected  with  the  Corn  Laws,  and  borne 
down  the  gentry  before  him. 

These  anticipations  had  greatly  raised  my  curiosity 
about  this  singular  person,  and  I  watched  the  effect 
which  his  coming  should  produce  with  some  solicitude. 
He  at  length  arrived :  upon  his  entering  the  enclosure, 
I  heard  a  cry  of"  Cobbett,  Cobbett !"  and  turning  my 
eyes  to  the  spot  from  which  the  exclamation  came,  I 
perceived  less  sensation  than  I  had  expected  to  find. 
Some  twenty  of  the  lowest  class  of  freeholders  made 
some  demonstration  of  pleasure  at  his  appearance,  and 
followed  him  as  he  made  his  way  towards  a  waggon  on 
the  right  of  the  Sheriff.  He  was  dressed  in  a  gray 
frieze  coat,  with  a  red  handkerchief,  which  gave  him  a 
very  extraordinary  aspect,  and  presented  him  in  con- 
trast with  the  body  of  those  who  occupied  the  waggons, 
who,  on  account  of  the  public  mourning,  were  dressed 
in  black.*  He  seemed  in  excellent  health  and  spirits, 
for  his  cheeks  were  almost  as  ruddy  as  his  neckcloth, 
and  set  off  his  white  hair,  while  his  eyes  sparkled  at 
*  The  Duke  of  York  had  died  shortly  before. 


the  anticipation  of  the  victory  \vhich  he  was  confident 
that  he  should  obtain. 

He  seemed  to  me  to  mistake  the  following  and  accla- 
mation of  a  few  of  the  rabble  for  the  applauses  of  the 
whole  meeting.  When,  however,  he  ascended  the 
waggon,  and  stood  before  the  assembly,  he  ought  to 
have  discovered  that  he  did  not  stand  very  high  in  the 
general  favour ;  for  while  the  circle  about  him  cheered 
Mm  with  rather  faint  plaudits,  the  moment  his  tall  but 
somewhat  fantastical  figure  was  exhibited  to  the  meet- 
ing, he  was  assailed  by  the  Brunswickers  with  the 
grossest  insults,  which,  instead  of  exciting  the  anger, 
produced  a  burst  of  merriment  among  the  Catholic 
party.  "Down  with  the  old  Bone-grubber  I"*  "  Oh, 
Cobbett,  have  you  brought  Burdett  along  with  you?" 
"Where's  your  gridiron?"  "Will  you  pay  Burdett 
put  of  the  next  crop  of  Indian  corn?"  These,  and 
other  contumelies,  were  lavished  upon  him  by  a  set  of 
fellows  who  were  obviously  posted  in  the  meeting,  in 
order  to  assail  their  antagonists  and  beat  them  down. 
Cobbett  was  so  flushed  with  the  certainty  of  success, 
and  so  self-deluded  by  his  egregious  notions  of  his  own 
importance,  that  his  temper  was  not  at  first  disturbed, 
but  looking  down  triumphantly  to  those  immediately 
about  him,  and  drawing  forth  a  long  petition,  told  them 
that  he  had  brought  them  something  that  should  con- 
tent them  all. 

*  Cobbett  wus  called  the  "  bone-grubber,"  in  consequence  of  the 
respect  which,  with  ostentatious  bad  taste,  he  paid  to  the  memory  of 
Thomas  Paine,  whose  remains  he  brought  to  England  from  America. 
Lord  Norbury,  on  being  asked  what  Cobbett  meant  by  importing  the 
bones,  is  said  to  have  answered,  that  he  supposed  he  "  wanted  to  make  a 


I  surveyed  him  attentively  at  this  moment. .  Cobbett 
is  generally  represented  as  a  man  of  rather  a  clownish- 
looking  demeanour ;  and  I  have  read,  in  some  descrip- 
tions of  him,  that  he  could  not,  at  first  view,  suggest 
any  notion  of  his  peculiar  intellectual  powers.  I  do 
not  at  all  agree  in  the  opinion.  He  has  certainly  a 
rude  and  rough  bearing,  and  affects  a  heedlessness  of 
form,  amounting  to  coarseness  and  rusticity.  But  it  is 
only  requisite  to  look  at  him,  in  order  to  see  in  the 
expression  of  his  countenance  the  vigorous  mind  with 
which  he  is  endowed.  The  higher  portion  of  his  face  is 
not  unlike  Sir  Walter  Scott's,  to  whom  he  bears, 
especially  about  the  brow,  a  resemblance.  His  eyes 
are  more  vivid  than  the  great  author's,  while  the  lower 
part  of  his  countenance  is  expressive  of  fierce  and  vehe- 
ment emotions.  His  attire  and  aspect  certainly  sug- 
gest, at  first  view,  his  early  occupations,  and  the  predi- 
lections of  his  later  life  (for  he  is  more  attached  to 
agriculture  than  to  politics) ;  but  whoever  looks  at  him 
narrowly,  will  see  the  impress  of  intellectual  superiority 
upon  his  countenance,  and  perceive,  under  his  rude 
bearing,  the  predominance  of  mind. 

AVhen  he  first  addressed  the  people,  he  was  in  exceed- 
ingly good  humour ;  and  as  he  snapped  his  fingers,  and 
cried  out,  "Emancipation  is  all  roguery  \"  the  laugh 
which  the  recollection  of  his  own  devotedness  to  the 
Catholic  cause  created,  was  echoed  by  his  own  merri- 
ment, and  he  seemed  to  enjoy  his  political  inconsistency 
as  an  exceeding  good  joke.  He  told  the  people,  that  he 
was  well  aware  that  the  Sheriff  intended  to  adjourn  the 
meeting,  but  that  he  would  stay  there,  and  hold  a  meet- 
ing himself. 
.  Next  to  Cobbett  stood  the  great  leader  of  the  radicals, 


Mr.  Hunt.  A  reconciliation  has  been  recently  effected 
between  them,  and  they  stood  together  in  the  front  of 
the  same  waggon  before  the  people.  I  was  surprised  to 
find  in  Mr.  Hunt,  a  man  of  an  exceedingly  mild  and 
gentle  aspect,  with  a  smooth  and  almost  youthful  cheek, 
a  bright  and  pleasant  eye,  a  sweet  and  urbane  smile, 
and  altogether  a  most  gentlemanlike  and  disarming 
demeanour.  His  voice,  too,  is  exceedingly  melodious, 
and  as  soft  as  his  manners.  This  Gracchus,  of  Man- 
chester is  utterly  unlike  the  picture  which  the  imagina- 
tion is  apt  to  form  of  a  tribune  of  the  people ;  and 
indeed  I  do  not  consider  him  to  possess  the  external 
qualifications  of  a  great  demagogue,  though  he  is  cer- 
tainly endowed  with  that  plain  and  simple  eloquence 
which  is  so  peculiarly  effective  with  an  English  multi- 
tude. Near  Hunt  and  Cobbett,  the  Pylades  and  Orestes 
of  radicalism,  stood  Counsellor  French,  an  Irish  Catholic 
barrister,  who  is  now  a  proselyte  among  the  reformers, 
but  seems  to  have  many  of  the  qualities  necessary  ta 
constitute  an  apostle  in  the  cause,  and  is  likely  one  day 
to  set  up  for  himself. 

In  the  waggon  next  that  in  which  Cobbett,  Barrel, 
and  Hunt  were  placed,  sat  Mr.  Sheil,  the  Irish  dema- 
gogue. This  gentleman  was  said,  by  some  people,  to 
have  been  sent  over  by  the  Association;  while  others 
asserted,  that  he  had  of  his  own  accord  embarked  in  the 
perilous  enterprise  of  addressing  "the  Men  of  Kent." 
There  was  a  feeling  of  curiosity,  mingled  with  dis- 
relish, produced  by  bis  appearance  there.  The  English 
Catholics  had  endeavoured  to  dissuade  him  from  the 
undertaking ;  and  Mr.  Barrel,  a  gentleman  of  property 
in  the  county,  was  particularly  anxious  that  he  should 
not  attempt  to  speak.  Lord  Barnley  was  also  very 


adverse  to  this  adventurous  step,  and  so  far  from  having 
given  Mr.  Sheil  a  freehold,  had  intimated,  I  heard,  that 
the  death-bed  of  the  Duke  of  York  was  not  yet  so  much 
forgotten,  that  Mr.  Sheil  should  venture  into  such  an 

That  gentleman  sat  in  one  of  the  waggons,  appa- 
rently careless  of  the  impression  which  he  should  pro- 
duce ;  but  his  pale  and  bilious  face,  in  which  discontent 
and  solicitude,  mingled  with  a  spirit  of  Sardonic  viru- 
lence, are  expressed,  and  his  restless  and  unquiet  eye, 
gave  indications  that  he  was  annoyed  at  the  opprobrious 
epithets  which  were  showered  upon  him,  and  that  he 
was  anxious  about  the  event,  as  it  should  personally 
affect  himself.  There  is  certainly  in  Mr.  Sheil's  face 
and  person  little  to  bespeak  the  favour  of  a  public 
assembly;  and  if  he  produces  oratorical  effects,  he 
must  be  indebted  to  a  power  of  phrase,  and  an  art  in 
delivery,  of  which,  in  the  uproar  in  which  he  spoke,  it 
was  impossible  in  that  meeting  to  form  any  estimate. 
Next  to  Mr.  Sheil  was  the  waggon  appropriated  to  the 
Committee,  where  there  were  some  English  Catholics ; 
and  Lord  Darnley's  and  Lord  Radnor's  waggons  suc- 

The  opposite  wing  was,  as  I  have  mentioned,  occu- 
pied by  the  Brunswickers,  of  whom  by  far  the  most 
conspicuous  was  Lord  Winchilsea.  He  is  a  tall,  strong- 

*  ilr.  Sheil  had  made  a  speech  shortly  before,  at  a  public  meeting  at 
Slullingar,  in  which  he  had  alluded  to  the  illness  of  the  royal  Duke  in  a 
strain  which  was  ill  excused  even  by  the  license  of  an  agitator  and  the 
notorious  hostility  of  the  Duke  of  York  to  the  Catholic  claims.  The 
«peech  naturally  gave  great  offence,  and  Mr.  Sheil  apologized  for  it 
subsequently  in  Dublin,  when  it  became  known  that  the  Duke's  illness 
was  mortal. 


built,  vigorous-looking  man,  destitute  of  all  dignity  or 
grace,  but  with  a  bluff,  rude,  and  direct  nautical  bear- 
ing, which  reminds  one  of  the  quarter-deck,  and  would 
lead  you  to  suppose  that  he  was  the  mate  of  a  ship  (a 
conjecture  which  a  black  silk  handkerchief  tied  tightly 
about  his  neck,  tends  to  assist)  rather  than  an  here- 
ditary Counsellor  of  the  Crown.  Whatever  feelings  of 
partiality  his  late  conduct  may  have  generated  towards 
him  with  his  own  faction,  he  is  certainly  not  popular  in 
the  county;  for  he  is  the  terror  of  poachers,  and  is 
most  arbitrary  in  the  enforcement  of  the  game  laws. 
It  is  but  justice  to  him  to  say,  that  he  has,  upon  one  or 
two  occasions,  when  he  has  detected  poachers  upon  his 
estate,  given  them  the  alternative  of  going  to  prison  or 
fighting  with  him ;  for  to  his  political  he  superadds  no 
inconsiderable  pugilistic  qualifications.  He  seems  very 
well  qualified  to  lead  an  English  mob,  and  possesses  in  a 
far  greater  perfection  than  Hunt  or  Cobbett,  the  dema- 
gogic qualities  of  voice,  which  gave  him,  at  Penenden 
Heath,  a  great  advantage  over  his  opponents.  Before 
the  chair  was  taken,  he  was  actively  engaged  in  mar- 
shalling his  troops,  and  cheering  them  on  to  battle,  and 
it  was  manifest  that  he  felt  all  the  excitement  of  a 
leader  engaged  in  a  cause,  upon  the  issue  of  which  his 
own  political  importance  was  depending. 

I  did  not  remark  any  persons  of  rank  about  him,  and 
indeed  the  Protestant  was  conspicuously  inferior  in  this 
particular  to  the  Catholic  wing.  There  were,  however, 
on  the  left  side,  a  number  of  persons,  in  whom  it  was 
easy  to  recognize  the  sacerdotal  physiognomy,  of  far 
more  influence  than  noblemen  could  have  been;  the 
whole  body  of  the  Kent  Clergy  were  marshalled  for 
the  occasion;  and  not  only  the  priests  of  the  esta- 


Wished  religion,  but  many  of  the  dissenting  preachers 
of  the  Methodist  school,  were  arrayed  under  the  Win- 
chilsea  banners.  It  was  easy  to  recognize  them  even 
amidst  the  crowd  of  men  habited  in  black,  by  their 
lugubrious  and  dismal  expression.  The  clergy  at  the 
meeting  were  so  numerous,  that  the  Protestant  side 
had  much  more  a  clerical  than  an  agricultural  aspect. 

The  different  parties  being  thus  distributed,  and 
every  waggon  having  been  occupied,  and  the  whole  of 
the  area  within  the  inclosure  having  been  filled  by  the 
dense  crowd,  the  Sheriff,  Sir  T.  Maryon  Wilson,  ap- 
peared exactly  at  twelve  o'clock,  and  took  the  chair. 
He  seemed  to  me,  from  the  distance  at  which  I  saw 
him,  a  young  man,  quite  untutored  in  the  business  of 
public  meetings ;  but  he  had  beside  him  his  sub-sheriff, 
Mr.  Scudamore,  who  appeared  to  have  all  the  zeal  by 
which  his  employer  was  actuated  in  the  cause  of  Pro- 
testantism, and  to  be  perfectly  well  versed  in  the  stra- 
tagems by  which  an  advantage  may  be  given  to  one 
party,  without  affording  to  the  other  the  opportunity  of 
complaining  of  any  very  gross  breach,  of  decorum. 
This  gentleman  had  a  coarse,  red  whiskered,  and  blunt 
face,  of  the  Dogberry  character,  in  which  a  vulgar 
authoritativeness  was  combined  with  those  habits  of 
submission  to  his  superior,  which  are  generally  found 
in  subordinate  functionaries. 

The  High  Sheriff  having  taken  his  station,  delivered 
a  brief  speech,  in  which  he  stated  the  object  of  the 
meeting  to  be  the  adoption  of  such  measures  as  should 
be  deemed  most  advisable  for  the  support  of  the  church 
establishment ;  and  he  concluded  by  enjoining  the 
assembly  to  hear  all  parties,  a  precept  which  he  cer- 


tainly  exhibited  no  very  great  solicitude  to  embody  in 
his  own  conduct.  A  letter  from  the  brother  of  Mr. 
Honeywood  was  then  read,  in  which  an  excuse  was 
made  for  that  gentleman  upon  the  ground  of  indisposi- 
tion, (it  was  well  known  that  he  was  adverse  to  the 
objects  of  the  meeting,)  and  then  Mr.  Gipps  rose  to 
move  the  petition.  I  found  it  difficult  to  ascertain 
exactly  who  he  was ;  but  thus  far  I  learned,  that  he  is 
not  a  man  of  influence  or  weight  from  property  in  the 
county,  and  indeed  I  could  see  no  motive  for  putting 
him  in  the  foreground,  excepting  that  he  has  a  clear 
and  distinct  voice,  which,  in  a  less  clamorous  assembly 
would  have  been  probably  heard  by  a  considerable  part 
of  the  meeting. 

He  dwelt  upon  a  variety  of  the  common  topics  which 
are  pressed  into  the  service  of  Anti-catholicism,  but 
gave  no  novelty  by  any  unusual  display  of  diction  to 
the  old  arguments  against  Popery.  He  seemed  himself 
to  chuckle  at  what  he  conceived  to  be  a  peculiarly 
jocular  and  picturesque  representation  of  Mr.  O'Connell, 
at  the  Clare  election,  bowing  down  to  receive  the  bene- 
diction of  a  bishop,  forgetting  that  it  was  hardly  stranger 
on  the  part  of  Mr.  O'Connell  to  go  through,  what  is 
after  all,  I  believe,  a  common  form  with  pious  Roman 
Catholics,  than  for  a  duchess  to  print  her  beautiful  lips 
on  the  black  and  bearded  mouth  of  a  coal-heaver,  in 
order  to  obtain  a  vote  for  Mr.  Fox.  I  am  surprised 
that  this  parallel  was  not  adduced  in  Mr.  O'Connell's 
defence.  After  Mr.  Gipps  had  expended  himself  in  a 
monotonous  and  wearisome  diatribe  against  the  Catholic 
religion,  he  proceeded  to  read  a  petition,  which  the 
liberal  party  had  anticipated  would  have  prayed  dis- 


tinctly  against  all  concessions  to  the  Roman  Catholics. 
To  their  surprise  it  was  couched  in  the  following 
words : — 

"Your  Petitioners  beg  leave  to  express  to  your 
Honourable  House,  their  sense  of  the  blessings  they 
enjoy  under  the  Protestant  Constitution  of  these  King- 
doms, as  settled  at  the  Revolution,  viewing  with  the 
deepest  regret  the  proceedings  which  have  for  a  long 
time  been  carrying  on  in  Ireland. 

"  Your  Petitioners  feel  themselves  imperatively  called 
upon  to  declare  their  strong  and  inviolable  attachment 
to  those  Protestant  principles,  which  have  proved  to  be 
the  best  security  for  the  civil  and  religious  liberty  of 
these  Kingdoms. 

"  They  therefore  approach  your  Honourable  House, 
humbly  but  earnestly  praying  that  the  Protestant  Con- 
stitution of  the  United  Kingdom  may  be  preserved 
entire  and  inviolable." 

The  phraseology  of  this  petition,  from  its  moderate 
character,  excited  some  surprise ;  and  it  was  justly  said, 
that  no  Protestant  could  object  to  the  matter  for  which 
it  ostensibly  purported  to  pray.  The  compatibility  of 
concession  to  the  Catholics  with  the  entirety  and  invio- 
lability of  the  Protestant  Church,  has  been  always 
maintained,  not  only  by  the  Protestant,  but  Catholic 
advocates  of  their  claims.  This  subdued  tone  of  the 
Petition  gave  distinct  proof  that  the  Clubbists  calcu- 
lated upon  a  strong  opposition  to  any  more  forcible 
interference  Avith  the  legislature.  The  object,  however, 
of  the  Clubbists  was  obvious,  and  the  Petition  was 
resisted,  not  so  much  upon  the  ground  of  its  containing 
any  thing  in  itself  very  objectionable,  as  that  the  intent 
of  the  Petitioners  themselves  was  avowed. 


A  Mr.  Plumtree  seconded  Mr.  Gipps.  It  was  said 
that  he  was  a  Calvinist,  and  he  certainly  had  the  aspect 
which  we  might  suppose  to  have  been  worn  by  the 
founder  of  his  religion,  when  he  ordered  Servetus  to  he 
consumed  by  a  slow  fire.  He  said  nothing  at  all  worth 

When  Mr.  Plumtree  sat  down,  Lord  Camden  ad- 
dressed the  Sheriff.  He  occupied  a  peculiar  station. 
Instead,  as  was  observed  in  one  of  the  Morning  Papers, 
of  taking  his  place  upon  the  right  side,  and  bringing 
up  his  tenants  in  a  body,  he  came  unattended,  and 
selected  a  place  upon  the  hustings  near  the  Sheriff. 
He  deprecated  all  kind  of  partizanship  in  the  course 
which  he  took  in  the  proceedings;  and  certainly  his 
deportment  and  look  indicated  that  it  was  with  no  other 
feeling  than  one  of  duty,  and  without  any  kind  of 
struggle  for  superiority,  that  he  had  mingled  in  the 
contest.  I  do  not  know  whether  it  was  his  office  as 
Lord  Lieutenant  of  the  county  that  procured  him  a 
patient  hearing  from  both  sides,  or  whether  before  their 
passions  were  strongly  excited,  they  forbore  from  offer- 
ing an  indignity  to  a  person  who  from  his  age  and  rank 
derived  a  title  to  universal  respect.  He  was  the  only 
person  who  was  heard  with  scarcely  any  interruption. 
His  speech  was  exceedingly  well  delivered,  in  a  sur- 
prisingly clear,  sonorous,  and  audible  intonation.  He 
condemned  the  conduct  of  the  Catholics  in  the  lan- 
guage of  vehement  vituperation,  but  at  the  same  time 
pointed  out  the  extreme  violence  with  which  their 
demands  were  resisted. 

The  only  circumstance  in  his  speech  worth  recording 
is,  that  he  mentioned  his  belief  that  some  measure  of 
concession  was  intended  by  Government.  This  attracted 


great  attention,  and  it  is  difficult  to  conceive  how  a 
person,  so  prudent  and  so  calm  as  Lord  Camden  mani- 
festly is,  would  have  intimated  any  belief  of  his  upon 
the  subject,  unless  there  were  some  foundation  on  which 
something  more  substantial  than  a  mere  conjecture 
could  be  raised.  Towards  the  end  of  his  speech  the 
Clubbists  became  exceedingly  impatient,  and  one  of 
them  called  him  "  an  old  Radical ;"  a  term  of  which 
he  protested  that  he  was  at  a  loss  to  discover  the  appli- 
cability, as  he  had  never  done  anything  to  please  the 
Radicals.  This,  Mr.  Hunt  afterwards  controverted, 
and  insisted  that  he  had  done  much  to  gratify  the 
Radicals  by  giving  up  his  sinecure — a  panegyric  which 
was  well  merited,  and  was  most  happily  pronounced.* 

Lord  Darnley  followed  Lord  Camden,  but  was  received 
with  loud  and  vehement  hooting.  This  nobleman  is 
considered  to  be  very  proud,  without  being  arrogant, 
and  to  have  as  full  consciousness  of  the  dignity  and 
rights  of  his  order,  as  Lord  Grey  could  charge  any  Whig 
disciple  to  entertain.  He  must  have  been  deeply  galled 
when  he  perceived  that  his  rank  and  wealth  were  only 
turned  into  scoff,  and  when  in  the  outset  of  his  speech, 
a  common  boor  cried  out,  "That  there  fellow  is  a 
Hirishman.  Tim,  put  a  potato  down  his  throat,  and 

choke  his  d d  Hirish  jaw."     He  was  not  deterred 

from  going  on  by  the  howlings  which  surrounded  him, 
and  with  far  more  intrepidity  than  I  should  have  been 
disposed  to  give  him  credit  for,  he  proceeded  with  his 

*  This  venerable  nobleman  died  in  1840,  at  the  age  of  eighty-one.  He 
had  for  many  years  paid  into  the  receipt  of  the  Exchequer  the  large 
income  of  his  sinecure  office,  the  Tellership  of  the  Exchequer — a  just  and 
a  rare  claim  to  the  respect  and  gratitude  of  the  nation. 


He  soon,  however,  received  a  blow,  which  wounded 
him  much  more  than  the  potato  proposition ;  for  the 
moment  he  began  to  talk  of  his  estate  in  Ireland  (where 
he  has  a  very  large  property)  several  people  cried  out, 

"Why  don't  you  live  on  your  estate,  and  be  d d  to 

you,  and  every  other  d d  absentee  !"  This  was  a 

thrust  which  it  was  impossible  to  parry.  Lord  Darnley 
endeavoured  to  proceed ;  but  the  uproar  became  so 
terrible,  that  not  a  word  which  he  uttered  could  be 
heard  in  the  tumult.  Whatever  faults  the  Clubbists 
may  have  committed,  any  excessive  deference  to  rank 
and  wealth  was  not  on  this  occasion,  at  least,  among 
their  defects;  and,  indeed,  with  the  exception  of 
Cobbett  and  Shell,  no  man  was  listened  to  with  more 
angry  impatience  than  the  noble  Earl.  After  speaking 
for  about  twenty  minutes,  he  sat  down  with  evident 
marks  of  disappointment  and  personal  mortification. 

On  his  resuming  Ins  place,  with  a  determination,  I 
should  presume,  never  to  expose  himself  to  such  an 
affront  again,  Lord  Winchilsea  and  Mr.  Sheil  rose 
together.  The  competition  for  precedence  into  which 
the  Irish  demagogue  was  so  audacious  as  to  enter  with 
the  chief  and  captain  of  the  Brunswickers,  excited  the 
fury  of  the  latter.*  Mr.  Sheil  insisted,  that  as  Lord 
Camden  had,  as  was  I  believe  the  case,  alluded  to  him, 
he  had  a  right  to  vindicate  himself,  and  there  were 
many  Avho  surmised  that  his  motive  for  presenting  him- 
self at  this  early  stage  of  the  proceedings  was,  that  he 

*  The  Brunswick  Clubs  sprang  up  towards  tbo  close  of  the  struggle 
for  Emancipation.  They  were  the  last  efforts  of  the  expiring  Orange 
ascendancy.  Lord  Plunket,  in  the  House  of  Lords,  called  them  "  Titus 
Gates'  Clubs."  They  deserved  contempt  for  the  stupid  violence  of  their 


had  sent  his  speech  to  London  to  be  printed ;  and  he 
was  heard  to  say,  that  he  did  not  care  whether  the 
Brunswickers  listened  to  him,  provided  his  arguments 
were  read.  Whatever  was  his  object,  it  was  certainly 
not  a  little  presumptuous  in  a  stranger  thus  to  enter 
the  lists  with  an  Earl,  and  to  demand  a  prior  audience. 
"  I  am  an  Irishman,"  said  Mr.  Sheil.  "  I'll  be  sworn 

you  are,"  cried  Cobbett;  "you  are  such  a  d d 

impudent  fellow."  The  party  on  the  right  endeavoured 
to  support  Mr.  Sheil,  and  for  a  long  time  both  Lord 
TVinchilsea  and  that  gentleman  continued  to  speak 
together,  amidst  a  confusion  in  which  neither  could  be 

At  length  the  Sheriff  interposed,  and  declared  that 
Lord  Winchilsea  had  first  obtained  his  eye.  That 
nobleman  proceeded  to  deliver  himself  of  a  quantity  of 
common-place  against  the  Catholic  religion,  amidst  the 
vehement  plaudits  of  his  own  faction,  intermingled 
with  strong  marks  of  disapprobation  from  the  right. 
'/Mushroom  Lord — upstart — go  mind  your  rabbits," 
and  "  the  Papists  are  not  poachers,"  were  the  cries  of 
the  liberal  party :  while  the  Brunswickers  exclaimed, 
"  Bravo  Winchilsea !"  and  waved  their  hats,  as  with 
the  lungs  of  Stentor,  with  the  gesture  of  a  pugilist,  and 
the  frenzy  of  a  fanatic,  he  proceeded.  Although  utterly 
destitute  of  idea,  and  though  scarcely  one  distinct  notion 
perhaps  could  be  detected  in  his  speech,  yet  Lord  Win- 
chilsea, by  the  energy  of  his  action,  and  the  impetuosity 
of  his  manners,  and  the  strong  evidences  of  rude  sin- 
cerity about  him,  made  an  impression  upon  his  auditors 
far  greater  than  the  cold  didactic  manner  of  Lord 
Camden  or  Lord  Darnley  was  calculated  to  produce. 

There  can  be  no  greater  mistake  than  the  supposition 

VOL.  II.  P 


that  the  English  people  are  not  fond  of  ardent  speaking, 
and  of  a  vehement  rhetorical  enunciation.  Lord  Win- 
chilsea  is  perfectly  denuded  of  knowledge,  reflection,  or 
command  of  phrase ;  yet  by  dint  of  strong  feeling  lie 
contrives  to  awaken  a  sympathy  which  a  colder  speaker, 
with  all  the  graces  of  eloquence,  could  never  attain. 
He  seems  to  be  in  downright  earnest;  and  although  his 
personal  vanity  may  be  an  ingredient  in  his  sincerity,  it 
is  certain,  whatever  be  the  cause,  that  his  ardour  and 
vehemence  are  far  more  powerful  auxiliaries  to  his 
cause,  than  the  contemplative  philosophy  of  the  Whigs, 
who,  contented  with  their  cold  integrity  of  purpose, 
adopted  no  efficient  means  to  bring  their  tenants  to  the 
field,  and  encounter  their  opponents  with  the  weapons 
which  were  so  powerfully  wielded  against  them.  After 
having  whirled  himself  round,  and  having  beaten  his 
breast  and  bellowed  for  about  half  an  hour,  Lord  Win- 
chilsea  sat  down  in  the  midst  of  the  constitutional 
acclamations  of  the  Brunswickers ;  and  Mr.  Sheil,  and 
Mr.  Shea,  an  English  Catholic  gentleman,  both  pre- 
sented themselves  to  the  Sheriff". 

The  Sheriff  gave  a  preference  to  Mr.  Shea,  who 
made  a  bold  manly  speech,  but  was  interrupted  by  the 
continued  hootings  of  the  Protestant  party.  The  only 
fault  committed  by  Mr.  Shea  was,  that  he  dwelt  too 
long  on  the  pure  blood  of  the  English  Catholics ;  a 
topic  of  which  they  are  naturally,  but  a  little  tediously 
fond  :  it  were  to  be  desired  that  this  old  blood  of  theirs 
did  not  stagnate  so  much  in  their  veins,  and  beat  a  little 
more  rapidly  in  its  circulation.  With  their  immense 
fortunes,  and  a  little  more  exertion,  what  might  they 
not  accomplish  in  influencing  the  public  mind  ?  Excel- 
lent men  in  private  life,  they  are  not  sufficiently  ardent 


for  politicians,  and  should  remember  that  their  liberty 
may  be  almost  bought,  and  that  two  or  three  thousand 
pounds  well  applied  might  have  turned  the  Kent 

Mr.  Shea  having  concluded,  Lord  Teynham  rose; 
and  Mr.  Sheil,  at  the  Sheriff's  request,  gave  way  to 
him.  Lord  Teynham  had  been  a  Roman  Catholic.  His 
name  is  Roper,  and,  I  believe,  he  is  descended  from 
Mrs.  Roper,  the  daughter  of  Sir  Thomas  More.  He 
was  assailed  with  reproaches  for  his  apostasy  by  the 
Protestants ;  and  though  he  made  a  very  good  speech, 
it  was  neutralised  in  its  effect  by  his  desertion  of  his 
former  creed.  So  universal,  however  unjust,  perhaps, 
is  the  antipathy  to  a  renegade,  that  among  the  Bruns- 
wickers  themselves,  his  having  ceased  to  be  a  Catholic 
rendered  him  an  object  of  scorn.  "That  fellow's 
a-going  to  shift  his  religion  again."  "Oh,  my  Lord, 
there's  a  man  here  as  says  that  what  your  Lordship's 
saying  is  all  a  d d  Popish  lie;"  and  other  ejacula- 
tions of  the  same  character  warned  my  Lord  Teynham 
that  his  change  of  creeds  had  not  rendered  him  more 
acceptable  to  his  audience. 

Lord  Teynham  having  sat  down  amidst  the  Bruns- 
wick groans,  Mr.  Sheil  rose  amongst  them.  He  was 
vehemently  applauded  on  the  right,  and  as  furiously 
howled  at  from  the  left.  "  Down  with  him,  the 
traitor  ! "  "  Down  with  the  rebel ! "  "Apologise  for 
what  you  said  of  the  Duke  of  York  !"  "  Send  him 
and  O'Connell  to  the  Tower !"  «  He  got  his  freehold 
last  night  in  Maidstone  \" — "Down  with  him  !"— 
"Off,  Sheil,  off !"—" We're  not  the  Clare  freeholders;" 
— "  See  how  the  viper  spits  !" — "How  the  little  hani- 
mal  foams  at  the  mouth;  take  care  of  him,  he'll  bite 

p  2 


you;"— "Off,  Shell,  off!"  were  the  greetings  with 
which  this  gentleman  was  hailed  by  the  Brunswickers, 
while  his  own  party  cried  out  "  Fair  play  ! "  "  Oh,  you 
cowards,  you  are  afraid  to  hear  him  I"  Of  what  Mr. 
Shell  actually  said,  it  is  impossible  to  give  any  account, 
and  the  miraculous  power  by  which  the  "  Sun"  news- 
paper of  that  night  contrived  to  publish  his  oration  in 
three  columns,  must  be  referred  to  some  Hohenloc's 
interposition  in  favour  of  that  journal.  I  heard  but 
one  sentence,  which  I  afterwards  recognised  in  print,  as 
having  been  spoken. 

"  See  to  what  conclusion  you  must  arrive,  when  you 
denounce  the  advocates  of  Emancipation  as  the  enemies 
of  their  country.      How  far  will  your  anathema  reacli  ? 
It  will  take  in  one-half  of  Westminster  Abbey ;  and  is 
not  the  very  dust,  into  which  the  tongues  and  hearts  of 
Pitt  and  Burke  and  Fox  have  mouldered,  better  than 
the  living  hearts  and  tongues  of  those  who  have  sur- 
vived them  ?     If  you  were  to  try  the  question  by  the 
authorities  of  the  illustrious  dead,  and  by  those  voices 
which  may  be  said  to  issue  from  the  grave,  how  would 
you  determine  ?     If  instead  of  counting  votes  in  St. 
Stephen's  Chapel,  you  were  to  count  monuments  in  the 
mausoleum  beside  it,  how  would  the  division  of  the 
great  departed  stand !     Enter  the  aisles  which  contain 
the  ashes  of  your  greatest  legislators,  and  ask  your- 
selves as  you  pass,  how  they  felt  and  spoke,  when  they 
had  utterance  and  emotion,  in  that  senate  where  they 
are  heard  no  more:   write   'Emancipator*   upon  the 
tomb  of  every  advocate,  and  its  counter  epitaph  on 
that  of  every  opponent  of  the  peace  of  Ireland,  and 
shall  we  not  have  a  majority  of  sepulchres  in   our 


"\Vith  this  exception,  I  do  not  think  that  the  Irish 
demagogue  uttered  one  word  of  what  appeared  in  the 
shape  of  an  elaborate  essay  in  the  newspapers.  After 
having  stamped,  and  fretted,  and  entreated,  and 
menaced  the  Brunswickers  for  half  an  hour,  during 
which  he  sustained  a  continued  volley  of  execrations, 
Mr.  Sheil  thought  it  prudent  to  retreat,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Mr.  Larkin,  an  auctioneer  from  Rochester, 
who  delivered  a  very  clever  speech  in  favour  of  radi- 
calism, but  had  the  prudence  to  keep  clear  of  emanci- 
pation. His  occupation  afforded  a  fine  scope  for 
Brunswick  wit.  "  Knock  him  down — going,  going, 
gone ! "  and  similar  reminiscences  exhibited  the  aris- 
tocracy of  the  mob.  Mr.  Larkin  was  not  at  all  dis- 
turbed, but  with  an  almost  unparalleled  sang-froid,  drew 
a  flask  from  his  pocket,  and  refreshed  himself  for  the 
next  sentence,  when  the  uproar  was  at  its  height. 

When  he  had  finished,  Sir  Edward  Knatchbull,  the 
member  for  the  county,  and  Cobbett,  who  had  been 
railing  for  hours  at  the  long  speeches,  got  up  together. 
The  Sheriff  preferred  Sir  Edward,  upon  which  Cobbett 
got  into  a  fit  of  vehement  indignation.  He  accused 
the  Sheriff  of  gross  partiality,  and  while  Sir  Edward 
Knatchbull  was  going  on,  shook  his  hand  repeatedly  at 
him,  and  exhibited  the  utmost  savageness  of  demeanour 
and  of  aspect.  His  face  became  inflamed  with  rage,  and  his 
mouth  was  contorted  into  a  ferocious  grin.  He  grasped 
a  large  pole,  with  a  placard  at  the  head  of  it  in  favour 
of  Liberty,  and  .standing  with  this  apparatus  of  popu- 
larity, which  assisted  him  in  supporting  himself  at  the 
verge  of  his  waggon,  he  hurled  out  his  denunciations 
-against  the  Sheriff.  The  Brunswickers  roared  at  him, 
and  showered  contumely  of  all  kinds  upon  his  head,  but 


with  an  undaunted  spirit,  he  persevered.  Sir  Edward 
Knatchbull  was  but  indistinctly  heard  in  the  tumult 
which  his  own  party  had  got  up,  to  put  Cobbett  down. 
He  seems  a  proud,  obstinate,  dogged  sort  of  Squire, 
with  an  infinite  notion  of  his  own  importance  as  au 
English  County  Member,  and  a  corresponding  con- 
tempt for  seven  millions  of  his  fellow-citizens.  He  has 
in  his  face  and  bearing  many  of  the  disagreeable 
qualities  of  John  Bullism,  without  any  of  its  frankness 
and  plain-dealing.  Cobbett  was  almost  justified  in 
complaining  that  such  a  man  should  be  preferred  to 
him.  "When  he  had  terminated  a  speech,  in  which  it 
was  evident  that  he  was  thinking  of  the  next  election, 
at  which  the  Derings  intend  to  dispute  the  county 
with  him,  Cobbett  was  allowed  by  the  Sheriff  to  pro- 

His  hilarity  was  restored  for  a  little  while,  and  hold- 
ing out  his  petition  against  tithes,  he  set  about  abusing 
both  parties.  In  a  letter  published  in  the  "  Morning 
Herald,"  he  takes  care,  in  his  account  of  the  meeting, 
to  record  the  opprobious  language  applied  by  the  mul- 
titude to  others ;  but  he  omits  all  mention  of  what  was 
said  of  himself.  "  Down  with  the  old  Bone-grubber  I" 
— "  Roast  him  on  his  gridiron;" — "  D — n  him  and  his 
Indian  corn ;"  was  shouted  from  all  quarters.  He  was 
not,  however,  much  discomposed  at  first,  for  he  was 
confident  of  carrying  his  petition,  and  retorted  with  a 
good  deal  of  force  and  some  good-humour  on  those  who 
were  inveighing  against  him.  "  You  cry  out  too  weakly, 
my  bucks !"  said  he,  snapping  his  fingers  at  them. 
"You  cry  like  women  in  the  family-way.  There's  a 
rascal  there,  that  is  squeaking  at  me,  like  a  parson's 


These  sallies  amused  everybody;  but  still  the  roar 
against  him  continued,  and  I  was  astonished  to  see 
what  little  influence  he  had  with  even  the  lower  orders 
by  whom  he  was  surrounded.  The  Catholic  party 
looked  upon  him  as  an  enemy,  who  came  to  divide 
them,  and  the  Bruns wickers  treated  him  with  mingled 
execrations  and  scorn.  At  length  he  perceived  that 
the  day  was  going  against  him,  and  his  eyes  opened  to 
his  own  want  of  power  over  the  people.  Though  he 
afterwards  vaunted  that  the  great  majority  were  with 
him,  he  appeared  not  to  have  above  a  dozen  or  two  to 
support  his  proposition,  and  when  he  sat  down,  evident 
symptoms  of  mortification  and  of  rage  against  all  parties 
appeared  in  his  countenance.  Altogether  he  acquitted 
himself  as  badly  as  can  be  well  imagined ;  and  it  seems 
to  me  as  clear  that  he  is  a  most  inefficient  and  power- 
less speaker,  as  that  he  is  a  great  and  vigorous  writer. 
Hunt  got  up  to  second  him,  and  was  received  almost  as 
badly  as  his  predecessor,  though  his  conduct  and  man- 
ner were  quite  opposite,  and  he  did  everything  he  could 
by  gentleness  and  persuasiveness  to  allay  the  fury  of 
the  Brunswick  party.  But  after  he  had  begun,  Sir 
Edward  Knatchbull  interrupted  him  in  a  most  improper 
and  offensive  manner,  which  induced  Lord  Radnor  to 
stand  up  and  reprobrate  Sir  Edward's  conduct  as  a 
most  gross  violation  of  decorum. 

Mr.  Hunt  went  on ;  but,  whatever  may  be  his  sway 
with  public  assemblies  on  other  occasions,  he  certainly 
showed  few  evidences  of  omnipotence  upon  this.  He 
seemed  to  be  crest-fallen,  and  to  have  quailed  under 
the  force  which  was  brought  to  bear  against  him.  One 
story  he  told  well,  of  Sir  Edward  Knatchbull  having 
refused  to  pay  him  for  four  gallons  of  beer  when  he  was 


a  brewer  at  Bristol,  because  he  had  sold  him  a  less 
quantity  than  that  prescribed  by  the  law :  altogether  his 
speech,  if  it  might  be  so  called,  when  he  was  not 
allowed  to  utter  a  connected  sentence,  was  a  complete 
failure;  but  I  am  convinced  that  no  estimate  of  his 
ability  can  be  formed  from  this  specimen  of  him,  as  his 
voice  was  stifled  by  the  faction  to  which  he  was  opposed. 
Indeed  both  parties  seemed  to  repudiate  Cobbett  and 
Hunt,  as  their  common  enemies. 

Before  Hunt  had  finished,  there  was  a  tremendous 
and  seemingly  a  preconcerted  cry  of  Question  from  the 
Brunswickers ;  Hunt  went  on  speaking,  and  immense 
confusion  took  place.  Mr.  Calcraft  interfered  in  vain. 
Mr.  Hodges  and  Lord  Radnor  then  moved  an  amend- 
ment, declaring  that  the  measure  should  be  left  to  the 
discretion  of  the  legislature ;  and  amidst  a  tumult,  to 
which  I  never  witnessed  anything  at  all  comparable,  the 
Sheriff  put  the  question.  It  has  been  stated  in  the 
newspapers  that  the  Brunswickers  had  a  great  majority; 
the  impression  of  a  vast  number  of  persons  was  quite 
the  reverse.  They  were  indeed  so  well  disciplined,  that 
their  show  of  hats  was  simultaneous ;  while  the  liberal 
party  hardly  knew  what  was  going  forward.  The 
Sheriff  omitted  to  put  Cobbett's  amendment,  which 
seemed  to  be  forgotten  by  every  one  but  himself;  and 
having  announced  that  there  was  a  large  majority  for 
the  petition  moved  by  Mr.  Gipps,  retired  from  the 
chair.  The  acclamations  of  the  Brunswickers  were 
reiterated ;  the  whole  body  waved  their  hats,  and  lifted 
up  their  voices;  the  parsons  shook  hands  with  each 
other;  the  Methodists  smiled  with  a  look  of  ghastly 
satisfaction;  and  Lord  Winchilsea,  losing  all  decency 
and  self-restraint,  was  thrown  into  convulsions  of  joy, 


and  leaped,  shouted,  and  roared,  in  a  state  of  almost 
insane  exultation.  The  whole  party  then  joined  in 
singing  "  God  save  the  King"  in  one  howl  of  appropriate 
discord,  and  the  assembly  broke  up. 

Thus  terminated  the  great  Kent  Meeting ;  to  which, 
however,  I  conceive  that  more  importance,  as  it  affects 
the  Catholic  Question,  is  attached  than  it  deserves.  I 
have  not  room  left  for  many  comments,  but  a  few  brief 
observations  on  this  striking  incident  are  necessary. 
The  triumph  of  Protestantism  is  not  complete.  The 
whole  body  of  the  clergy,  who  are  in  Kent  exceedingly 
numerous,  were  not  only  present,  but  used  all  their 
influence  to  procure  an  attendance,  and  the  utmost 
exertions  were  employed  to  bring  the  tenantry  of  the 
anti-Catholic  proprietors  to  the  field, 

No  exertion  was  made  upon  the  other  side.  Lord 
Camden  boasted  that  he  had  not  interfered  with  a 
single  individual ;  yet  it  is  admitted  that  at  least  one 
third  of  the  assembly  were  favourable  to  the  Catholics. 
The  spirit  of  Lord  George  Gordon  may,  by  the  metem- 
psychosis of  faction,  have  migrated  into  Lord  Win- 
chilsea ;  but  while  he  is  as  well  qualified  in  intellect  and 
in  passion  to  conduct  a  multitude  of  fanatics,  his  troops 
are  of  a  very  different  character.  Will  the  legislature 
shrink  before  him?  Or  will  it  not  rather  exclaim, 
"  contempsi  Catilinae  gladios,  non  pertimescam  twos  ?" 
Will  the  Government  permit  such  precedents  of  popular 
excitation  to  be  held  up  ?  And  does  it  never  occur  to 
the  Tory  party  that  the  time  may  not  be  far  distant 
when  republicanism  may  choose  Protestantism  for  its 
model,  and  by  rallying  the  people,  act  upon  the  same 
principle  of  intimidation  ?  If  the  Catholics  are  to  be 
put  down  by  these  means,  may  not  the  aristocracy  be 


one  day  put  down  by  similar  expedients  ?  Will  the 
House  of  Lords  stand  by  and  allow  all  the  opulence 
and  the  rank  of  a  large  county  to  be  trampled  upon  by 
the  multitude  ?  For  it  must  occur  to  everybody,  that 
Lord  Winchilsea  was  the  only  nobleman  on  the  side  of 
the  Petitioners,  while  the  rest  of  the  Peerage  were 
marshalled  on  the  other.  Do  the  patricians  of  England 
desire  to  see  a  renewal  of  scenes  in  which  the  nobles  of 
the  land  were  treated  with  utter  scorn,  and  the  feet  of 
peasants  trod  upon  their  heads  ?  Let  statesmen  reflect 
upon  these  very  obvious  subjects  of  grave  meditation, 
and  determine  whether  Ireland  is  to  be  infuriated  by 
oppression,  and  England  is  to  be  maddened  with  fana- 
ticism ;  whether  they  are  not  preparing  the  way  for  the 
speedy  convulsion  of  one  country,  and  the  ultimate 
revolution  of  the  other. 



[DECEMBEB,  1829.] 

"WHAT  will  Catholic  Emancipation  do  for  Ireland?"* 
was  the  interrogatory  which  the  opponents  of  that 
measure  (called  by  many  great  men,  a  great  one),  had, 
for  years  before  its  enactment,  strenuously  reiterated. 
It  was  said  in  reply,  that  Catholic  Emancipation  would, 
by  the  removal  of  the  causes  for  dissension,  annihilate 
dissension  itself — that  it  would  banish  those  disastrous 
divisions  which  were  the  sources  of  not  only  national 

*  The  date  of  this  paper  will  sufficiently  account  for  whatever  crude- 
ness  may  be  noticed  in  some  of  its  views  and  recommendations.  In  the 
first  flush  of  their  recent  political  victory — a  victory,  too,  which,  not- 
withstanding the  length  of  the  struggle,  almost  took  the  conquerors 
themselves  by  surprise — the  Catholic  mind  was  not  sufficiently  composed 
to  take  a  clear  view  of  the  new  prospect  before  them,  or  distinctly  appre- 
hend its  probable  and  legitimate  results.  Mr.  Sheil  threw  out  his  first 
impressions  like  other  speculators.  Substantially,  indeed,  most  of  the 
things  he  suggested  have  been  done,  though  not  exactly  in  the  way  he 
•  contemplated,  or  as  speedily  as  he  hoped.  In  some  respects  it  is  curious 
to  remark  how  events  outstripped  his  expectations.  He  speaks,  for 
example,  of  the  extinction  of  Protestant  monopoly  in  the  municipal 
corporations  as  a  reform  rather  desirable  than  probable;  and  seems  not 
to  have  had  the  boldness  to  raise  his  eyes  to  the  judicial  bench,  or 
sufficient  strength  of  imagination  (although  a  man  of  so  lively  a  fancy) 
to  conjure  up  the  figure  of  a  Catholic  judge. 


rancour,  but  of  crime,  which,  from  its  universality, 
became  almost  equally  national  —  that  tranquillity 
•would  be  speedily  restored,  and  that  peace  would  lead 
commerce  and  capital  into  a  country  from  which  an 
agitation,  bordering  upon  insurrection,  had  made  them 
exiles — that  the  distinctions  between  Protestants  and 
Roman  Catholics  would  almost  instantaneously  vanish, 
and  the  feeling  of  common  citizenship  would  supersede 
the  artificial  and  odious  relations  of  sect  in  which  men 
were  placed  towards  each  other  —  that  the  ancient 
antipathy  to  England  would  not  merely  subside,  but 
that  the  hostility  which  previously  prevailed,  would  be 
superseded  by  a  lofty  gratitude  for  the  great  boon  of 
liberty — that  the  Union,  which  had  hitherto  consisted 
in  a  mere  statute,  would  be  converted  into  palpably 
beneficial  results;  and,  that  if  Ireland  had  lost  her 
existence  as  a  province,  she  would  become  an  integral 
portion  of  the  empire,  co-ordinate  with  England  itself. 
These,  and  still  warmer  even  than  these,  were  the 
prophecies  of  those  annunciators  of  felicity,  who  dis- 
covered in  this  single  measure  a  remedy  for  every  evil, 
and  the  origin  of  every  good;  who  believed  that  Eman- 
cipation would  operate  as  a  specific  as  immediate  in  its 
relief  as  universal  in  its  influence;  and  that  nothing 
else  would  be  required  in  order  to  convert  a  country 
beyond  almost  every  other  in  the  European  system 
distracted  and  miserable,  into  a  spot  as  happy  as 
perfect  civilization,  equal  laws,  well-regulated  habits, 
the  general  diffusion  of  wealth,  and  the  unlimited  pro- 
pagation of  intelligence,  could  render  it.  The  event, 
which  was  regarded  as  the  probable  author  of  all  this 
good,  has  taken  place;  and  in  lieu  of  the  former 
interrogatory,  which  was  so  long  pressed  in  earnest 


reiteration  upon  onr  ears,  another  has  been  substi- 
tuted; and  instead  of  hearing  it  asked,  "What  will 
Emancipation  do?"  we  hear  it  every  day  inquired, 
What  has  Emancipation  done  for  Ireland  ?" 

The  last  time  this  question  was  put  to  me,  I 
happened  to  be  sitting  at  the  table  of  a  friend  of  mine, 
who,  although  he  differed  from  me  in  politics  and  in 
religion,  has  not  allowed  his  polemical  and  theological 
predilections  to  interrupt  a  friendship  which  has  been 
of  some  years'  continuance.  He  put  the  question  to 
me  with  a  good  deal  of  taunting,  anticipating  that  I 
should  be  unable  to  give  him  a  satisfactory  answer. 
I  remained  for  a  moment  silent,  and  he  availed  himself 
of  my  taciturnity  to  repeat  the  question.  "  Has  it," 
he  added,  "  realized  those  visions  of  prosperity  which 
were  spread  out  in  all  the  gorgeousness  of  a  splendid 
rhetoric  before  us  ?  Has  it  at  all  contributed  to  calm 
the  public  mind,  to  charm  the  envenomed  antipathies 
which  are  twined  about  our  hearts,  and  to  make  them 
let  loose  their  hold ;  to  introduce  into  society  a  more 
kindly  and  cordial  demeanour ;  to  produce  a  confidence 
between  the  landlord  and  the  tenant;  to  generate 
cordiality  amongst  those  who  stand  so  much  in  need  of 
all  the  mutualities  of  good- will ;  to  induce  men  to  con- 
federate in  the  support  of  the  law,  instead  of  arraying 
themselves  against  it;  to  remove  the  old  and  almost 
inveterate  grudge  to  Protestantism,  and  the  country 
from  which  it  has  been  imported;  to  associate  the 
Catholic  clergy  with  the  State,  to  pave  the  way  for 
education,  and  to  render  us  a  moral,  a  religious,  a 
peaceful,  a  united,  an  instructed,  and  English  people  ?" 

These  questions  were  put  to  me  with  a  strength  and 
energy  of  interrogation,  to  which  I  should  have  found 


it  difficult  to  make  any  sort  of  effective  response,  when, 
fortunately  for  me,  tlircc  of  the  little  children  of  my 
friend,  entered  the  room,  and  at  once  furnished  me 
with  a  reply.  They  approached  their  father,  and 
straight  began  to  climb  his  knees  in  the  usual 
emulative  spirit  of  endearment,  in  order  to  share  the 
kiss,  which  was  the  object  of  their  infantine  com- 
petition. While  the  eldest,  a  girl  of  eight  years  of  age, 
with  beautiful  eyes,  and  with  her  fine  flaxen  hair 
streaming  over  her  shoulders  and  temples,  was  gaining 
the  height  for  which  she  struggled,  and  fastening  her 
arms,  like  tendrils,  round  the  neck  of  her  father,  who, 
while  he  affected  to  push  her  away,  was  all  the  while 
helping  her  up  to  his  embrace,  I  advanced,  and  laying 
my  hand  upon  the  child  in  such  a  way  as  to  startle  her, 
wrhile  she  shrank  back  into  the  bosom  of  her  father, 
I  said, — 

"  What  has  Emancipation  done  for  Ireland  ?  You 
have  the  answer  at  your  heart.  It  has  saved  your 
home  from  profanation — barred  the  doors  of  your 
house  against  rapine  and  against  massacre — given  you 
leave  to  hold  your  children  in  your  bosom  without 
trembling  at  the  fate  which  lately  impended  over  them 
— given  you  a  security  that  the  earnings  of  your  honour- 
able industry  will  descend  to  your  offspring  without 
the  chances  of  spoliation,  and  afforded  you  a  just 
ground  for  the  conviction,  that  as  the  peace  of  your 
country  has  been  secured  against  the  tremendous 
hazards  to  which  it  was  exposed,  your  children  will 
grow  up  in  the  midst  of  happiness  and  of  plenty,  and 
in  place  of  being  the  victims,  as  they  were  recently 
likely  to  be,  of  a  terrific  struggle,  which,  though 
delayed  for  years,  was  still  receiving  every  day  the 


ingredients  of  acceleration,  will  be  safe  from  every 
peril;  and  when  you  are  dead  (though  you  will  not  be 
altogether  gone  while  they  remain),  will  be  exempt 
from  those  calamities  of  which  even  the  anticipated 
possibility  is  a  disaster  in  itself." 

This  was  my  reply.  Many  of  my  readers  may,  at 
the  first  perusal,  deem  it  to  be  fraught  with  exag- 
gerated matter ;  but  let  them  pause  a  little,  and  look- 
ing back,  and  as  far  as  it  can  be  done  with  calmness 
and  a  cool  and  tranquil  spirit,  at  what  has  befallen,  let 
us  endeavour  to  ascertain  whether  already  Emancipa- 
tion has  done  nothing  for  Ireland. 

But  a  few  months  ago,  in  what  condition  were  we 
placed  ?  There  was  a  time,  and  it  has  only  just  gone 
by,  when  the  man  who  was  bold  enough  to  state  that 
the  country  was  upon  the  verge  of  convulsion,  would 
have  provoked  the  Attorney-General,  and  called  down 
his  ex-officio  terrors  upon  his  head.  It  is  not  very 
surprising  that  the  Government  should  have  listened 
to  those  dismal  announcements  with  great  disrelish,  and 
should  have  been  unwilling  that  truths  so  formidable 
should  be  told.  At  present,  however,  in  pointing  to 
the  danger  which  has  been  escaped,  we  have  a  deeper 
consciousness  of  our  security,  and  the  rolling  of  the 
waves  makes  us  only  feel  the  firmness  of  the  shore  from 
which  we  survey  their  tremendous  agitation. 

In  my  opinion,  and  I  have  had  some  means  of  form- 
ing a  correct  estimate  of  the  condition  of  the  country, 
the  state  of  Ireland  was,  before  the  settlement  of  the 
great  question,  terrible  indeed.  The  local  government 
had  been  entirely  superseded.  A  power  had  arisen, 
under  the  name  of  the  Catholic  Association,  whose 
democratic  influence,  exercised  through  the  medium  of 


the  sacerdotal  confederation,  which  had  been  brought 
into  alliance,  engrossed  all  authority.  No  representa- 
tive assembly  ever  presented  to  the  people  a  more 
faithful  and  express  image  of  themselves.  They  were 
delighted  with  a  government  which,  in  truth,  consisted 
of  themselves,  or  was,  at  least,  the  condensed  and  con- 
centrated spirit  of  the  seven  millions  over  which  it 
exercised  an  undisputed  and  absolute  sway.  The  Lord- 
Lieutenant  and  his  secretary,  and  all  the  inferior 
machinery  of  the  ordinary  executive,  together  with  the 
crown  officers  and  the  judges,  were  held  at  nought, 
when  compared  with  the  formidable  Association,  whose 
harangues  were  proclamations,  and  whose  resolutions 
were  law.  From  the  Giant's  Causeway  to  Cape  Clear, 
the  two  extremities  of  the  country,  there  prevailed  a 
sentiment  of  deep  and  imperturbable  unanimity;  and 
it  is  now  useless  to  disguise  it,  that  of  that  unanimity, 
a  profound  detestation  of  England,  and  a  longing 
for  retribution,  were  among  the  principal  con- 

In  the  south  of  Ireland,  under  pretence  of  assem- 
bling for  the  purposes  of  reconciliation,  the  peasantry 
met  in  bodies,  which  men  accustomed  to  the  calculation 
of  the  materials  of  which  large  masses  are  composed, 
estimated  at  twenty  thousand  men.  The  north  pre- 
sented a  spectacle  as  strange,  and  even  more  alarming. 
Mr.  Lawless,  without,  I  believe,  intending  to  produce 
any  such  effect,  gathered  about  him  an  assemblage  of 
the  Roman  Catholic  population,  which  exceeded  any 
which  had  ever  before  been  collected  in  Ireland;  and, 
but  for  the  providential  interposition  of  his  own  well- 
grounded  apprehension  of  the  consequences,  this  amaz- 
ing body  would  have  advanced  upon  their  antagonists, 


and  upon  their  first  shock  would  have  created  a  civil 

All  this  while  the  eyes  of  France  and  America  were 
fixed  upon  Ireland.  The  journals  of  the  former  country 
teemed  with  paragraphs  announcing  the  weakness  to 
which  England  was  reduced  in  this  most  vulnerable 
portion  of  her  dominions ;  and  the  leading  speakers  in 
the  Chamber  of  Deputies  did  not  hesitate  to  declare 
that  an  invasion  would  not  only  be  justifiable  as  a  mea- 
sure of  retaliation,  but  would  be  attended  with  a  certain 
success.  In  America,  the  whole  population  were 
brought  into  sympathy  with  Ireland;  and  not  only 
were  the  Irish  refugees  (a  most  active  and  powerful,  as 
well  as  most  vindictive  set  of  men,)  animated  with  all 
the  zeal  which  the  recollection  of  their  supposed  in- 
juries had  produced,  but  the  great  mass  of  the  Republic 
was  agitated  with  a  strong  feeling  of  interest  for  a 
country  in  \vhich  their  national  antipathy  to  England 
would  be  likely  to  find  an  aliment.  The  wrongs  of  the 
Irish  Catholics  made  their  way  as  far  as  Canada  and 
Nova  Scotia,  and  the  allegiance  of  the  Colonies  was 
affected  by  the  contagion,  which  extended  itself  beyond 
the  Atlantic. 

He  must  be  a  sceptic,  indeed,  who  can  hesitate  with 
respect  to  the  results  which  must  have  ensued  from 
such  a  condition  of  things.  Invasion,  civil  war,  and  a 
massacre,  upon  a  large  scale,  of  the  hated  caste,  would 
have  inevitably  taken  place.  Scarce  a  single  gentleman 
in  Tipperary,  and  in  the  other  southern  counties,  would 
have  escaped.  More  than  the  ordinary  horrors  of  civil 
war  would  have  attended  the  movement  of  an  enor- 
mous mass  of  the  peasantry,  who  would  have  simul- 
taneously arisen  together,  and  for  a  season  at  least, 

VOL.    II.  Q 


have  swept  all  the  mounds  and  boundaries  of  civiliza- 
tion before  them.  The  cataract  would  have  been,  for  a 
long  while,  irresistible ;  and,  in  its  progress,  all  that  is 
dear,  and  valuable,  and  good,  and  useful,  would  have 
been  carried  down  the  gulf,  into  which  it  would  have 
been  ultimately  lost. 

What  would  have  succeeded  these  events  it  is  difficult 
to  conjecture.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  England  would 
have  reconquered  the  desolation  which  her  policy  would 
have  produced,  and  the  desert  to  which  Ireland  would 
hare  been  reduced,  would  have  been  subdivided  amongst 
soldiers  and  adventurers  in  an  universal  confiscation. 
Or  perhaps  France  would  have  laid  her  grasp  upon  this 
unfortunate  country  under  the  forms  of  an  alliance, 
and  established  a  Hibemo-Gallican  Proconsulate  at  the 
Castle ;  or  the  people  might  have  been  left  to  them- 
selves, and,  raising  an  absolute  democracy  out  of  the 
ruins  of  every  established  institution,  have  built  up  a 
system  of  government,  where  the  shouts  of  the  multi- 
tude would  have  furnished  a  legislature,  and  the  guillo- 
tine would  have  provided  a  prompt  executive ;  and  of 
which  the  only  advantage  would  have  been,  that  each 
successive  faction  that  got  possession  of  authority, 
would,  by  inflicting  justice  upon  their  predecessors, 
have  afforded  a  precedent  for  its  salutary  extension  to 

The  danger  of  these  calamities  has  happily  passed 
away,  and  if  no  other  good  had  been  attained,  or  were 
likely  to  be  achieved,  still  the  security  in  which  we  are 
at  present  placed  would  afford  a  noble  refutation  of  the 
disingenuous  sophistries  of  those  who  insist  that  no 
benefit  has  as  yet  resulted  from  the  measure,  and  who 
see,  in  the  present  state  of  things,  nothing  but  a  verifi- 


cation  of  their  dismal  and  ominous  annonncements.  I 
am  far  from  meaning  to  say  that  strong  emotion  does 
not  still  exist  amongst  all  classes,  and  that  we  are  not 
still  in  an  exceedingly  uneasy  condition,  which  it  will 
require  both  wisdom  and  time,  the  ally  of  wisdom,  to 
relieve ;  but  the  passions  which  continue  to  be  felt  are 
no  more  than  the  innocuous  commotion  which  agitates 
the  surface  of  the  waters  in  the  anchorage  where  we  are 
moored  at  last:  and  where,  although  the  vessel  may 
continue  to  toss,  and  its  heaving  may  be  attended  with 
discomfort,  yet  there  is  no  real  danger  to  be  appre- 
hended, and  there  is  no  hazard  that  a  single  cable  will 
be  slipped,  or  that  the  vessel  will  be  blown  back  into 
the  deep. 

The  asperities  of  party  have  not  altogether  subsided, 
but  the  revolutionary  tendencies  are  entirely  gone  by. 
The  Protestants  of  Ireland  may  be  dissatisfied  at  the 
sudden  and  unexpected  equalization  with  those  over 
whom  they  had  exercised  an  ascendency,  to  which 
habit  had  attached  the  attributes  of  a  secondary  nature. 
The  Roman  Catholics,  upon  the  other  hand,  may  feel 
that  as  yet  they  have  not  received  any  individual  proofs 
that  a  considerable  alteration  in  the  system  of  patron- 
age has  taken  place.  Their  craving  for  office,  which  is 
proportioned  in  its  violence  to  the  extent  of  its  dura- 
tion, has  not  been  appeased.  But  although  this  over- 
anxious solicitude  for  place,  attended  with  a  suspicion, 
not  unnatural  in  men  who  have  been  so  often  disap- 
pointed, that  the  course  of  practical  exclusion  is  to 
continue,  may  work  for  the  present  in  a  way  which  is 
more  annoying  than  it  is  injurious ;  yet  there  can  be 
no  doubt  that  a  feeling  of  loyalty,  in  the  true  and 
genuine  signification  of  the  word,  has  begun  to  diffuse 

Q  2 


itself;  and,  even  at  this  moment,  I  am  convinced 
that,  although  a  few  months  only  have  elapsed  since 
the  time  that  all  Ireland  was  ready  to  start,  at  a 
signal,  to  arms,  an  attempt  to  seduce  the  great  body  of 
the  people  from  their  allegiance  to  the  empire  would 
utterly  fail. 

I  do  not  hesitate  to  declare  it  as  my  deliberate 
opinion,  formed  from  opportunities  of  most  minute  and 
extensive  observation,  that  if,  before  the  Catholic 
Question  had  been  adjusted,  a  small  body  of  foreign 
forces,  with  a  considerable  supply  of  arms,  had  effected 
a  descent  upon  the  Irish  coast,  the  great  mass  of 
the  nation  wonld  have  instantly  joined  them,  and  I 
am  equally  confident,  that  if  a  great  army  of  invaders 
were,  under  existing  circumstances,  to  make  so  rash  an 
experiment,  the  peasantry  would  not  co-operate  in  such 
an  undertaking ;  and  there  is  scarcely  a  Roman  Catholic 
in  the  country  raised  beyond  the  debasement  of  agrarian 
serfship,  who  would  not  rally  under  the  standards  of 
the  State,  and  readily  expose  his  life  in  the  preservation 
of  those  liberties,  in  which  every  Irishman  now  bears 
an  equal,  and,  I  may  venture  to  call  it,  a  glorious 

It  must  not,  however,  be  imagined  that  while  I  am 
thus  enthusiastic  (for  as  I  write,  I  feel  myself  a  good 
deal  excited  by  the  preposterous  averment  that  Eman- 
cipation has  done  nothing  for  Ireland),  and  while  I 
thus  zealously  point  out  the  advantages  which  have 
been  gained  by  this  transition  from  the  most  imminent 
hazard  to  a  perfect  safety,  upon  that  account  I  am 
insensible  to  the  existence  of  the  evils  which  still 
continue,  and  that  I  do  not  think  it  necessary  to  adopt 
veiy  speedy  and  efficacious  means,  in  order  to  give 


completion  to  the  work  which  has  been  effected.  Not 
only  much,  but  what  is  almost  incalculably  useful,  has 
been  already  effected;  but  it  is  not  because  a  great 
deal  has  been  accomplished  that  little  remains  to  be 
performed.  To  adopt  the  illustration  which  I  have 
previously  ventured  to  employ,  although  the  vessel  is 
in  her  moorings,  yet  she  requires  to  be  refitted ;  there 
is  no  risk  of  her  going  down,  but  her  rigging  must  be 
repaired ;  full  many  a  rotten  plank,  which  had  well  nigh 
let  in  destruction,  must  be  struck  boldly  out;  and 
although  a  great  part  of  her  framework  must  remain, 
yet,  when  she  is  put  on  the  stocks,  she  must  be  newly 

Great,  although  they  should  be  gradual,  alterations 
are  required  in  the  whole  system  by  which  the  country 
has  been  ruled;  the  spirit  of  Catholic  Emancipation 
must  be  diffused  and  dispersed  into  every  department 
of  the  state,  and  into  every  recess  of  the  executive — it 
must  pervade  the  whole  frame  and  body  of  the  admi- 
nistration; it  must  be  worked  into  the  essence  and 
being  of  the  Government.  It  must  be  found  every- 
where— at  the  desks  of  office ;  on  the  bench  of  justice ; 
at  the  green  tables  in  the  courts ;  in  the  boxes  of  the 
jury,  and  of  the  sheriff;  in  the  treasury,  the  custom- 
house, and  the  Castle; — nay,  it  must  appear  in  the 
village  school  room  and  in  the  policeman's  barrack. 
In  every  public  department,  and  in  almost  every  walk 
of  society,  and  every  path  of  life,  the  great  moral  and 
political  change  must  be  demonstrated ;  and  then,  and 
only  then,  will  all  the  useful  consequences  which  it  is 
calculated  to  create  be  fully  developed. 

Let  it  not  be  conceived,  that,  when  I  inculcate  the 
necessity  of  embodying  Catholic  Emancipation  in 


palpable  and  substantive  acts,  I  mean  to  convey  that 
aii  ascendency  over  Protestantism,  or  even  a  perfect 
equality  with  the  religion  of  the  state,  is  my  object.  I 
am  well  aware  that  the  fee-simple  of  Ireland  is  in  the 
hands  of  the  adherents  to  the  Establishment.  As  I 
write  without  any  feeling  of  partizanship — as,  at  all 
events,  I  do  my  best  to  divest  myself  of  it  (and  it  is 
not  always  easy  to  do  so) — it  is  only  consistent  with 
the  end  which  I  propose  to  myself  to  admit,  that  if  I 
were  to  travel  as  interpreter  to  an  Englishman  from 
north  to  south,  and  from  east  to  west,  in  Ireland,  until 
every  county  had  been  traversed,  and  in  passing 
beside  a  fine  mansion  and  the  walls  of  a  beautiful 
demesne,  I  were  to  be  asked  to  whom  the  noble  trees, 
the  long  avenues,  the  green  park  belonged,  in  nearly 
nineteen  instances  out  of  twenty,  I  should  answer  that 
the  proprietor  was  a  Protestant.  The  truth  is,  that 
even  to  this  day,  the  greater  proportion  of  the  land 
abides  in  Cromwellian  or  Williamite  ownership.  This 
being  the  case,  it  were  idle  to  maintain  that  the 
Protestants  of  Ireland,  few  indeed  in  number,  but 
engrossing  so  large  a  proportion  of  the  opulence  of  the 
country,  ought  not  to  engage  the  attention  of  the 
Government,  and  should  not  be  allowed  a  certain 
preponderance  in  the  state.  If  no  sort  of  regard  were 
to  be  paid  to  the  religion  of  individuals,  yet  in  the 
allocation  of  the  honours  and  emoluments  which  are  at 
the  disposal  of  the  Government,  its  patronage  would 
naturally  flow  into  Protestant  channels,  if  station 
and  connection  were  to  be  permitted  to  give  it  an 

Many  years,    indeed,    must    go   by   before    such    a 
diffusion  of  wealth  among  the  Catholic  body  will  take 


place,  and  Protestant  property  will  be  so  broken  up,  as 
to  give  to  the  professors  of  the  faith  of  the  country  a 
title  to  individual  favour  superior  to  that  of  those  who 
profess  the  creed  of  the  state.  The  majority  of  persons 
•who  hold  office,  no  matter  in  what  department,  will  be 
Protestant.  The  Bench  and  the  Bar  of  Ireland  (a  body 
which  exercises  a  vast  control  over  the  national  mind) 
must  be  filled  of  necessity  from  that  portion  of  the 
population  which  is  most  wealthy  and  intelligent.  The 
same  observation  applies  to  every  profession,  and  every 
class  of  offices  which  are  connected  with  the  Govern- 
ment; and  if  the  plan  of  purposed  and  meditated 
exclusion  be  wholly  abandoned,  still  the  larger  mass  of 
property  -which  is  in  the  possession  of  Protestants  must 
insensibly  draw  to  it,  by  the  attraction  which  it  is 
always  sure  to  exercise,  the  favours  of  the  state. 

I  have  thus  conceded  in  the  outset  that  no  violent 
disturbance  should  take  place  in  the  general  order  of 
our  institutions ;  but  while  I  have  made  this  admission, 
I  think  that  it  will  be  readily  perceived,  by  an  impartial 
and  sober-minded  person,  uninfluenced  by  the  passions 
with  which  it  is  so  difficult  in  Ireland  to  avoid  being 
impregnated,  that  this  continuance  of  a  modified 
Protestant  ascendency  is  perfectly  compatible  with 
measures  which  will  have  the  effect  of  raising  the 
Catholic  body  into  legitimate  association  with  the  state, 
and,  instead  of  shaking  the  foundations  of  existing 
institutions,  will,  on  the  contrary,  give  them  strength 
and  permanence,  by  showing  their  consistency  with  the 
national  interests,  and  by  maintaining  the  system  upon 
which  they  lean,  and  of  which  they  are  considered  by 
many  to  constitute  an  essential  part. 

Having,  then,  laid  it  down  as   a  principle  that  a 


certain  ascendancy  must  be  maintained,  it  remains  to 
be  determined  what  measures  should  be  adopted,  which 
will  be  at  once  perfectly  reconcilable  with  the  modified 
predominance,  and  will,  at  the  same  time,  bring  the 
great  body  of  the  nation  into  genuine  and  close 
adhesion  to  the  state.  I  am  of  opinion  that,  to 
preserve  a  well-regulated  ascendancy,  nothing  is  requi- 
site but  to  leave  that  ascendancy  alone.  Property 
itself  tvill  work  its  own  way,  and  to  its  influence  the 
body  of  the  people,  if  in  other  particulars  they  shall 
be  fairly  dealt  with,  will  readily  assent.  If  the  ground 
on  which  individuals  shall  be  selected  for  the  purposes 
of  favour  be  unconnected  with  religion,  still  the  great 
bulk  of  them  will  be  Protestant,  and  thus,  without  any 
discriminations  and  distinctions  of  a  sectarian  character, 
a  predominance  will  be  maintained. 

It  is  otherwise  with  respect  to  the  Roman  Catholic 
body.  Protestantism,  with  property  as  its  auxiliary, 
will  always  carry  with  it  a  great  influence,  which  will 
affect  individual  cases,  and  there  will  be  no  motive  for 
selecting  a  Protestant  as  such;  but  as  the  vast  supe- 
riority of  numbers  in  the  Roman  Catholic  population 
will  not  give  to  the  individual  Catholic  the  advantage 
which  his  individual  property  will  give  to  the  Protestant, 
it  will  be  right  to  employ,  with  regard  to  the  members 
of  one  class,  a  standard  which  will  not  be  properly 
applicable  to  the  other.  To  express  myself  unequivo- 
cally, I  think  that  Catholics  ought  to  be  promoted, 
because  they  are  Catholics,  while  I  do  not  think  that 
the  same  motive  should  be  allowed  to  operate  in  the 
nomination  of  Protestants,  whose  personal  influence, 
drawn  from  connexion  and  station,  will  necessarily 
secure  to  them  a  general  course  of  preference,  without 


any   sort   of   reference  to  their  particular  forms    of 

I  have  thus  suggested  the  general  views  which  have 
offered  themselves  to  me,  respecting  the  manner  in 
which  Roman  Catholic  Emancipation  may  be  carried 
into  effect.  It  will  not  he  deemed  inapposite  that  I 
should  proceed  to  details,  and  point  out  the  particular 
means  by  which  I  conceive  that  the  great  ends  of 
national  conciliation  may  be  attained. 

The  first  and  the  most  essential  obj  ect  to  be  accom- 
plished is  the  alliance  of  the  Catholic  clergy  with  the  state; 
and  this  conjunction  (for  I  prefer  the  phrase  to  connexion) 
may  be  produced  by  means  which  will  be  at  the  same 
time  perfectly  consistent  with  the  political  and  religious 
integrity  of  that  great  sacerdotal  corporation,  and  will 
not  shock  the  prejudices  of  those  who  cannot  brook 
the  notion  that  the  public  money  is  to  be  applied  in 
the  support  of  an  obnoxious  and  antichristian  priest- 

It  is  scarcely  needful  to  suggest  the  great  importance 
of  effecting  this  union.  If  the  Roman  Catholic  body 
contained  a  great  and  powerful  aristocracy,  who,  in 
every  district,  exercised  a  great  sway  over  the  popular 
passions,  it  might  then  answer  every  purpose  to  con- 
ciliate such  a  body,  and  the  clergy  of  the  people  might 
be  treated  with  disregard;  for  I  have  often  remarked, 
that  in  those  parishes  where  a  Catholic  gentleman  of 
great  estate  happens  to  reside,  the  priest  is  destitute  of 
consequence,  whilst  in  those  parts  of  the  country  where 
there  is  no  Catholic  resident  of  large  property,  the 
priest  assumes  and  exercises  a  nearly  absolute  sway. 
The  number  of  Catholic  proprietors  of  fortune  being 
small,  and  there  being  a  parish  priest,  with  a  brace  of 


coadjutors,  in  every  ecclesiastical  subdivision  of  Ireland, 
it  follows  that  this  body  must  needs  possess  a  nearly 
paramount  dominion.  They  hold  the  reins  of  the 
public  passions;  and  although  it  sometimes  happens 
that  the  fiery  coursers  pull  too  hard  for  them,  still  they 
generally  contrive,  by  a  mixture  of  caresses  and  of 
menaces,  to  bring  them  under  management. 

Statesmen  have  felt  the  power  of  this  most  important 
national  body,  and  it  has  been  proposed  to  attach  them 
by  the  payment  of  direct  salaries, — a  suggestion  which 
was  unpalatable  to  the  English  people,  who  would  have 
considered  themselves  as  participators  in  idolatry  by 
their  contribution  to  the  maintenance  of  priests ;  and 
which  was  rejected  by  the  clergy  themselves,  who  knew 
that,  in  losing  the  confidence  of  the  Irish  nation  (ever 
given  to  distrust),  they  would  virtually  relinquish  their 
own  power.  Accordingly,  the  project  of  paying  the 
Catholic  priesthood  out  of  the  treasury  has  been  pro- 
perly abandoned.  But  other  means  of  conciliation,  and 
other  materials  of  cohesion,  may  be  readily  resorted  to ; 
and  although  money  cannot  be  directly  given,  because 
the  immediate  donation  would  be  attended  with  inci- 
dents of  discredit,  yet  it  requires  no  great  skill  to  put 
it  into  a  judicious  circulation  by  circuitous  conductors, 
and  to  convey  to  the  priesthood,  in  the  shape  of  fair 
and  legitimate  remuneration,  what  would  be  acceptable 
as  a  well-earned  reward  for  their  labours,  although  it 
might  be  indignantly  repudiated  if  it  came  under 
another,  and  more  direct  and  obnoxious  form. 

The  sums  which  are  annually  voted  for  the  encou- 
ragement  of  education  in  Ireland   are   considerable. 


The  aggregate  of  these  sums  is  large  enough  to  attain, 
to  a  great  extent,  the  objects  which  I  propose.     Let  it 


be  remembered  that  nothing  can  be  more  remote  from 
my  intention  than  to  recommend  that  a  system  of 
bribery  should  be  instituted,  and  that,  in  consideration 
of  their  political  complaisance,  the  priesthood  of  Ireland 
should  receive  what  Foigard  calls  "a  gratification." 
I  wish  that  the  money,  or  at  least  the  far  larger  part 
of  it,  which  is  given  to  Ireland  for  the  cultivation  of 
the  national  mind,  should  be  expended  in  the  purpose 
for  which  it  is  ostensibly  voted ;  a  small  portion  of  it 
might,  without  any  sort  of  misapplication,  be  allocated 
to  the  payment  of  clerical  teachers ;  but  I  am  convinced, 
from  what  I  know  of  the  clergy,  that  they  would  gene- 
rally give  their  gratuitous  labour  in  return  for  the 
donation  of  instruction  to  the  people.  This  might  be 
left,  in  a  great  measure,  to  their  own  discretion. 
Feeling  that  they  were  trusted  by  the  Government, 
that  they  were  in  its  employment  for  purposes  useful 
and  honourable,  and  that  they  were  the  conductors 
selected  by  the  state  for  the 'diffusion  of  its  bounty,  they 
could  not  fail  to  become  attached  to  it,  .and  to  spread 
into  the  mass  of  the  community,  over  which  they 
exercise  an  influence  at  once  so  great  and  so  well 
merited,  a  corresponding  sentiment. 

It  is  commonly  imagined  that  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church  of  Ireland  is  hostile  to  education.  The  gene- 
rality of  Protestants  have  been  long  taught  to  believe 
that  the  dominion  of  the  clergy  depends  upon  the  igno- 
rance of  the  people — that  the  autocracy  of  priestcraft 
rests  upon  national  ignorance,  and  that  the  gaolers  of 
the  mind  are  anxious  to  shut  out  the  light  from  every 
crevice  of  their  immense  prison-house,  lest  their  captives 
should  avail  themselves  of  its  admission,  in  order  to 
burst  their  bars,  and  to  break  through  their  bondage. 


These  imputations  have  been  so  frequently  reiterated, 
that  they  have  at  last  grown  into  a  general  credence  in 
England ;  and  it  is  almost  universally  believed  that  the 
clergy  are  not  only  opposed  to  the  dissemination  of  the 
materials  of  religious  controversy,  but  that  they  are  the 
antagonists  of  information :  that  they  would  prevent 
even  the  elements  of  literature  from  being  diffused; 
that  they  have  anathematized  the  spelling-book,  and 
put  the  alphabet  to  the  ban. 

This  charge  is,  of  all  others  against  this  grossly 
calumniated  body,  perhaps  the  most  unfounded.  The 
number  of  charitable  establishments  in  the  city  of 
Dublin  alone,  which  are  under  the  superintendence  of 
the  Catholic  clergy,  and  of  which  the  object  is  the  in- 
struction of  the  poor,  conveys  a  complete  refutation  of 
this  most  unwarrantable  charge.  Scarcely  a  single 
Sunday  goes  by,  without  a  solemn  adjuration  by  the 
priest  from  his  pulpit,  to  feed  the  poor  with  intellectual 
aliment,  and  to  invest  their  minds  with  instruction.  I 
might  point  out  many  institutions,  under  the  auspices 
of  the  priesthood,  which  furnish  a  splendid  contra- 
diction to  this  baneful  misrepresentation.  There  is 
one,  however,  which,  beyond  all  the  rest,  deserves  the 
most  unqualified  commendation. 

I  refer  to  the  Christian  brotherhood,  established  by 
Mr.  Edmond  Price,  of  the  city  of  Waterford,  for  the 
sole  purpose  of  educating  the  children  of  the  poor. 
This  association,  which  is  one  of  the  religious  frater- 
nities attached  by  vows  of  celibacy  and  other  obligations 
(although  the  members  are  laymen)  to  the  Church  of 
Home,  originated  in  "Waterford.  Its  founder,  Mr. 
Price,  had  acquired  some  property  in  mercantile  pur- 
suits, which,  having  determined  to  dedicate  himself 


exclusively  to  religion,  he  applied  to  the  education  of 
the  poor  of  that  city.  He  induced  others  to  join  him. 
In  a  short  time  the  individuals  who  had  entered  into 
this  society,  were  enabled  to  establish  a  very  consider- 
able school.  The  benefits  of  their  truly  Christian 
labours  were  speedily  experienced.  Hundreds  of  chil- 
dren, who  would  have  been  flung  out  in  the  destitution 
which  accompanies  ignorance  upon  the  world,  acquired 
under  the  auspices  of  this  invaluable  confraternity,  the 
rudiments  of  learning.  With  knowledge  they  acquired 
morals ;  and  at  this  day  there  are  many  respectable 
men  in  business  in  the  city  where  this  institution  was 
first  cradled,  who  are  surrounded  with  comforts,  ap- 
proximating to  affluence,  and  who  owe  all  they  possess 
to  the  habits  which  they  acquired  under  Edmond 

He  was  enabled,  by  occasional  donations  to  his  estab- 
lishment, and  by  the  application  of  his  own  property, 
the  entire  of  which  he  consecrated  to  this  salutary  end, 
to  spread  the  ramifications  of  this  society  beyond  the 
spot  where  it  was  originally  planted,  and  everywhere  it 
yielded  good  results.  There  are  at  this  moment  several 
establishments  founded  by  this  most  excellent  and 
meritorious  man  in  different  parts  of  Ireland.  He  has 
now  four  thousand  boys  in  his  different  schools,  who 
are  all  gratiiitously  instructed.  This  single  individual 
has  done  more  to  promote  education  than  the  whole 
Kildare-street  Society  put  together ;  and  it  appears  to 
me  to  be  a  great  misapplication  of  the  public  money  to 
confide  its  allocation  to  that  demi-religious  and  demi- 
political  corporation,  which  is  beyond  all  doubt  the 
object  of  no  ordinary  disrelish,  instead  of  selecting  such 
a  society,  connected  with  the  Catholic  priesthood  by 


ties  so  close  as  to  constitute  a  species  of  identity,  as  the 
medium  of  distribution. 

The  efforts,  as  zealous  as  they  are  sustained  and  per- 
severing, which  have  been  made  by  this  association, 
are  mentioned  as  examples  of  the  favourable  dispositions 
of  the  Irish  Roman  Catholic  Church  towards  the  general 
diffusion  of  knowledge.  It  is  scarcely  necessary  to 
refer  to  the  names  of  the  two  great  leaders  of  the 
Catholic  hierarchy,  Doctors  Doyle  and  Murray,  as 
farther  corroboratives  of  my  position.  Both  of  these 
eminent  prelates,  distinguished  for  eloquence,  for  eru- 
dition, and  for  piety,  have  not  only  given  their  personal 
sanction  to  the  establishments  for  the  advancement  of 
instruction,  but  out  of  their  contracted  pecuniary  means, 
have  been  always  prompt  in  the  office  of  contribution ; 
and  however  numerous  and  multifarious  their  occu- 
pations, have  never  refused  to  ascend  the  pulpit  for  the 
purpose  of  enforcing,  beyond  any  other  act  of  bene- 
volence, the  merit  and  the  usefulness  of  contributing  to 
the  education  of  the  poor.  When  this  solicitude  exists 
amongst  all  classes  of  the  Roman  Catholic  population 
for  the  advantages  of  instruction,  and  the  clergy  have 
manifested  their  alacrity  in  its  propagation,  it  strikes 
me  that  a  wise  Government  ought  to  take  advantage  of 
these  dispositions,  and  employ  such  obvious  means  to 
win  a  most  powerful  corporation  to  their  side. 

The  trust  which  would  be  reposed  in  the  priesthood 
would  not  only  have  the  effect  of  attaching  them  to  the 
State,  but  it  would  also  have  an  immediate  tendency  to 
conciliate  the  people.  They  are  brought  up  with  a 
conviction,  which  habit  has  converted  into  a  kind  of 
instinct,  that  the  law  does  not  exist  for  any  other  pur- 
poses in  their  regard,  excepting  for  those  of  restraint 


and  chastisement.  This  is  not  a  very  unnatural  feeling. 
The  penal  code  could  not  fail  to  generate  this  unwhole- 
some surmise.  It  was  at  one  period  founded  in  fact ; 
and  it  would  be  strange  if,  even  under  a  most  material 
change  of  circumstances,  it  did  not  still,  to  a  great 
extent,  continue.  The  exclusive  occupation  of  all  places 
of  even  the  smallest  emolument,  and  of  the  slightest 
distinction,  by  Protestants,  the  Protestant  constitution 
of  all  public  establishments,  the  presence  of  ascendancy 
in  every  department  of  society,  as  well  as  in  every  walk 
of  life,  must  needs  have  impressed  the  peasant  that  he 
was  more  or  less  an  outcast ;  that  he  lived  but  for  the 
purposes  of  suffering  and  of  humiliation ;  and  that  he 
was,  in  reality,  an  inferior  and  degraded  being. 

The  system  is  now  changed ;  but  the  feelings  and  the 
habitudes  which  have  been  generated  by  it,  will  not 
immediately  pass  away.  They  will  not  fade  of  them- 
selves; they  must  be  rubbed  out  and  effaced.  Direct 
and  active  expedients  must  be  adopted  in  order  to 
banish  the  fatal  propensities  which  the  peasantry  have 
unavoidably  contracted.  Education — and,  above  all, 
education  through  the  priesthood — will  go  a  great  way 
in  accomplishing  this  great  good.  It  will,  in  the  first 
place,  show  them  that  the  members  of  their  own  body, 
whom  they  are  most  accustomed  to  respect,  are  the 
objects  of  favour  and  confidence  with  the  Government ; 
and  this  demonstration  will  greatly  tend  to  link  them 
with  authority,  by  disabusing  them  of  deeply-rooted 
prejudice,  of  which  I  know  no  other  means  half  so 
effectual  to  effect  the  eradication. 

In  the  next  place,  it  will  raise  up  in  that  generation 
which  is  passing  rapidly  from  childhood  into  puberty, 
and  from  puberty  into  rail  manhood,  a  far  more  moral 


peasantry.  Perhaps  the  complete  amelioration  of  the 
grown  population  of  Ireland  can  scarcely  be  expected ; 
but  assuredly  it  is  of  great  moment  to  apply  the  prin- 
ciples and  the  practice  of  a  useful  system  of  intellectual 
culture  to  the  soil  that  is  yet  unbroken,  and  from  whose 
natural  fertility  so  large  a  harvest  of  utility  may  be 
reasonably  expected.  But  even  with  those  whose  ten- 
dencies are  already  formed,  with  the  satellites  of  Cap- 
tain Rock,  whose  sports  are  sought  in  tumults,  and 
who  light  up  their  festivities  with  conflagrations,  I  do 
not  despair  of  doing  much  through  a  similar  instru- 

Let  the  most  vehement  supporter  of  the  agrarian 
system  of  Draconic  legislation  (whose  laws  are  indeed 
written  in  blood),  behold  his  children  going  every  day 
day  to  a  public  school,  of  which  his  priest  is  the  master; 
let  him  every  day  feel,  in  his  own  domestic  circle,  the 
benefits  of  that  instruction  which  is  gratuitously  con- 
veyed, and  through  a  grateful  and  a  respected  medium, 
to  his  own  family ;  let  him  at  the  break  of  day,  as  he 
goes  to  his  labours  in  the  field,  and  as  he  returns  from 
them  at  its  close,  behold,  in  the  village  school-house,  an 
evidence  and  a  monument  of  the  fair  and  kindly  inten- 
tions of  those  by  whom  the  law  is  administered  and 
enforced, — and,  gradually,  if  not  at  once,  the  good 
feelings  of  his  nature  will  get  the  upper  hand,  his 
generous  emotions  will  prevail,  and  instead  of  trans- 
mitting his  evil  inclinations  to  his  progeny,  he  will,  on 
the  contrary,  derive  from  them  some  portion  of  the 
salutary  sentiments  with  which  they  will  have  been 

I  have  given  little  more  than  a  few  outlines,  the 
mere  general  view,  or,  as  the  French  say,  the  aper^u  of 


this  most  important  question.  I  cannot,  within  the 
compass  to  which  an  article  of  this  kind  must  neces- 
sarily be  confined,  enter  into  minute  details;  yet,  before 
I  leave  the  topic  of  education,  I  cannot  refrain  from 
adverting  to  what  has  always  appeared  to  me  to  he 
most  deserving  of  the  attention  both  of  the  Legislature 
and  of  the  Government, — I  mean  the  larger  endowment 
and  augmentation  of  the  funds  of-  Maynooth  College. 

They  are  at  present  miserably  insufficient  even  for 
the  purposes  which  are  proposed,  and  they  would  be 
utterly  inadequate  to  the  greater  and  more  national 
ends,  of  which  this  college  might  be  made  the  instru- 
ment. When  Mr.  Canning  was  in  Ireland,  he  visited 
Maynooth  incognito,  and  was  disgusted  with  the  neces- 
sities to  which  he  found  that  poverty  had  reduced  both 
the  professors  and  the  students  in  what  ought  to  be  a 
great  national  seminary.  But,  considering  the  poor 
pittance  which  is  given  for  the  education  of  such  a  body 
as  the  priesthood  of  seven  millions,  it  is  rather  won- 
derful that  so  much  has  been  accomplished,  than  sur- 
prising that  little  has  been  effected.  Take  the  priests 
of  Ireland,  and  on  the  average  they  will  be  found  to 
possess  information  quite  beyond  their  comparative 
means  of  acquiring  it;  and  their  manners,  although 
deficient,  perhaps,  in  the  gracefulness  and  merits  which 
a  Jesuit  would  exhibit,  are  seldom  or  never  rude,  and 
even  when  they  are  so,  are  not  intended  to  be  offensive. 

When,  therefore,  Maynooth  has  done  so  much,  it 
should  be  an  inducement  to  the  Government  to  turn 
it  to  still  larger  and  more  useful  account,  and  by 
elevating  the  source  from  which  clerical  instruction  is 
derived,  to  give  it,  in  its  progress  through  the  country, 
a  deeper  and  a  wider  current.  Why  should  not  a 

VOL.  II.  B 


Catholic  college,  with  nearly  all  the  honours  and  ad- 
vantages of  a  university,  be  established?  If  it  be 
admitted  that  the  priesthood  are  a  most  important  and 
influential  body,  and  that  upon  them  the  improvement 
of  Ireland  is  mainly  dependent,  it  is  quite  obvious  that 
the  nursery  of  that  priesthood  is  deserving  of  the  most 
solicitous  care. 

It  is,  then,  at  Maynooth  that  the  great  business  of 
national  reformation  should  commence.  Let  its  pro- 
fessorships be  honourably  endowed;  let  the  chairs  of 
the  college  be  the  rewards  of  great  talent  and  erudition, 
which  independence  will  unquestionably  stimulate :  let 
the  course  of  studies  be  lengthened,  and  instead  of 
merely  catching  up  enough  of  Latin  to  go  through  the 
diurnal  process  of  reading  the  breviary,  let  the  students 
be  made  as  much  masters  of  the  classical  languages, 
and  the  works  of  which  they  are  the  medium,  as  the 
scholars  of  foreign  universities ;  let  science  be  culti- 
vated, let  eloquence  be  studied,  and  the  principles  of 
good  taste  be  fixed  in  the  mind ;  and,  above  all,  let  a 
deep  persuasion,  founded  upon  the  evidence  of  the  facts 
brought  home  to  their  own  doors,  be  established,  that 
the  Government  of  these  countries,  instead  of  giving  to 
the  church  of  the  people  a  cold  and  equivocal  support, 
Tvhich  rather  blighted  than  sheltered  it,  are  unaffectedly 
anxious  to  nurture  and  to  sustain  it,  and  upon  noble 
and  extended  branches  to  make  it  bear  valuable  fruit. 

While  I  give  this  recommendation,  I  am  far  from 
meaning  to  say  that  the  University  of  Dublin  is  to  be 
despoiled  in  order  to  enrich  its  younger  sister.  Let 
their  portions  be  both  independent  of  each  other,  and 
let  the  establishment,  more  directly  connected  with  the 
state,  be  the  more  favoured  of  the  two.  No  Eoman 


Catholic  will  begrudge  the  wealth  of  that  University, 
where  it  must  be  owned  that,  as  far  as  the  students  are 
concerned,  there  is  no  invidious  distinction  between 
Catholics  and  Protestants  maintained.  But  the  pre- 
ference to  be  still  given  to  Dublin  College  is  perfectly 
compatible  with  a  large  extension  of  favour  to  the  Insti- 
tution, which  has  hitherto  been  treated  as  a  mere  step- 
child, and  allowed  to  starve  for  want  of  a  sufficiency  of 
aliment  for  its  natural  and  wholesome  sustenance. 

The  advocates  of  the  Established  Church  in  Ireland, 
and  especially  Lord  Plunket,  have  repeatedly  insisted 
that  the  distribution  of  a  number  of  well-educated 
persons  through  the  country,  who  were  bound  by  their 
profession  to  maintain  a  decency  and  a  regularity  of 
conduct,  so  far  from  being  injurious  to  the  community, 
was  accompanied  by  signal  advantages,  and  tended  to 
counteract  the  evils  of  squirearchy  in  Ireland.  They 
have  expatiated  upon  the  good  results  of  the  system  of 
residentship,  which  the  recent  enforcement  of  it  among 
churchmen  was  likely  to  produce,  and  have  plausibly 
contended  that  the  want  of  a  local  gentry  was  supplied, 
in  a  great  degree,  by  the  members  of  the  established 
religion,  who,  in  the  great  majority  of  instances,  spent 
most  of  their  time  in  their  cures. 

I  am  not  prepared  to  controvert  the  justice,  to  a  cer- 
tain extent,  of  these  observations ;  but  if  it  be  true  that 
a  body  of  enlightened  gentlemen,  with  moderate  in- 
comes, whose  manner  and  deportment  afford  incentives 
to  civilization,  are  calculated  to  be  useful,  though  they 
should  be  the  ministers  of  a  religion  which  is  not  onlv 
not  that  of  the  people,  but  which  has  been  the  object  of 
their  antipathy,  how  much  larger  would  be  the  advan- 
tages which  would  ensue  from  the  location  in  every 

B  2 


district  of  a  well-educated,  refined,  and  intelligent 
clergyman,  with  literary  tendencies,  and  accomplished 
manners,  unattended  by  the  domestic  solicitudes  which 
are  incidental  to  the  connubial  condition  of  the  Pro- 
testant clergy,  and  placed  in  a  happy  and  virtuous  mean 
between  indigence  and  luxury,  with  leisure  and  incli- 
nation to  cultivate  his  own  mind,  and  to  improve  the 
habits  of  those  who  should  be  committed  to  his  charge. 
The  creation  of  such  a  clergy  in  Ireland,  for  which 
there  exists  admirable  materials,  would,  beyond  all 
doubt,  work  a  great  national  improvement;  and  the 
first  measure  to  be  adopted  for  the  effectuation  of  this 
end,  is  the  larger  endowment  of  Maynooth.  It  appears 
to  be  strangely  incongruous  that  the  sum  of  25,0007. 
should  be  annually  granted  to  the  Kildare  Street 
Society,  for  the  purposes  of  education,  and  that  no 
more  than  9,828A  should  be  granted  for  the  academical 
instruction  of  that  most  influential  body,  which  might 
be  easily  rendered  the  moral  police  of  Ireland. 

The  consideration  of  the  means  of  pacifying  and 
mitigating  the  peasantry  through  the  instrumentality 
which  I  have  suggested,  leads  me  to  some  reflections 
upon  the  course  which  is  now  pursued,  in  order  to  keep 
them  under  restraint.  There  can  be  little  question  en- 
tertained as  to  the  failure  of  the  constabulary  force  in 
the  prevention  of  crime,  and  in  the  production  of 
peaceful  habits  amongst  the  people.  A  small  party  of  ten 
or  twelve  men,  dressed  in  green  jackets  and  trowsers, 
with  leathern  belts  round  ther  waists,  to  which  a  sword 
is  appended,  and  provided  with  a  musket  and  cartridge- 
box,  are  stationed  in  the  midst  of  an  enormous  and 
most  tumultuous  population.  They  are  generally 
Protestants,  and  Protestants  of  the  worst  class,  most 


of  them  being  initiated  into  the  mysteries  of  Orangeism. 
Their  functions  alone  would  be  sufficient  to  make  them 
the  objects  of  popular  aversion,  and  it  seemed  to  be 
scarcely  necessary  to  superadd  religion  as  a  farther 
ingredient  of  alienation. 

Knowing  that  they  are  detested,  and  being  few  in 
number,  they  are  rendered  cruel  by  the  danger  to 
which  they  are  exposed,  and  when  surrounded  by  an 
angry  rabble,  are  always  ready  to  have  recourse  to  their 
fire-arms  and  to  their  bayonets,  and  in  many  instances 
anticipate,  instead  of  waiting  for  provocation.  The 
number  of  homicides  (to  use  ^the  most  modified  phrase) 
committed  by  the  police  in  a  single  year,  affords  a  proof 
of  the  necessity  of  introducing  some  alteration  in  the 
structure  of  this  rural  force.  It  is  but  necessary  to 
refer  to  the  dreadful  transactions  at  Borrisokane,  in 
order  to  illustrate  the  justice  of  this  observation.* 

If  it  were  inquired  of  me  what  expedient  I  should 
adopt,  with  a  view  to  the  proposed  amelioration,  I  would 
suggest,  in  the  first  place,  that,  in  the  selection  of 
persons  to  serve  in  the  police,  care  should  be  taken  to 
create  a  mixture  of  Catholics  and  of  Protestants,  and 
that  a  preference  should,  in  general,  be  given  to  the 
professors  of  the  creed  of  the  people.  Before  the  set- 
tlement of  the  Catholic  Question,  it  was  quite  natural, 
and  indeed  it  was  almost  necessary,  that  a  government 
built  upon  the  principle  of  exclusion  should,  even  in 

*  At  Borrisokane,  in  the  county  of  Tipperary,  there  occurred,  shortly 
before  this  paper  was  written,  a  sanguinary  collision  between  the  populace 
and  the  police.  Since  that  period  (chiefly  during  the  administration  of 
the  Marquess  of  Normanby  and  Lord  Morpeth)  the  Irish  police,  or 
constabulary  force,  has  been  thoroughly  reformed.  A  good  character 
and  a  vigorous  constitution  are  now  the  only  qualifications  of  a  constable 
regarded  by  the  heads  of  the  department. 


the  exercise  of  its  inferior  patronage,  take  care  to  sus- 
tain the  system  of  ascendency,  and  draw  the  underlings 
of  power  from  the  same  storehouse  of  orthodoxy  out 
of  which  higher  functionaries  were  supplied.  As  the 
monopoly  of  all  the  important  offices  at  the  bar,  in  the 
revenue,  and  in  the  rest  of  the  higher  departments  of 
society,  held  the  gentry  of  Ireland  together,  and  pro- 
duced a  coalition,  of  which  Protestantism  was  the 
cement,  so  amongst  the  inferior  order  of  Protestants, 
the  loyal  plebeians  of  Ireland,  the  conviction  that  they 
would  be  equally  the  objects  of  predilection,  and  that 
the  whole  of  the  minor  but  multifarious  emoluments  of 
Government  were  to  be  distributed  amongst  them, 
bound  them  in  bonds  of  self-interest  as  strong  as  any 
of  the  ligatures  by  which  their  superiors  were  tied 

There  are  several  acts  of  the  Irish  Parliament,  in 
which  provisoes  are  introduced,  that  all  the  watchmen 
in  Dublin,  and  in  other  considerable  towns,  should  he 
Protestants.  The  English  reader  of  such  clauses  may 
be  at  first  disposed  to  start,  but  a  little  reflection  will 
convince  him,  that  if  the  exclusive  policy  was  to  be 
maintained,  there  was  every  reason  to  extend  it  to  the 
lower  from  the  better  orders  of  society.  I  account  for 
the  majority  of  Protestants  in  the  police  upon  this  prin- 
ciple of  selection.  There  is  no  longer  any  motive  for 
practising  these  expedients  in  order  to  strengthen  the 
Protestant  interest.  To  keep  the  country  was  formerly 
its  object,  and  it  was  only  by  the  uniform  and  syste- 
matic preference  of  the  smaller  caste,  and  by  the  crea- 
tion of  division,  that  this  could  be  effected ;  but  now 
that  all  danger  of  losing  the  country  is  entirely  passed 
by,  the  object  should  be  to  pacify  and  to  civilize  it,  and 


the  attainment  of  these  ends  requires  upon  the  part  of 
the  authorities  an  adaptation  of  the  means  to  the  cha- 
racter, habits  and  prejudices  of  the  people. 

To  apply  these  abstract  remarks  to  the  subject  which 
gave  rise  to  them,  the  constitution  of  the  constabulary 
force,  I  think  it  obvious  that  the  Irish  gendarmerie, 
as  they  have  been  not  inappositely  designated,  should 
be  made  as  little  obnoxious  to  the  peasantry  as  it  is  pos- 
sible; and  that,  if  authority  be  always  more  or  less  odious, 
especially  in  a  country  circumstanced  as  Ireland  is, 
efforts  should  be  made  to  divest  it,  as  far  as  it  is  possible 
to  do  so,  of  the  qualities  which  create  antipathy;  and 
to  make  it  acceptable  to  the  people,  the  Catholicity  of 
the  police  would  go  a  great  way  in  accomplishing  this 
purpose.  If  every  Sunday  they  were  seen  marching 
to  chapel,  and  not  to  church,  and  if  they  were  mixed 
with  the  populace  round  the  altar,  while  the  priest 
lifted  up  his  hands,  and  exclaimed,  "  Dominus  vobis- 
cum  ! "  the  extension  of  this  indiscriminate  benediction 
over  all  his  auditors  would  divest  even  the  most  ob- 
noxious portion  of  his  congregation  of  a  good  deal  of 
their  offensive  attributes,  and  induce  the  people  to 
merge  the  policeman  in  the  Catholic,  to  pardon  the 
shouldering  of  the  musket  for  the  sake  of  the  genu- 
flection at  the  altar,  and  almost  to  embrace  with  cordia- 
lity the  man  whom  they  now  regard  with  horror,  and 
for  whose  blood,  in  every  tumult,  they  feel  a  ferocious 
appetite,  to  which  there  is  not  unfrequently  applied  the 
stimulant  of  wrong. 

It  will  not  be  enough  that  the  great  mass  of  the 
police  should  be  Roman  Catholic;  it  would  also  be 
most  useful  that  the  chief  constables  should  be  selected 
from  the  same  portion  of  the  community.  On  the 


character  of  the  chief  constable  must,  in  a  great 
measure,  depend  the  dispositions  and  the  conduct  of 
the  persons  under  his  control.  It  would  be  judicious 
to  confer  upon  the  Catholic  priesthood  some  little 
patronage  in  the  selection  both  of  the  men  and  of  their 
superiors.  This  privilege  would  operate  as  a  compen- 
sation for  the  want  of  salaries  from  Government  to  the 
priesthood,  to  which,  at  least  in  the  present  state  of  the 
country,  I  am  entirely  averse.  If  the  priest,  the  chief- 
constable,  and  the  force  under  him,  could  all  be  made 
to  pull  well  together,  it  is  sufficiently  clear  that  a  far 
more  effectual  and  better-combined  system  of  local 
superintendence  over  the  public  quiet  would  be  the 
result ;  and  if  any  person  who  reads  these  observations 
shall  be  disposed  to  think  that  I  am  recommending  an 
investment  of  influence  and  authority  in  the  Catholic 
body,  and  especially  in  its  clergy,  I  ansAver  that  the 
great  and  paramount  object  is  to  tranquillize  Ireland; 
to  impart  civilization  to  her  people ;  to  eradicate  and 
tear  up  the  propensities  to  savageness  and  ferocity,  and 
to  superinduce  pacific  and  well-ordered  habitudes 
amongst  all  classes  of  the  community. 

Before  objects  of  such  incalculable  importance,  all 
others  should  vanish.  There  is  no  price  too  extravagant 
for  the  purchase  of  public  repose  and  the  acquisition  of 
general  tranquillity;  and,  if  I  shall  be  told  that  I  am 
virtually  proposing  a  species  of  Catholic  ascendancy, 
in  the  measures  which  I  recommend,  even  if  I  were  to 
acknowledge  the  charge  in  its  widest  latitude,  still,  if 
rapine,  murder,  and  conflagration  could  be  put  down  by 
these  means,  from  the  utility  of  their  end  they  would 
derive  their  vindication.  Provided  the  furies  can  be 
bound,it  is  of  little  moment  how  the  chains  are  fabricated. 


But  in  truth,  there  is  no  ascendancy,  nor  anything 
like  an  ascendancy  of  Catholic  influence  contained  in 
these  expedients.  It  might  as  well  be  said,  that, 
because  Greek  sailors  work  the  Turkish  vessels,  there- 
fore the  Greeks  are  the  masters  of  the  Ottoman  navy. 
I  have  assigned  to  Roman  Catholics,  according  to  my 
plan,  no  situations  which  can  give  them  an  undue,  or 
even  a  considerable  political  influence.  Of  what 
account  in  the  balance  would  be  all  the  artificial 
weights  which  I  have  superadded  to  Catholicism,  if  it 
were  to  enter  the  scales  against  Protestant  property? 
Let  not  the  members  of  the  Establishment  take  alarm, 
their  millions  of  acres  will  outweigh  the  school-houses 
of  the  Catholic  clergy  and  the  barracks  of  a  Catholic 

The  administration  of  justice  must  immediately 
engage  the  attention  of  the  Government.  The  same 
policy  which  gave  a  Protestant  character  to  the  inferior 
departments  of  the  executive,  did  not,  of  course,  fail 
to  impress  it  upon  the  public  tribunals.  This  was  not 
only  consistent,  but  inevitable.  In  times  of  civil 
commotion,  justice  throws  down  her  balance,  lifts  the 
veil  from  her  eyes,  and  brandishes  the  sword.  I  am 
surprised  that  Protestants  take  the  impeachment  of  the 
partial  administration  of  the  law  in  bad  part.  How 
could  they  have  existed  amidst  an  inflamed  and  exas- 
perated nation,  unless  they  had  reserved  to  themselves 
the  artificial  constituents  of  power,  and  counteracted 
the  immense  disproportion  of  numbers  by  the  influence 
of  combination?  The  instincts  of  self-preservation 
operated  to  a  great  extent  in  all  the  expedients  which 
were  adopted  in  order  to  maintain  a  predominance,  and 
nowhere  so  much  as  in  the  administration  of  the  law. 


The  judges  were  Protestant  by  Act  of  Parliament ; 
but  that  was  not  sufficient.  The  conspicuous  station, 
which  is  occupied  by  a  person  who  fills  judicial  func- 
tions, must  render  him  exceedingly  cautious  in  the 
manifestation  of  his  biasses  ;  whereas  the  comparatively 
obscure,  and  the  transitory  nature  of  the  duties  of  a 
juror,  render  him  less  obnoxious  to  criticism,  and 
readily  commend  his  delinquencies  to  oblivion.  I  am 
convinced  that  there  has  been  much  fouler  work 
practised  in  the  sequestration  of  a  juror's  chamber, 
than  was  ever  in  the  worst  times  perpetrated  on  the 
bench.  It  will  be,  I  hope,  recollected,  that  I  am  not 
now  indulging  in  any  invective  against  the  system 
which  existed  before  Catholic  Emancipation  had  made 
it  superfluous.  I  am  at  the  same  time  accounting  for 
the  existence  of  past  and  almost  inseparable  abuses, 
and  pointing  out  the  inexpediency  of  adhering  to  them 
with  a  factious  pertinacity,  when  circumstances  have 
undergone  so  great  a  change^ 

There  no  longer  exists  any  plausible  motive  for 
arraying  a  band  of  Protestants  in  the  jury  box,  when- 
ever a  delinquent  against  not  only  the  laws  of  society, 
but  of  humanity,  is  put  upon  his  trial.  In  the  recent 
trials  which  took  place  in  the  county  of  Tipperary,  in 
almost  every  case  the  jurors  were  Protestants.  I  do 
not  mean  to  say  that  the  Crown  paid  any  regard  to 
the  religion  of  those  who  were  put  aside.  The  panel, 
however,  is  so  constituted,  that  Protestantism  is  always 
to  be  found  at  the  top ;  and,  indeed,  it  is  of  such  depth, 
that  the  twenty  challenges  given  to  the  prisoner  cannot 
get  below  it,  and  reach  the  substratum  of  Catholicity 
which  is  to  be  found  in  the  lower  degrees  of  the 


This  is  a  most  serious  evil.  Though  justice  may  be 
administered  with  the  purest  impartiality  by  a  body  of 
Protestant  jurors,  still  a  community  so  suspicious  and 
distrustful  as  the  Irish  peasantry  will  always  refer  their 
verdicts  to  their  religion.  It  has  been  often  said,  but 
it  cannot  be  too  frequently  repeated,  that  it  is  of  as 
much  consequence  to  impart  a  confidence  in  the  admin- 
istration of  the  laws  to  the  lower  classes,  as  to  render 
it  pure  and  unbiassed.  I  cannot  avoid  the  expression 
of  a  wish,  that  as  much  attention  had  been  paid  to  the 
character  of  justice  as  to  its  purity ;  for  it  is  as  baneful 
that  its  reputation  should  be  tarnished,  as  that  its 
integrity  should  be  debauched.  Positive  directions 
ought  to  be  given  to  compound  the  juries  of  mixed 

It  must,  however,  be  admitted,  in  fairness  to  the 
Irish  Government,  that  they  have  already  taken  one 
great  step  in  effecting  a  material  improvement ;  a  great 
number  of  Roman  Catholic  gentlemen  have  been 
named  sheriffs  for  the  succeeding  year,  in  the  counties 
where  their  respective  properties  are  situated.  The 
sight  of  a  Catholic  sheriff  in  his  carriage  drawn  by  four 
horses,  as  he  enters  the  assize  town  with  the  judges, 
while  a  long  train  of  halbert  bearers,  attended  with  a 
brace  of  trumpeters,  make  up  the  procession,  will  have 
an  imposing  influence  upon  the  great  mass  of  the 
spectators,  whose  political  notions  are  not  unfrequently 
founded  upon  such  apparently  insignificant  circum- 
stances. But  until  either  the  appointment  of  the 
sheriff  of  the  city  of  Dublin  shall  be  wrested  from  ther 
Corporation,  or  the  Corporation  itself  shall  receive  a' 
large  accession  of  Catholicity,  (an  event  by  no  means 
probable),  it  will  be  utterly  impossible  to  render 


the    administration    of   the    law    satisfactory    to    the 

The  case  with  respect  to  the  sheriffs  of  Dublin  is 
very  simple.  The  sheriffs  elect  the  jurors,  the  corpo- 
rators elect  the  sheriffs,  and  the  corporators  are, 
almost  to  a  man,  possessed  by  the  most  violent  spirit  of 
factious  partizanship.  The  very  sources  being  thus 
discoloured,  it  can  scarcely  be  expected  that  the 
currents  that  flow  out  of  them  should  be  exceedingly 
crystalline  and  pure.  This  vitiation  of  justice  in  the 
metropolis  is  the  more  disastrous,  inasmuch  as  almost 
all  important  political  questions  which  fall  within  the 
cognizance  of  our  public  tribunals  are  decided  by 
Dublin  jurors.  The  press  is  thus  completely  at  the 
mercy  of  the  Corporation ;  and  it  is  to  be  feared  that 
it  is  not  merely  in  matters  of  a  direct  political  tendency 
that  these  evil  influences  have  an  operation,  but  in 
cases  between  man  and  man,  and  where  there  is  no 
ostensible  avenue  for  the  admission  of  political  motives, 
it  is  to  be  apprehended,  and  at  all  events  it  is  habit- 
ually suspected,  that  the  men  who  are  so  eminent  for 
their  factious  zeal  beyond  the  jury  box,  are  not  entirely 
free  within  it ;  and  that  the  same  passions  which  act 
upon  them  in  all  the  walks  of  ordinary  life,  are  not, 
the  moment  they  assume  their  jurist  functions,  miracu- 
lously put  aside. 

But,  however  the  fact  may  stand,  it  is  certain  that 
the  Corporation  juries  have  grown  into  general  dis- 
credit. It  is  a  common  observation  that  "  a  Catholic 
has  little  chance  with  them;"  and  whether  it  be  well 
or  ill  founded,  it  is  clear  that  pains  ought  to  be  taken 

*  TLere  is  now  but  one  High  Sheriff  of  the  city  of  Dublin ;  he  is 
appointed  by  the  Government. 


to  do  away  this  most  injurious  of  all  impressions.  If 
the  Government  shall  seriously  determine  to  abate  this 
abuse,  they  will  not  find  it  very  difficult.  They  have  a 
vote  in  the  appointment  of  sheriffs  as  it  is ;  but  this  is 
a  power  which  they  will  be  slow  to  exercise,  except  in 
cases  of  peculiarly  offensive  nomination.  The  enormous 
misapplication  of  the  funds  vested  in  the  Corporation 
of  Dublin  for  the  benefit  of  the  citizens,  affords  an 
opportunity  of  bringing  the  whole  Corporation  under 
legislative  revision ;  and  it  will  be  no  very  great  stretch 
of  authority  to  take  away  from  them  the  main  engine 
of  their  power,  when  once  the  principle  of  interference 
shall  have  been  adopted. 

I  have  limited  myself,  in  the  consideration  of  the 
evils  which  affect  Ireland,  and  the  remedies  of  those 
evils,  to  that  class  of  injury  which  arises  immediately 
from  the  relative  condition  of  the  Protestant  and 
Catholic  population.  The  first  object  of  the  Govern- 
ment ought  to  be  to  correct  the  bad  consequences  of  that 
penal  code  which  it  is  not  sufficient  to  abolish,  in  order 
to  efface  the  traces  which  it  has  left  behind.  I  avoid, 
for  the  present,  any  discussion  upon  other  subjects  not 
proximately  connected  with  Protestantism  and  Catho- 
licity, though  I  am  fully  sensible  of  the  importance  of 
the  great  topics  of  emigration,  and  the  enforcement  of 
a  provision  for  the  poor.  To  these  momentous  themes 
I  shall  hereafter  direct  my  attention,  satisfying  myself 
at  present  with  observing,  that  the  great  obstacle  in 
the  way  of  Poor  laws,  which  is  supposed  to  arise  from 
the  difficulty  of  procuring  an  effiiacious  system  of 
overseer  ship,  might  be  overcome,  by  making  the 
Protestant  and  Catholic  clergymen  the  stewards  of 


the  pauper  fund,  and  obliging  them  to  account  half- 
yearly,  at  vestries  composed  of  all  classes  of  the  people. 
They  would  act  in  nominal  copartnership;  but  the 
rivalry  of  religion,  and  their  individual  competition, 
would  operate  as  checks,  while  public  opinion  would 
exercise  over  them  a  more  than  ordinary  coutrol. 

In  the  views  which  I  have  thrown  out,  I  have  spoken 
prospectively.  It  may  be  asked,  "What  is  the  present 
state  of  the  public  mind?  There  appears  to  me  to 
exist  a  languor,  which  is  the  consequence  that  succeeds 
to  great  exertion,  and  the  exhaustion  of  amazing 
efforts.  The  only  man  in  Ireland  who  retains  his 
indefatigability  of  spirit,  and  an  energy  that  seems  to 
be  indomitable,  is  Daniel  O'Connell.  He  has  invited 
the  nation  to  co-operate  witli  him  in  the  repeal  of  the 
Union  with  almost  as  much  zeal  as  when  he  called  on 
his  fellow-citizens  to  confederate  in  the  cause  of 
Emancipation.  Hitherto,  however,  there  has  been  but 
a  very  feeble  echo  returned  to  his  trumpet-tongued 
adjurations.  The  aristocracy  stand  aloof;  the  people 
are  torpid  and  doubtful ;  and  one  of  the  most  zealous 
of  his  former  associates,  in  walking  with  him  along  the 
beach  of  the  sea,  while  he  was  pointing  out  the  utility 
and  the  practicability  of  dissolving  the  bonds  between 
the  two  countries,  is  reported  to  have  stretched  his  arm 
towards  a  steam-boat  that  hove  in  sight,  and  to  have 
replied,  "  There  is  my  answer." 

But  although  a  disposition  to  sympathize  with  Mr. 
O'Connell  has  not  as  yet  been  manifested,  it  must  be 
recollected,  that,  notwithstanding  he  may  now  find  no 
alliance  in  the  national  passions,  he  may  soon  succeed 
in  enlisting  those  best  of  all  auxiliaries,  events,  upon 


his  side;  and  men  who  now  hesitate  and  stand  still 
until  incidents  shall  give  a  determination  to  their 
conduct,  may  be  soon  hurried  back  into  the  agitation 
from  which  they  have  emerged.  There  is  in  Ireland  a 
strong  democratic  feeling  engendered  by  the  discussion 
of  the  Catholic  Question,  and  in  one  shape  or  other  it 
is  likely  to  appear.  The  love  of  noting  and  of  hearing 
inflammatory  harangues  has  not  yet  passed  away ;  and 
it  would  not  be  very  difficult  to  organize  an  assembly, 
which  would  in  a  short  time  apply  as  strong  stimulants 
to  the  popular  passions  as  the  celebrated  Catholic 
Association.  As  yet,  O'Connell  stands  alone — his  old 
companions  have  not  united  themselves  with  him,  but 
they  will  probably  suffer  a  relapse  into  their  former 
habitudes,  and  partly  from  the  passion  for  notoriety, 
and  partly  from  their  vexation  with  the  Government, 
they  will  rally  round  the  standard  which  he  knew  how 
to  bear  so  well.  A  petitioning  committee,  or  even  a 
series  of  political  convivialities  provided  at  a  few  shillings 
a-head,  would  soon  furnish  a  wide  field  for  the  indulgence 
of  the  rhetorical  and  tribunitian  propensities;  and  a  feel- 
ing would  be  excited  by  dint  of  continuous  declamation, 
which  would  produce  a  gradual  excitement  in  the 

The  Irish  Church,  be  it  remembered,  is  one  of  the 
most  alluring  topics  which  were  ever  offered,  either  to 
fierce  invective  or  to  sardonic  derision ;  and  its  abuses 
will,  unquestionably,  not  escape  ridicule  and  denounce- 
ment. The  transition  from  the  correction  of  real  evils 
to  the  suggestion  of  imaginary  ones,  is,  we  all  know, 
not  very  difficult.  It  is,  therefore,  incumbent  upon 
the  Government,  and  especially  the  local  government 


of  Ireland,  to  watch  with  great  vigilance  over  the 
popular  emotions.  It  will  be  for  them  to  determine 
whether  they  will  choose  the  active  spirits  who  have 
shown  themselves  to  be  masters  in  the  arts  of  agitation, 
for  their  supporters  or  their  foes.  If  any  unfair  deal- 
ing be  practised;  if  the  system  of  studied  exclusion 
shall  be  adhered  to ;  if  the  underlings  of  office  at  the 
Castle  are  permitted  to  exercise  the  virtual  autocracy 
which  they  once  held ;  if  no  substantial  change  shall 
take  place,  there  will  soon  prevail  in  Ireland  as  much 
disquietude,  which  will  be  succeeded  by  as  much  con- 
tention, as  formerly  prevailed. 

I  own,  however,  that  I  have  a  great  confidence  in 
the  wisdom  and  in  the  sound  views  of  a  man,  who, 
without  any  ostentation  and  false  glare  of  liberality, 
has  conducted  the  affairs  of  Ireland,  which  is  virtually 
entrusted  to  his  care,  in  such  a  way  as  to  convince  all 
impartial  persons  that  he  has  the  real  interests  of  the 
country  strongly  at  heart,  and  that  he  fully  under- 
stands them.  Lord  Francis  Leveson  Gower  is  a  person 
of  great  intellectual  attainments,  who,  by  extending  his 
honourable  zeal  in  the  pursuit  of  literary  renown  to  the 
acquisition  of  political  celebrity,  will,  in  all  likelihood, 
reach  to  the  highest  eminence  in  the  State,  and  be  one 
day  enabled  to  dispense  from  the  heights  of  power  the 
benefits  which  I  have  no  doubt  his  patriotism  makes 
him  solicitous  to  confer  upon  his  country. 

Born  upon  the  pinnacles  of  fortune,  with  opulence 
almost  incalculably  great,  and  connected  with  the 
great  patrician  families  in  the  empire, — with  extensive 
knowledge,  genius,  of  which  his  works  give  such 
abundant  proof,  and  in  the  flower  of  life — what  may 


not  such  a  man  yet  accomplish,  by  taking  advantage  of 
the  glorious  opportunities  with  which  he  is  encom- 
passed ?  The  statesmen  who  filled  the  office  which  he 
holds  before  him,  were  commissioned  to  sow  discord, 
and  to  perpetuate  dissension  in  Ireland.  Yet  that  bad 
and  baneful  function  was  sufficiently  important  to 
render  them  of  great  consequence  in  the  political 
world.  How  much  more  noble  is  the  task  which  has 
been  assigned  to  him.  If  Mr.  Peel,  when  his  peculiar 
cast  of  political  opinions,  which  he  has  since  so 
generously  expiated,  threw  him  into  the  arms  of  the 
ascendancy,  was  enabled,  by  his  government  of  Ireland, 
to  attain  to  so  much  importance,  how  much  more 
noble  are  the  occasions  of  genuine  celebrity  which  are 
afforded  to  the  man,  who,  in  this  great  crisis,  holds  the 
reins  of  the  Irish  government,  and  therefore  the 
fortunes  of  Ireland,  in  his  hands  ! 

To  give  to  the  great  name  its  glorious  consummation; 
to  build  up  to  its  full  height  the  structure  of  which 
Wellington  has  laid  the  foundation ;  to  effect  the  per- 
manent reconciliation  of  parties  whom  the  accumulated 
odium  of  a  century  had  divided ;  to  banish  the  relics  of 
those  animosities  which,  as  long  as  they  prevail,  must 
frustrate  to  a  great  extent  all  the  wise  designs  of  the 
Legislature :  to  correct,  with  a  hand  at  once  cautious 

O  *  ' 

and  resolute,  the  abuses  which  remain  to  be  removed, 
and  to  deposit  in  the  national  mind  the  seeds  of  lasting 
improvement ;  to  unite  the  Irish  people  amongst  them- 
selves, and  at  the  same  time  to  complete  their  identity 
with  the  great  nation,  in  whose  liberties  they  now 
enjoy  a  full  participation ; — these  are  the  objects  which 
ought  to  be  proposed  to  himself,  by  the  nobleman 

VOL.    II.  S 


whom,  without,  I  hope,  any  deviation  from  the  personal 
respect  Avhich  is  due  to  him,  I  have  thus  ventured  to 
awaken  to  a  consciousness  of  his  large  means  to  achieve 
incalculable  good,  and  endeavoured  to  make  sensible  of 
all  the  genuine  glory  which  would  attend  it.* 

*  Lord  Francis  Leveson  Gower  (now  Earl  of  Ellesmcre)  held  the  office 
of  Chief  Secretary  for  Ireland  for  two  years,  the  average  duration  of  an 
Irish  Chief  Secretaryship,  but  too  short  a  period  for  the  completion,  even 
by  such  a  man,  of  so  vast  a  work  as  Mr.  Sheil  chalked  out  for  him,  or 
even  to  make  any  considerable  progress  in  it.  But  little  indeed  was 
done  to  make  Catholic  Emancipation  a  reality  until  Lord  Morpeth's 
Secretaryship,  from  1835  to  1841.  There  was  then  time,  as  well  as  the 
disposition  and  ability,  to  vivify  the  letter  of  the  law  and  make  it  a 
source  of  practical  improvement. 

Referring  to  that  very  useful  work,  Beatson's  Political  Index, 
modernized,  we  find  a  list  of  no  fewer  than  twenty -two  Chief  Secretaries 
since  1800.  Well  might  the  author  of  the  Sketches  of  Ireland,  Past 
and  Present,  describe  it  as  "a  quicksand  Government,  that  swallows  up 
in  its  fluctuations  every  venture  of  reform."  Sir  Robert  Peel's  Adminis- 
tration was  one  of  the  longest ;  he  held  the  office  for  six  years,  from  1812 
to  1818.  So  long  a  tenure  of  authority  ought  to  have  been  memorable 
for  some  improvement,  either  moral  or  material ;  but  it  was  singularly 
barren.  In  1844,  however,  when  in  the  plenitude  of  his  power,  he  did 
something  to  redeem  the  sins  or  omissions  of  the  past; — but  in  1811  he 
had  "  put  off  the  old  Adam,"  he  was  not  the  Peel  of  1812. 




[AUGUST,   1829.] 

THE  colleges  of  the  Jesuits  have  lately  attracted  a 
good  deal  of  attention,  and  the  Legislature  has  heen 
strongly  called  upon  to  seal  up  in  this  country  those 
fountains  of  Catholicism.  In  the  recent  Act  of  Par- 
liament, a  clause  has  been  introduced,  which,  although 
nugatory  for  the  purposes  of  practical  effect,  shows  that 
the  Government  has  found  it  necessary  to  make  some 
offering  to  the  prejudices  which  continue  to  exist  against 
the  disciples  of  Ignatius.*  No  Jesuit  can,  for  the 
future,  enter  these  realms.  It  is  pretty  obvious  that  it 
will  not  be  very  easy  to  convict  a  man  of  this  newly- 
created  offence ;  for  what  evidence  can  be  produced  to 
establi sh  the  fact  that  a  man  is  a  Jesuit  ?  That  of  the 
superior  who  administers  the  vow,  or  of  the  individual 
who  takes  it  ?  The  proviso  is  therefore  destitute  of  all 

*  The  provisions  in  the  Catholic  Belief  Act  here  alluded  to  were  espe- 
cially intended  to  discourage  the  establishments  of  the  Jesuits.  The  law 
proved  totally  inoperative  in  this  respect,  so  much  so  that  monastic 
institutions  of  all  kinds  have  rapidly  multiplied  in  Ireland  since  1829. 

s  2 


validity — the  knife  is  too  blunt  to  cut  the  throat  of  the 

The  Society  of  Jesuits  will  not  be  deterred  by  any 
legislative  expedients  from  prosecuting  their  labours; 
and  as  far  as  I  can  form  a  judgment,  from  the  expe- 
rience of  some  years  amongst  them,  those  labours  will 
not  in  the  least  degree  interfere  with  the  beneficial 
results  of  Catholic  Emancipation.  I  have  known  the 
chief  members  of  that  obnoxious  body  from  a  very  early 
period,  and  to  me,  a  friend  of  liberty  both  civil  and 
religious,  they  appear  to  be  wholly  innoxious.  I  do 
not,  however,  sit  down  to  enter  into  any  elaborate 
vindication  of  them,  nor  to  write  an  essay  upon  the 
principle  of  their  institution ;  it  is  my  purpose  in  this 
article  to  detail  what  I  saw  and  observed  during  my 
residence  at  two  of  their  schools,  and  to  give  a  sketch 
of  the  incidents  of  my  boyhood,  rather  than  to  indite  a 
treatise  upon  the  tendencies  and  character  of  a  body  of 
men  whose  opinions  have,  I  believe,  been  misrepre- 
sented, and  whose  importance  has  been  of  late  greatly 

As  if  it  were  but  yesterday,  though  'tis  now  many 
years  ago  (eheu  fugaces!),  I  recollect  the  beautiful 
evening  when  I  left  my  home,  upon  the  banks  of  the 
River  Suir,  and  sailed  from  the  harbour  of  Waterford 
for  Bristol,  on  my  way  to  school.  It  is  scarcely  ger- 
mane to  the  matter,  yet  I  cannot  help  reverting  to  a 
scene,  which  has  impressed  itself  deeply  in  my  recol- 
lection, and  to  which  I  oftentimes,  in  those  visions  of 
the  memory  to  which  I  suppose  everybody  is  more  or 
less  subject,  find  it  a  pleasure,  though  a  melancholy 
one,  to  return. 

There  are  few  rivers  more  picturesque  than  the  Suir 


(which  Spenser  honoured  with  a  panegyric)  in  its 
passage  from  Waterford  to  the  sea.*  It  is  broad  and 
ample,  capable  of  floating  vessels  of  any  tonnage,  and 
is  encompassed  upon  both  sides  with  lofty  ridges  of  rich 
verdure,  on  which  magnificent  mansions,  encompassed 
with  deep  groves  of  trees,  give  evidence  of  the  rapid 
increase  of  opulence  and  of  civilization  in  that  part  of 
Ireland.  How  often  have  I  stood  upon  its  banks,  when 
the  bells  in  the  city,  the  smoke  of  which  was  turned 
into  a  cloud  of  gold  by  a  Claude  Lorraine  sunset,  tolled 
(to  use  the  expression  of  Dante,  and  not  of  Gray)  the 
death  of  the  departing  day !  How  often  have  I  fixed 
my  gaze  upon  the  glittering  expanse  of  the  full  and 
overflowing  water,  crowded  with  ships,  whose  white  sails 
were  filled  with  just  wind  enough  to  carry  them  on  to 
the  sea;  by  the  slowness  of  their  equable  and  majestic 
movement,  giving  leave  to  the  eye  to  contemplate  at  its 
leisure  their  tall  and  stately  beauty,  and  to  watch  them 
long  in  their  progress  amidst  the  calm  through  which 
they  made  their  gentle  and  forbearing  way. 

"  Ne  thence  the  Irish  rivers  absent  were, 
Sith  no  less  famous  than  the  rest  they  be, 
And  join  in  neighbourhood  of  kingdom  near, 
Why  should  not  they  likewise  in  love  agree  ? 
*  *  *  * 

The  first  the  gentle  Shuir,  that  making  way 
By  sweet  Clonmel,  adorns  rich  Waterford ; 
The  next  the  stubborn  Nore,  whose  waters  gray 
By  fair  Kilkenny  and  Kosseponte  bord  j 
The  third  the  goodly  Barow,  which  doth  hord 
Great  heaps  of  salmon  in  his  deep  bosome, 
All  which  long  sundred  do  at  last  accord 
To  join  in  one,  ere  to  the  sea  they  come;' 
So  flowing  all  from  one,  all  one  at  last  become." 


The  murmurs  of  the  city  were  heard  upon  the  right, 
and  the  lofty  spire  of  its  church  rose  up  straight  and 
arrowy  into  the  sky.  The  sullen  and  dull  roar  of  the 
ocean  used  to  come  over  the  opposite  hills  from  the 
Bay  of  Tramore.  Immediately  before  me  were  the 
fine  woods  of  Faithleg,  and  the  noble  seat  of  the  Bolton 
family  (Protestant  patricians,  who  have  since  that  time 
made  way  for  the  more  modern  but  wealthy  Powers) ; 
on  the  left  was  the  magnificent  seat  of  another  branch 
of  the  same  opulent  tribe,  Snowhill ;  and  in  the  dis- 
tance were  the  three  rivers,  the  Suir,  the  Nore,  and  the 
Barrow,  met  in  a  deep  and  splendid  conflux ;  the  ruins 
of  the  old  abbey  of  Dunbrody  threw  the  solemnity  of 
religion  and  of  antiquity  over  the  whole  prospect,  and 
by  the  exquisite  beauty  of  the  site  afforded  a  proof  that 
the  old  Franciscans,  who  had  made  a  selection  of  this 
lovely  spot  for  their  monastery,  and  who  have  lain  for 
centuries  in  the  mould  of  its  green  and  luxuriant 
churchyards,  were  the  lovers  of  Nature,  and  that  when 
they  left  the  noise  and  turmoil  of  the  world,  they  had 
not  relinquished  those  enjoyments  which  are  not  only 
innocent,  but  may  be  accounted  holy. 

I  had  many  a  time  looked  with  admiration  upon  the 
noble  landscape,  in  the  midst  of  which  I  was  born,  but 
I  never  felt  and  appreciated  its  loveliness  so  well  as 
when  the  consciousness  that  I  was  leaving  it,  not  to 
return  for  years  to  it  again,  endeared  to  me  the  spot  of 
my  birth,  and  set  off  the  beauty  of  the  romantic  place 
in  which  my  infancy  was  passed,  and  in  which  I  once 
hoped  (I  have  since  abandoned  the  expectation)  that 
my  old  age  should  decline.  It  is  not  in  the  midst  of 
its  woods  that  I  shall  fall  into  the  sere  and  yellow 


"  Something  too  much  of  this."  — The  ship  sailed,  I 
landed  at  Bristol,  and  with  a  French  clergyman,  the 
Abbe  de  Grimeau,  who  had  been  my  tutor,  I  proceeded 
to  London.  We  took  up  our  residence  at  the  "  Swan 
with  two  Necks,"  in  Lad-lane,*  and  after  having  seen 
the  instruments  for  torturing  good  Protestants  in  the 
Tower,  and  heard  the  roaring  of  the  lion  in  Exeter 
Change,  the  Abbe  informed  me  that  I  was  to  be  sent 
to  Kensington  House  (a  college  established  by  the 
Peres  de  la  Foi,  for  so  the  French  Jesuits  settled  in 
England  at  that  time  called  themselves),  and  that  he 
had  directions  to  leave  me  there,  upon  his  way  to 
Languedoc,  from  whence  he  had  been  exiled  in  the 
Revolution,  and  to  which  he  had  been  driven  by  the 
maladie  du  pays  to  return. 

Accordingly  we  set  off  for  Kensington  House,  which 
is  situated  exactly  opposite  the  avenue  leading  to  the 
Palace,  and  has  the  beautiful  garden  attached  to  it  in 
front.  A  large  iron  gate,  wrought  into  rusty  flowers, 
and  other  fantastic  forms,  showed  that  the  Jesuit  school 
had  once  been  the  residence  of  some  person  of  distin- 
tion;  and  I  afterwards  understood  that  a  mistress  of 
Charles  the  Second  lived  in  the  spot  which  was  now 
converted  into  one  of  the  sanctuaries  of  Ignatius.  It 
was  a  large  old-fashioned  house,  with  many  remains  of 
decayed  splendour.  In  a  beautiful  walk  of  trees,  which 
ran  down  from  the  rear  of  the  building  through  the 
play-ground,  I  saw  several  French  boys  playing  at 
swing-swang ;  and  the  moment  I  entered,  my  ears  were 

*  This  ancient  inn,  so  well  known  in  the  days  of  stage-coaches,  exists 
no  more.  The  improvements  in  the  city  have  been  fatal  to  it,  and 
Gresham  Street  runs  across  the  site  where  it  once  stood. 


filled  with  the  shrill  vociferations  of  some  hundreds  of 
little  emigrants,  who  were  engaged  in  their  various 
amusements,  and  babbled,  screamed,  laughed,  and 
shouted  in  all  the  velocity  of  their  rapid  and  joyous 
language.  I  did  not  hear  a  word  of  English,  and  at 
once  perceived  that  I  was  as  much  among  Frenchmen 
as  if  I  had  been  suddenly  tranferred  to  a  Parisian 

Having  got  this  peep  at  the  gaiety  of  the  school  into 
which  I  was  to  be  introduced,  I  was  led,  with  my  com- 
panion, to  a  chamber  covered  with  faded  gilding,  and 
which  had  once  been  richly  tapestried,  where  I  found 
the  head  of  the  establishment,  in  the  person  of  a 
French  nobleman,  Monsieur  le  Prince  de  Broglie. 
Young  as  I  was,  I  could  not  help  being  struck  at  once 
with  the  contrast  which  was  presented  between  the 
occupations  of  this  gentlemen  and  his  name.  I  saw  in 
him  a  little,  slender,  and  gracefully -constructed  abbe, 
with  a  sloping  forehead,  on  which  the  few  hairs  that 
were  left  him  were  nicely  arranged,  and  well-powered 
and  pomatumed.  He  had  a  soft  and  gentle  smile,  full  of 
a  suavity  which  was  made  up  of  guile  and  of  weakness, 
but  which  deserved  the  designation  of  aimable,  in  the 
best  sense  of  the  word.  His  black  clothes  were 
adapted  with  a  peculiar  nicety  to  his  symmetrical  per- 
son, and  his  silk  waistcoat  and  black  silk  stockings, 
with  his  small  shoes  buckled  with  silver,  gave  him 
altogether  a  shining  and  glossy  aspect.  This  was  the 
son  of  the  celebrated  Marshal  Broglie,  who  was  now 
at  the  head  of  a  school,  and,  notwithstanding  his 
humble  pursuits,  was  designated  by  everybody  as 
"Monsieur  le  Prince." 


Monsieur  le  Prince,  though  neither  more  nor  less 
than  a  pedagogue  by  profession,  (for  he  had  engaged  in 
this  employment  to  get  his  bread,)  had  all  the  manners 
and  attitudes  of  the  court,  and  by  his  demeanour  put 
me  at  once  in  mind  of  the  old  regime.  He  welcomed 
my  French  companion  with  tenderness,  and  having 
heard  that  he  was  about  to  return  to  France,  the  poor 
gentleman  exclaimed  "Helas!"  while  the  tears  came 
into  his  eyes  at  the  recollection  of  "cett!e  belle  France," 
which  he  was  never,  as  he  then  thought,  to  see  again. 
He  bade  me  welcome.  These  preliminaries  of  introduc- 
tion having  been  gone  through,  my  French  tutor  took 
his  farewell ;  and  as  he  embraced  me  for  the  last  time, 
I  well  remember  that  he  was  deeply  affected  by  the 
sorrow  which  I  felt  in  my  separation  from  him,  and 
turning  to  Monsieur  le  Prince,  recommended  me  to  his 
care  with  an  emphatic  tenderness. 

The  latter  led  me  into  the  school-room,  where  I  had 
a  desk  assigned  to  me  beside  the  son  of  the  Count 
Decar,  who  has  since,  I  understand,  risen  to  offices  of 
very  high  rank  in  the  French  Court.  His  father  be- 
longed to  the  nobility  of  the  first  class.  In  the  son,  it 
would  have  been  at  that  time  difficult  to  detect  his 
patrician  derivation.  He  was  a  huge,  lubberly  fellow, 
with  thick  matted  hair,  which  he  never  combed.  His 
complexion  was  greasy  and  sudorific,  and  to  soap  and 
water  he  seemed  to  have  such  a  repugnance,  that  he  did 
not  above  once  a  week  go  through  any  process  of 
ablution.  He  was  surly,  dogged,  and  silent,  and  spent 
his  time  in  the  study  of  mathematics,  for  which  he  had 
a  good  deal  of  talent.  I  have  heard  that  he  is  now  one 
of  the  most  fashionable  and  accomplished  men  about 


the  court,  and  that  this  Gorgonius  smells  now  of  the 
pastilles  of  Rufillus. 

On  the  other  side  of  me  was  a  young  French  West 
Indian,  from  the  colony  of  Martinique,  whose  name 
was  Devarieux.  The  school  was  full  of  the  children  of 
the  French  planters,  who  had  been  sent  over  to  learn 
English  among  the  refugees  from  the  Revolution.  He 
was  an  exceedingly  fine  young  fellow,  the  exact  reverse  in 
all  his  habits  to  Monsieur  le  Compte  Decar,  on  my  left 
hand,  and  expended  a  good  deal  of  his  hours  of  study 
in  surveying  a  small  pocket-mirror,  and  in  arranging 
the  curls  of  his  rich  black  hair,  the  ambrosial  plenty  of 
which  was  festooned  about  his  temples,  and  fell  pro- 
fusely behind  his  head.  Almost  all  the  French  West 
Indians  were  vain,  foppish,  generous,  brave,  and  pas- 
sionate. They  exhibited  many  of  the  qualities  which 
we  ascribe  to  the  natives  of  our  own  islands  in  the 
American  Archipelago;  they  were  a  sort  of  Gallican 
Belcours  in  little;  for  with  the  national  attributes  of 
their  forefathers,  they  united  much  of  that  vehemence 
and  habit  of  domination,  which  a  hot  sun  and  West 
India  overseership  are  calculated  to  produce. 

In  general,  the  children  of  the  French  exiles  amalga- 
mated readily  with  these  Creoles  : — there  were,  to  be 
sure,  some  points  of  substantial  difference ;  the  French 
West  Indians  being  all  rich  roturiers,  and  the  little 
emigrants  having  their  veins  full  of  the  best  blood  of 
France,  without  a  groat  in  their  pockets.  But  there 
was  one  point  of  reconciliation  between  them — they  all 
concurred  in  hating  England  and  its  government.  This 
detestation  was  not  very  surprising  in  the  West  Indian 
French ;  but  it  was  not  a  little  singular  that  the  boys, 


•whose  fathers  had  been  expelled  from  France  by  the 
Revolution,  and  to  whom  England  had  afforded  shelter 
and  given  bread,  should  manifest  the  ancient  national 
antipathy,  as  strongly  as  if  they  had  never  been  nursed 
at  her  bosom,  and  obtained  their  aliment  from  her 
bounty.  Whenever  news  arrived  of  a  victory  won  by 
Bonaparte,  the  whole  school  was  thrown  into  a  ferment; 
and  I  cannot,  even  at  this  distance  of  time,  forget  the 
exultation  with  which  the  sons  of  the  decapitated  or 
the  exiled  hailed  the  triumph  of  the  French  arms,  the 
humiliation  of  England,  and  the  glory  of  the  nation 
whose  greatness  they  had  learned  to  lisp. 

There  was  one  boy  I  recollect  more  especially.  I  do 
not  now  remember  his  name,  but  his  face  and  figure  I 
cannot  dismiss  from  my  remembrance.  He  was  a  little 
effeminate  creature,  with  a  countenance  that  seemed  to 
have  been  compounded  of  the  materials  with  which 
•waxen  babies  are  made;  his  fine  flaxen  hair  fell  in 
girlish  ringlets  about  his  face,  and  the  exquisite  sym- 
metry of  his  features  would  have  rendered  him  a  fit 
model  for  a  sculptor  who  wished  to  throw  the  beau-ideal 
of  pretty  boyhood  into  stone.  He  had  upon  him  a 
sickly  expression,  which  was  not  sufficiently  pronounced 
to  excite  any  disagreeable  emotion,  but  cast  over  him  a 
mournful  look,  which  was  seconded  by  the  calamities  of 
his  family,  and  added  to  the  lustre  of  misfortune  which 
attended  him. 

He  was  the  child  of  a  nobleman  who  had  perished  in 
the  Revolution.  His  mother,  a  widow,  who  resided  in 
a  miserable  lodging  in  London,  had  sent  him  to  Ken- 
sington House,  but  it  was  well  known  that  he  was 
received  there  by  the  Prince  de  Broglie  from  charity ; 
and  I  should  add  that  his  eleemosynary  dependence,  so 


far  from  exciting  towards  him  any  of  that  pity  which  is 
akin  to  contempt,  contributed  to  augment  the  feeling 
of  sympathy  which  the  disasters  of  his  family  had 
created  in  his  regard.  This  unfortunate  little  boy  was 
a  Frenchman  to  his  heart's  core,  and  whenever  the 
country  which  was  wet  with  his  father's  blood  had 
added  a  new  conquest  to  her  possessions,  or  put  Austria 
or  Prussia  to  flight,  his  pale  cheek  used  to  flush  into  a 
hectic  of  exultation,  and  he  would  break  into  joyfulness 
at  the  achievements  by  which  France  was  exalted  and 
the  pride  and  power  of  England  were  brought  down. 

This  feeling,  which  was  conspicuous  in  this  little 
fellow,  ran  through  the  whole  body  of  Frenchmen,  who 
afforded  very  unequivocal  proof  of  the  sentiments  by 
which  their  parents  were  influenced.  The  latter  I  used 
occasionally  to  see.  Old  gentlemen,  the  neatness  of 
whose  attire  was  accompanied  by  indications  of  indi- 
gence, and  whose  seamy  coats  exhibited  an  excessive 
assiduity  in  brushing,  used  occasionally  to  visit  at 
Kensington  House.  Their  elasticity  of  back,  the  fre- 
quency and  gracefulness  of  their  well-regulated  bows, 
and  the  perpetual  smile  upon  their  wrinkled  and 
emaciated  faces,  showed  that  they  had  something  to 
do  with  the  "vieille  cour ;"  and  this  conjecture  used  to 
be  confirmed  by  the  embrace  with  which  they  folded 
the  little  marquises  and  counts  whom  they  came  to 

Kensington  House  was  frequented  by  emigrants  of 
very  high  rank.  The  father  of  the  present  Due  de 
Grammont,  who  was  at  this  school,  and  was  then  Due 
de  Guische,  often  came  to  see  his  son.  I  recollect  upon 
one  occasion  having  been  witness  to  a  very  remarkable 
scene.  Monsieur,  as  he  was  then  called,  the  present 


King  of  France,  waited  one  day,  with  a  large  retinue  of 
French  nobility,  upon  the  Prince  de  Broglie.  The 
whole  body  of  the  schoolboys  was  assembled  to  receive 
him.  We  were  gathered  in  a  circle  at  the  bottom  of 
a  flight  of  stone  stairs  that  led  from  the  principal  room 
into  the  play-ground.  The  future  King  of  France 
appeared,  with  his  cortege  of  illustrious  exiles,  at  the 
glass  folding- doors  which  were  at  the  top  of  the  stairs, 
and  the  moment  he  was  seen,  we  all  exclaimed,  with  a 
shrill  shout  of  beardless  loyalty,  "  Vive  le  Eoi  \" 

Monsieur  seemed  greatly  gratified  by  this  spectacle,  and 
in  a  very  gracious  and  condescending  manner  went  down 
amongst  the  little  boys,  who  were  at  first  awed  a  good 
deal  by  his  presence,  but  were  afterwards  speedily  fami- 
liarised to  him  by  the  natural  playfulness  and  benignity 
of  Charles  the  Tenth.  He  asked  the  names  of  those  who 
were  about  him,  and  when  he  heard  them,  and  saw  in 
the  boys  by  whom  he  was  encompassed  the  descendants 
of  some  of  the  noblest  families  of  France,  he  seemed  to 
be  sensibly  affected.  One  or  two  names,  which  were 
associated  with  peculiarly  melancholy  recollection,  made 
him  thrill.  "  Helas  !  mon  enfant !"  he  used  to  say,  as 
some  orphan  was  brought  up  to  him ;  and  he  would 
then  lean  down  to  caress  the  child  of  a  friend  who  had 
perished  on  the  scaffolds  of  the  Revolution. 

I  have  been  drawn  away  from  my  original  theme  by 
the  scenes  which,  in  reverting  to  the  days  of  my  boyhood, 
rose  upon  me.  This  establishment  was  conducted  by 
several  French  priests,  assisted  by  some  Germans  and 
Italians,  with  the  Prince  de  Broglie  at  their  head. 
They  were  almost  all  members  of  the  order  of  Jesuits, 
though  they  called  themselves  by  the  less  obnoxious 
title  of  "  Peres  de  la  Foi."  The  only  person  of  rank 


among  them  was  the  Prince  de  Broglie,  who  had,  I  ani 
inclined  to  think,  from  motives  of  convenience  entered 
into  this  spiritual  corporation,  as  the  hest  mode  of 
earning  his  livelihood. 

At  this  period,  the  order  had  not  been  restored  by 
any  formal  bull  from  the  Pope ;  but  it  was  notoriously 
encouraged  at  Rome,  and  a  considerable  establishment 
had  been  founded  in  Russia,  where  the  General  of  the 
Society  resided.  The  Jesuits  at  Kensington  were  in 
communication  with  him,  and,  from  their  antipathy  to 
everything  English,  disputed  the  authority  of  the  Pro- 
vincial of  the  Anglican  Province.  On  the  plea  that 
they  were  French  Jesuits,  sojourning  only  for  a  short 
period  in  Great  Britain,  they  rejected  the  mandates  of 
Doctor  Stone  (the  Rector  at  Stonyhurst),  and  refused 
to  obey  any  injunction  which  was  not  issued  by  the 
General  himself.  These  differences  would  not,  in  all 
probability,  have  arisen  under  the  old  system  of  regu- 
lation, but  the  Order  was  only  on  the  point  of  resus- 
citation, and  of  course  the  discipline  amongst  the 
"  Peres  de  la  Foi "  was  a  little  lax.  For  instance, 
Monsieur  le  Prince  de  Broglie,  the  quasi  head  of  the 
French  Province  in  England,  kept  a  very  handsome 
curricle  and  pair,  which  he  used  to  drive  himself  with 
equal  dexterity,  intrepidity,  and  grace,  and  has  often 
won  the  palm  of  charioteering  in  the  Olympic  field  of 
Rotten  Row.  Certain  frivolities  (for  he  was  a  per- 
fectly moral  man,  and  his  defects  were  little  more  than 
the  levities  of  a  Frenchman),  excited  the  censure  of  the 
more  rigorous  members  of  the  establishment,  and  espe- 
cially of  the  Pere  Alnot,  who  was  the  completest  spe- 
cimen of  the  monk — for  he  had  little  of  the  Jesuit 
about  him — I  have  ever  seen. 


This  Pere  Alnot  was  at  first  regarded  as  a  saint 
amongst  us.  He  was  a  man  of  a  very  lofty  and  slender 
person,  and  was  dressed  in  long  robes  of  coarse  black 
cloth,  with  a  cowl  thrown  over  his  head,  and  a  girdle 
of  strong  black  leather  round  his  waist,  to  which  a 
massive  rosary  and  crucifix  were  attached.  His  face, 
of  which  we  could  only  occasionally  catch  glimpses, 
was  wan  and  sallow,  with  glaring  eyes,  sparkling  in  the 
midst  of  paleness  and  emaciation,  with  an  evil  and 
inauspicious  lustre.  He  seldom  washed  himself,  con- 
sidering uncleanness  to  be  an  incident  to  devotion,  and 
his  beard,  covered  with  filthy  snuif,  stood  in  stubbles 
upon  his  long  and  pointed  chin.  His  mouth  was  full 
of  false  sweetness  and  guile.  He  lived  in  a  small  room 
adjoining  the  chapel,  where  he  heard  the  confessions  of 
the  students ;  and  all  its  furniture  corresponded  with 
the  apparatus  of  the  man  himself.  It  consisted  of  a 
few  wooden  chairs,  a  bed  of  the  hardest  materials,  and 
a  little  table,  on  which  a  skull  was  placed,  with  a  lamp 
burning  perpetually  beside  it. 

Here  he  used  to  sit  with  his  elbow  leaning  on  the 
table,  and  his  long  and  skinny  hand  placed  upon  his 
forehead ;  and  when  a  boy  told  him  that  he  had  broken 
into  an  orchard,  or  robbed  a  hen-roost,  he  would  lift 
up  his  eyes  and  heave  a  profound  groan.  This  myste- 
rious person  was  at  the  head  of  a  society  called  "  The 
Sodality ;"  an  institution  which  is  adopted  in  all  Jesuit 
seminaries,  and  which  selects  the  Virgin  Mary  as  the 
object  of  its  veneration.  A  separate  chapel  was  dedi- 
cated to  her  by  the  Pere  Alnot,  which  he  took  a  special 
care  in  adorning.  It  was  painted  with  green,  repre- 
senting heaven,  and  was  studded  over  with  spangles  by 
way  of  stars.  I  always  looked  upon  him  with  an 


instinctive  aversion,  in  which  I  was  confirmed  by  a 
Genoese  Jesuit,  the  Pere  Molinari,  who  represented  him 
as  a  person  of  the  darkest  and  most  evil  character. 

Molinari  was  an  exceedingly  kind,  amiable,  and  well- 
informed  man.  He  was  the  only  one  in  the  whole 
school  that  knew  a  word  of  Greek.  He  had  been  edu- 
cated, though  an  Italian,  at  Prague,  and  practised  as  a 
lawyer.  He  then  became  a  Jesuit,  and  certainly  was 
sincerely  devoted  to  religion.  Though  entirely  free 
from  the  monkish  gloom  of  the  Pere  Alnot,  there  was 
a  large  infusion  of  fanaticism  in  his  character.  He 
believed  firmly  in  witchcraft,  and  was  versed  in  all  the 
mysteries  of  demonology.  The  bodily  presence  of  the 
Devil  was  among  the  articles  of  his  creed,  and  I  recol- 
lect him  to  have  told  me  stories  of  the  appearance  of 
Lucifer,  with  such  a  minute  specification  of  circum- 
stance, as  made  "  my  fall  of  hair  to  stir  as  life  were 

Another  point  in  which  he  was  a  little  weak  was  the 
fatal  influence  of  "the  Illumines"  in  Germany.  He 
improved  upon  Barruel,  which  was  his  manual,  and 
regarded  Waishoupt  as  an  incarnate  fiend.  I  have 
heard  him  describe  the  midnight  orgies  of  the  German 
philosophers,  who,  according  to  him,  assembled  in  cham- 
bers covered  with  rich  scarlet  cloth,  and  brilliant  with 
infernal  light,  where,  by  the  power  •  of  sorcery,  every 
luxury  was  collected,  and  where  men  devoted  them- 
selves to  Satan  in  a  registry  kept  by  the  Secretary  of 
the  society,  where  every  man's  name  was  enrolled  in 
his  own  blood.  But,  with  the  exception  of  these  strange 
credulities,  he  was  a  most  estimable  man — he  had  an 
heroical  disinterestedness  of  character,  and  dedicated 
himself  with  all  the  ardour  of  spiritual  chivalry  to  the 


cause  of  the  Jesuits,  which  he  regarded  as  identified 
with  that  of  true  religion. 

I  was  for  a  considerable  time  placed  under  his  care, 
and  am  indebted  to  him  for  a  zealous  solicitude  for  my 
welfare.  He  took  the  greatest  and  most  disinterested 
pains  in  giving  me  instruction,  and  would  devote  hours 
of  unremunerated  labour  (for  the  salaries  of  the  boys 
were  all  paid-in  to  Monsieur  le  Prince)  to  the  explana- 
tion of  difficulties,  and  in  clearing  the  way  to  knowledge. 
He  was  exceedingly  mild  in  temper,  but  had  frequent 
recourse  to  punishment  of  a  very  intense  sort.  He  had 
a  whip  made  of  several  strong  cords,  with  knots  at  regu- 
lar intervals,  with  which  he  used  to  lash  the  hands  of 
the  scholars  in  such  a  way  as  to  make  the  blood  leap 
from  them.  It  seemed  to  give  great  pain  to  inflict 
this  chastisement,  and  I  have  seen  him  weep  at  what  he 
called  the  necessity  of  being  severe. 

He  had  a  very  extraordinary  method  of  reconciling 
the  devouter  students  to  this  torture.  He  sentenced 
you  first  to  nine  lashes,  and  then  ordered  you  to  hold 
out  your  hand ;  "  Offer  it  up  to  God  and  his  saints," 
he  would  say,  "  as  a  sacrifice."  He  would  then  select 
you  nine  saints.  The  first  blow  was  to  be  suffered  in 
honour  of  St.  Ignatius, — "  Aliens,  mon  enfant,  au  nom 
du  plus  grand  de  tous  les  Saints — St.  Ignace  I"  and 
down  went  the  whip  from  a  vigorous  and  muscular  arm. 
"  Oh  !  mon  Dieu  !"  cried  the  little  martyr,  withdrawing 
his  hand  after  the  first  operation.  "  Aliens,  mon  enfant, 
an  nom  de  St.  Francis  Xavier  \"  and  he  then  inflicted 
a  second  laceration  upon  the  culprit.  "Mais,  mon 
Pere,  ayez  pitie — jamais,  jamais,  je  ne  ferai  des  sole- 
cismes — oh,  mon  Pere,  jamais/'  The  Jesuit  was  inex- 
orable-—" Allons,  mon  enfant,  au  nom  de  Saint  Louis 

VOL.    II.  T 


de  Gonzaguc ;"  and  thus  he  proceeded  till  he  had  gone 
through  his  calendar  of  infliction. 

But  -with  these  singularities  (to  us  at  least  they 
appear  so),  he  was  an  exceedingly  generous-hearted  and 
lofty-minded  religionist.  He  would  himself  have  looked 
death  in  the  face  without  dismay  in  the  cause  of  St. 
Ignatius ;  and  indeed  he  gave  a  practical  proof  of  his 
enthusiasm,  by  setting  out  at  a  week's  warning  for  the 
deserts  of  Siberia,  where  he  proceeded  by  order  of  the 
General  to  propagate  the  Gospel,  and  if  possible  to 
make  his  way  to  China,  in  the  hope  that  he  might  obtain 
the  reward  of  martyrdom  in  the  service  of  the  Lord. 

The  person  who  next  to  Molinari  attracted  my  atten- 
tion, was  "  Le  Pere  Caperon."  He  was  a  great  Oriental 
scholar,  and  was  regarded  as  a  master  of  the  Arabic 
language ;  and  was,  I  believe,  as  profoundly  versed  in 
the  Koran  as  in  the  Gospel.  He  was  not  employed  in 
teaching  the  boys,  (an  occupation  for  which  he  would 
have  been  wholly  unfit,)  but  in  composing  essays  upon 
the  mysterious  literature  of  the  East.  It  was  one  of 
our  favourite  amusements  to  disturb  him  in  his  studies. 
A  group  would  collect  under  his  window  and  assail  him 
with  all  kinds  of  strange  noises,  when  he  would  rush 
forth  with  a  huge  stick,  which  made  us  all  take  to  our 
heels,  and  woe  betide  the  urchin  on  whom  he  first  seized. 
"Oh,  petit  malheureux !"  he  would  exclaim,  as  he 
grasped  some  intruder  upori  his  meditations,  and 
avenged  upon  him  the  losses  which  Oriental  learning 
had  sustained  by  the  trespass  which  we  had  committed 
on  his  meditations. 

Pere  Caperon  believed  himself  to  be  occasionally 
tempted  by  the  Devil  in  a  more  direct  and  palpable 
fashion  than  Satan  is  apt  to  use.  This  conviction  made 


him  frequently  an  object  of  entertainment  with  us. 
When  he  said  mass,  he  used  to  throw  himself  into  such 
strange  attitudes,  and  indulge  in  such  extra-clerical 
ejaculations,  that  the  Frenchmen  used  to  rejoice  when- 
ever he  administered  to  their  devotions.  The  poor  man 
conceived  that  he  was  struggling  with  the  demon  in  a 
corporeal  wrestle,  and  cast  himself  into  postures  corres- 
ponding with  his  grotesque  delusion.  Sometimes  he 
used  to  bid  the  fiend  begone  to  the  Red  Sea,  and  at 
other  times  used  to  stamp  as  if  he  had  got  the  head  of 
Lucifer  under  his  feet. 

There  were  few  persons  in  this,  school  who  were  very 
much  calculated  to  create  the  respect  of  the  students 
whose  instruction  was  confided  to  them.  There  was, 
indeed,  one  very  eloquent  preacher,  "  Le  Pere  Colman," 
who  was  a  German  by  birth,  but  was  French  in  lan- 
guage and  manner.  He  had  a  most  noble  bearing,  a 
visage  fit  for  canvass,  a  deep,  sonorous  voice,  and  a  great 
command  of  pure  oratorical  diction.  He  was,  however, 
too  valuable  to  be  allowed  long  to  remain  in  so  inferior 
a  spot  as  Kensington  House,  and  was  ordered  by  the 
General  of  the  Jesuits  to  proceed  to  Russia.  So  was 
Molinari,  who  acted  towards  me  a  part  of  great  kind- 
ness and  friendship  previous  to  his  leaving  the  estab- 
lishment. The  Prince  de  Broglie,  he  informed  me,  had 
got  himself  into  great  embarrassments,  and  had  made 
an  effort  to  induce  the  Jesuits  of  Stonyhurst  to  assist 
him.  "With  this  view  he  had  sent  a  deputation  to  that 
college,  and  offered  to  annex  Kensington  House  to  the 
Anglican  Province.  To  this  proceeding,  to  which  he 
was  originally  adverse,  on  account  of  his  national  dis- 
relish to  everything  English,  he  was  reduced  by  his 
emergencies.  The  English  Jesuits  were,  however,  too 

T  2 


shrewd  to  acquiesce  in  this  proposal,  and  it  was  mani- 
fest that  the  institution  must  be  broken  up. 

Molinari  farther  informed  me,  that  he  had  been  him- 
self ordered  into  the  deserts  of  Siberia,  with  instruc- 
tions to  penetrate,  if  possible,  into  China,  as  a  mission- 
ary of  the  Gospel.  He  recommended  me  to  write  home, 
and  to  apprise  my  friends  of  what  was  about  to  take 
place.  Stonyhurst  he  pointed  out  as  the  best  semi- 
nary which  I  could  select,  and  said,  that  if  he  was  at 
liberty  to  exercise  any  selection,  he  should  himself  have 
chosen  it  as  his  residence ;  but  that  he  had  no  will ; 
that  his  volition  had  been  laid  down  as  an  offering  to 
his  God  when  he  had  entered  the  order ;  and  that  he 
must  at  once  proceed  to  the  place  of  his  destination.  I 
thanked  him;  he  shook  my  hand,  and  proceeded  to 
that  country,  from  whose  bosom  it  is  not  likely  that 
he  ever  will  return. 

This  man  was  the  only  example  which  I  witnessed 
among  the  Peres  de  la  Foi  of  that  lofty  devotedness  to 
the  interests  of  their  society,  and  of  that  romantic 
dedication  of  their  hearts  and  lives  to  the  advancement 
of  Catholicism,  for  which  the  Jesuits  are  remarkable. 
The  larger  portion  of  the  individuals  who  were 
assembled  by  the  Prince  de  Broglie  at  Kensington 
House  were  Jesuits  only  in  appearance.  They  were  a 
few  raw  recruits,  got  together  under  the  banners  of 
the  order.  Molinari  seemed  the  only  genuine  soldier 
of  Ignatius.  The  promptitude  and  alacrity  with  which 
he  at  once  precipitated  himself  into  the  wildernesses  of 
Tartary,  at  the  mandate  of  a  priest  living  in  a  distant 
region,  recalls  to  me  what  the  Abbe  E/aynal,  who  had 
himself  been  a  Jesuit,  has  said  upon  this  subject. 
After  describing  the  wonderful  achievements  of  this 


extraordinary  body  of  men,  and  the  moral  subjugation, 
of  the  Indian  tribes  which  was  effected  by  them,  he 
says : — 

"  It  is  impossible  that  any  reader  who  reflects,  should  not  be  desirous 
of  knowing  what  strange  infatuation  can  induce  an  individual  who  enjoys 
all  the  conveniences  of  life  in  his  own  country,  to  undertake  the  laborious 
and  unfortunate  function  of  a  missionary  :  to  quit  his  fellow-citizens,  his 
friends,  and  his  relations ;  to  cross  the  sea  in  order  to  bury  himself  in  the 
midst  of  forests,  to  expose  himself  to  all  the  horrors  of  the  most  extreme 
misery,  to  run  the  risk  at  every  step  either  of  being  devoured  by  wild 
beasts  or  massacred  by  savages,  to  settle  in  the  midst  of  them,  to  conform 
himself  to  their  manners,  to  share  their  indigence  and  their  fatigues,  to 
be  exposed  to  their  passions  or  caprices,  for  at  least  as  long  a  time  as  ia 
required  to  learn  their  language  and  to  make  himself  understood  by 
them.  If  this  conduct  be  ascribed  to  the  enthusiasm  of  religion,  what 
more  powerful  motive  can  be  imagined  ?  If  to  respect  to  vows  of  obe- 
dience taken  to  superiors,  who  have  a  right  to  order  them  to  go  any- 
where, and  who  cannot  be  asked  the  reason  for  those  orders,  without 
committing  the  crime  of  perjury  and  apostacy,  what  good  or  what  evil 
is  it  not  in  the  power  of  hypocritical  or  ambitious  masters  to  do,  who 
command  so  absolutely,  and  who  are  so  entirely  obeyed  ?  If  it  be  the 
effect  of  a  deep  sense  of  compassion  for  a  part  of  the  human  species, 
whom  it  is  intended  to  rescue  from  ignorance  and  misery,  what  virtue 
can  be  more  heroic  ?  With  respect  to  the  constancy  with  which  these 
extraordinary  men  'persevere  in  so  disgustful  an  undertaking,  I  should 
have  imagined  that  by  living  so  long  among  the  savages,  they  would 
have  become  savages  themselves:  but  I  should  have  been  deceived  in 
this  conjecture.  It  is,  on  the  contrary,  one  of  the  most  laudable  of 
human  vanities  that  supports  them  in  their  career. 

"  '  My  friend,"  said  once  to  me  an  old  missionary,  who  had  lived  thirty 
year*  in  the  midst  of  forests,  and  who,  since  he  had  returned  into  his  own 
country,  had  fallen  into  a  profound  melancholy,  and  was  for  ever  regret- 
ting his  beloved  savages — '  My  friend,'  said  he  '  you  know  not  what  it  is 
to  be  the  king,  almost  even  the  God  of  a  number  of  men,  who  owe  to 
you  the  small  portion  of  happiness  they  enjoy,  and  who  are  ever  assidu- 
ous in  assuring  you  of  their  gratitude.  After  they  have  been  ranging 
through  immense  forests,  they  return  overcome  with  fatigue  and  inani- 
tion ;  if  they  have  only  killed  one  piece  of  game,  for  whom  do  you  sup- 
pose it  to  be  intended  ?  It  is  for  the  Father,  for  it  is  thus  they  call  us ; 


and,  indeed,  they  are  really  our  children.  Their  dissensions 
at  our  appearance.  A  sovereign  doos  not  rest  in  greater  safety  in  the 
midst  of  his  guards,  than  we  do,  surrounded  hy  our  savages.  It  is 
among  them  that  I  will  go  and  end  my  days." 

I  followed  the  advice  of  my  friend  Molinari,  and 
caused  myself  to  be  removed  from  the  school,  which  a 
little  while  afterwards  was  completely  broken  up.  The 
system  of  instruction  there  was  miserably  defective. 
Molinari  was,  as  I  have  stated,  the  only  person  who 
understood  Greek;  and  Caperon,  though  an  Oriental 
scholar,  was  not  acquainted  with  the  language.  Some 
attention  was  paid  to  composition;  a  Pere  Henri, 
(a  gaunt  looking  man,  who  used  to  sit  for  hours  twist- 
ing two  crumbs  of  bread  between  his  forefinger  and 
thumb,  and  revolving  a  sonnet  to  some  favourite  saint), 
took  the  trouble  to  teach  me  how  to  write  French 
rhymes.  There  was  also  some  relish  manifested  for 
the  beauties  of  the  Latin  writers,  and  pains  were  taken 
to  make  the  scholars  feel  the  strength  of  the  expression. 
But  arithmetic,  geography,  history,  were  all  neglected. 
A  worse  course  of  education  cannot  be  well  imagined, 
though  these  Peres  de  la  Foi  conceived  themselves  to  be 
greatly  superior  to  the  professors  in  either  of  tlio 
English  Universities. 

I  left  Kensington  House  for  the  great  scat  of  British 
Jesuitism  in  the  north  of  England.  On  arriving  at 
Manchester  in  the  mail,  I  proceeded  in  a  post-chaise  to 
Blackburn,  and  drove  from  thence  to  the  school 
which  has  since  awakened  the  eloquence  of  Leslie 
Foster,  and  the  orthodox  terrors  of  Sir  Thomas  Leth- 
bridge.  Through  a  long  avenue,  in  the  old  fashion  of 
English  pomp,  and  which  was  bordered  by  ponds  of 
broad  deep  water  on  either  side,  the  horses  carried  me 


rapidly  towards  two  huge  towers,  which  rose  to  a  great 
elevation  out  of  a  magnificent  building  of  Elizabethan' 
architecture.  Before  I  had  time  to  survey  this  fine 
and  venerable  structure  with  minuteness,  and  to 
observe  its  windows  of  massive  stone-work,  and  to 
rest  upon  the  groves  of  old  yew  trees  that  rose  about 
the  decaying  walls  of  its  gardens,  the  horses'  feet 
clattered  under  the  archway,  and  I  was  rolled  into  an 
old  quadrangular  court,  that  seemed  to  belong  to  the 
castle  of  a  feudal  baron,  and  not  to  the  society  of 
useful  and  meritorious  votaries  of  Loyola,  whom  I 
shall  describe  in  a  continuation  of  this  article. 



[OCTOBEE,   1829.] 

THE  College  of  Stonyhurst  is  situated  in  Lancashire, 
at  the  foot  of  the  high  hill  of  Pendle,  which,  as  it  was 
formerly  the  favourite  resort  of  sorcerers,  has,  in  the 
opinion  of  a  neighbouring  parson,  afforded,  by  a  natural 
succession,  a  residence  to  the  mysterious  ecclesiastics 
who  are  adepts  in  the  witchcraft  of  Ignatius.  The 
scenery  by  which  it  is  surrounded  is  of  a  solemn  and 
almost  dreary  character.  Immediately  before  the  great 
entrance,  which  opens  into  a  considerable  square,  and 
is  surmounted  by  two  very  lofty  towers,  an  avenue,  in 
the  old  English  fashion,  rises  between  two  large  basins 
of  artificial  water,  whose  stagnant  tranquillity  gives  to 
the  approach  a  dismal  aspect.  This  avenue  leads,  on 
the  right-hand,  to  a  very  extensive  deer-park,  the  neg- 
lected walls  of  which  indicate  that  the  spirit  of  the 
chase  has  long  since  departed  from  the  spot  where  learn- 
ing and  religion  have  fixed  their  abode. 

A  rookery  spreads  behind  the  castle  (for  such  it  may 


be  justly  designated),  of  ancient  and  venerable  trees. 
The  remains  of  a  noble  garden  occupy  the  front;  and 
although  its  terraces  are  now  dilapidated,  and  the  play- 
ground which  is  used  by  the  students  has  usurped  upon 
its  fine  parterres,  a  noble  walk  of  thickly-interwoven 
yew-trees,  which  is  called  the  Wilderness,  has  been 
spared,  and  still  offers  the  memorials  of  magnificence 
in  its  long  and  melancholy  vistas.  It  was  originally 
intended  that  the  building  should  consist  of  two  wings; 
only  one,  however,  was  completed,  as  the  expense  ex- 
ceeded the  fortune  of  the  projector.  The  portion  of 
the  edifice  which  is  finished,  is  of  great  extent.  It  is 
of  a  gothic  character,  in  the  exterior;  but  its  apart- 
ments, and  especially  the  splendid  hall,  which  is  flagged 
with  white  and  polished  marble,  are  of  far  greater 
dimensions  than  the  rooms  which  are  generally  found 
in  buildings  of  a  similar  style. 

As  you  look  from  the  great  central  window  of  mas- 
sive stone,  you  see  the  ridge  of  Pendle  stretched  out  in 
a  long  line  of  black  and  dismal  barrenness.  The  rivers 
Hodder  and  Kibble,  whose  banks  are  lined  with  fine 
woods,  flow  in  the  valley  beneath.  The  town  of  Cli- 
theroe  is  seen  on  the  left,  where  the  plains  of  Yorkshire 
present  a  rich  contrast  of  cultivation  in  their  wide  and 
distant  reaches.  Bipchester  lies  on  the  right;  and 
behind,  a  line  of  heathyj  hills,  called  Longridge  Fell, 
extends  itself  for  several  miles.  This  fine  old  mansion 
was  the  property  of  the  Sherbourne  family,  and  was 
afterwards  occupied  for  a  period  by  one  of  the  Dukes 
of  Norfolk.  It  came  by  purchase  into  the  hands  of  the 
late  Mr.  Weld,  of  Lulworth  Castle.  He  had  been  edu- 
cated at  St.  Omer's,  among  the  Jesuits ;  and  after  they 
had  been  successively  obliged  to  fly  from  their  seminary 


there,  and  from  Bruges  and  Liege,  they  were  received 
by  their  old  pupil  at  Stonyhurst.  During  his  life  they 
held  the  house  itself  free  from  all  charges,  paying  a 
moderate  rent  for  a  considerable  tract  of  ground ;  and 
on  his  death,  (he  had  first  become  an  ecclesiastic, 
though  he  had  a  very  large  family,)  he  devised  the  lands 
to  that  sacred  corporation,  to  which  he  was  indebted  for 
his  instruction  in  piety,  and  for  which,  as  a  religionist, 
he  had  always  entertained  a  warm  predilection.  His 
obsequies  were  performed  with  great  pomp  in  the  col- 
lege chapel,  and  a  funeral  oration  was  pronounced  upon 
his  merits,  amongst  which  his  bequest  to  the  followers 
of  Loyola  was  not  the  least  conspicuous. 

When  I  arrived  at  Stonyhurst  College,  the  principals, 
and  the  more  eminent  teachers,  were  gentlemen  who 
had  held  similar  situations  in  the  Jesuit  establishment 
at  Liege.  After  they  had  settled  in  Lancashire,  there 
were  some  new  recruits  added  to  their  numbers ;  but 
generally  speaking,  the  members  of  the  Society  had 
been  educated  out  of  England,  according  to  the  system 
adopted  in  the  institutions  under  the  management  of 
that  literary  order.  They  were  about  twenty-five  in 
number,  and  were,  in  every  respect,  superior  to  the 
Peres  de  la  Foi,  with  whom  I  had  sojourned  at  Kensing- 
ton, and  who  merely  passed  as  Jesuits.  They  were 
almost  all  gentlemen  by  birth,  some  of  them  belonging 
to  the  best  Catholic  families  in  England.  Their  man- 
ners were  also  distinguished  by  an  urbanity,  which  it  is 
one  of  the  maxims  of  their  order  that  they  should  assi- 
duously cultivate,  and  which  their  love  of  elegant 
literature  had  tended  to  heighten. 

There  were,  of  course,  a  few  amongst  them  who  were 
a  little  uncouth,  but  these  were  chiefly  persons  who  had 


been  enrolled  in  the  body  since  its  establishment  in 
Lancashire.  Those  who  had  been  brought  up  at  St. 
Omer  or  at  Liege,  were  greatly  superior  in  address  to 
the  generality  of  persons  to  whom  the  education  of  boys 
is  confided.  Of  the  Jesuits  whom  I  found  at  Stony- 
hurst,  by  far  the  greater  number  had  become  members 
of  the  Society  of  Jesus  from  motives  which  were 
entirely  free  from  all  mercenary  consideration.  They 
were,  as  far  as  I  could  form  a  judgment  of  them, 
actuated  by  a  sincere  piety,  and  a  deep  conviction  of 
the  truths  of  their  religion,  and  a  zealous  solicitude  for 
the  welfare  of  others,  which  they  conceived  that  they 
should  best  promote  by  dedicating  themselves  to  the 
education  of  youth. 

At  the  head  of  the  college  was  the  Rector  of  the 
English  province,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Stone.  He  was  a 
man,  whom  neither  his  long  vigils,  nor  his  habits  of 
abstinence,  could  reduce  into  the  meagritude  of  sanc- 
tity; and  by  his  portly  belly  and  his  rosy  counte- 
nance, he  seemed  to  bid  defiance  to  the  power  of  fast- 
ing, and  to  the  devotion  of  prayer.  Nothing  could 
subdue  his  goodly  corpulency,  or  invest  his  features 
with  the  emaciation  which  ordinarily  attends  the  habits 
of  mortification  and  of  self-denial  which  he  practised. 
He  was  the  most  uninterruptedly  devout  person  I  have 
ever  seen,  and  verified  those  descriptions  of  lofty  holi- 
ness with  which  the  writings  of  Alban  Butler  (the  uncle 
of  the  celebrated  conveyancer)  had  rendered  me  fami- 
liar.* The  students  were  accustomed  to  the  perusal  of 
the  Lives  of  the  Saints,  and  found  in  Dr.  Stone  (except 

*  The  piratical  editor  of  these  papers,  in  a  notice  of  the  works  of  Mr. 
Charles  Butler,  informs  the  American  public  that  he  was  the  author  of 
the  Lives  of  the  Saint*  I 


in  his  external  configuration,  in  which  Guido  would  cer- 
tainly not  have  selected  a  model,)  a  realization  of  those 
pictures  of  exalted  piety  which  occur  in  the  pages  of 
that  learned  compiler.  He  seemed  to  be  in  a  perpetual 
commerce  with  heaven ;  for  even  in  his  ordinary  occu- 
pations, at  his  meals,  or  while  he  took  the  exercise 
necessary  for  the  purposes  of  health,  his  eyes  were 
constantly  raised,  and  ejaculations  broke  from  his 
lips.  At  first  view,  one  might  have  taken  him  for  an 
enacter  of  piety ;  and,  indeed,  his  swelling  cheeks,  and 
the  abdominal  rotundity  of  his  person,  gave  him  an  ex- 
ceedingly sublunary  aspect ;  but,  after  a  little  while,  it 
was  difficult  not  to  feel  convinced  that  his  enthusiasm 
was  unaffected,  and  that  his  whole  heart  was  devoted, 
in  the  spirit  of  the  most  exalted  Christianity,  to  God. 

The  reader  will  think  it  strange  that  such  a  person 
should  have  been  entrusted  with  the  direction  of  so 
great  an  establishment  as  this  extensive  college,  the 
conduct  of  whose  finances  would  alone  have  been 
sufficient  to  engross  the  mind,  and  would  have  been 
so  utterly  alien  to  the  spiritual  addictions  of  Dr.  Stone. 
The  Jesuits,  however,  were  too  shrewd  to  leave  their 
money  to  the  care  of  a  person  who  spent  so  little  of  his 
time  in  this  world.  The  care  of  their  souls  was,  by  a 
just  division  of  labour,  committed  to  this  great  master 
of  spirituality ;  but  they  did  not  molest  him  with  any 
pecuniary  considerations;  these  fell  to  the  exclusive 
province  of  the  Rev.  Father  "Wright,  a  brother  of  the 
Catholic  banker  in  Henrietta-street,  of  that  name. 

Father  Wright  would  have  excelled  in  the  counting- 
house  of  the  first  trafficker  in  money  in  the  metropolis ; 
but  from  some  strange  intermixture  of  the  habits  of 
devotion  with  the  tendencies  to  thrift,  he  became  a 


priest,  and  entered  the  society  of  Jesus.  His  associates 
•were  not  slow  in  discovering  those  propensities,  which 
it  is  their  study  not  to  extinguish,  but  to  direct ;  and, 
bringing  nature  and  devotion  into  alliance,  made  him 
purse-bearer  to  the  college.  Father  Wright  had  no 
solicitude  for  gain  upon  his  own  account,  but,  for  the 
benefit  of  the  order,  was  in  perpetual  pursuit  of  it. 
He  managed  the  farm,  regulated  the  whole  domestic 
economy,  and  laid  out  the  grounds  of  the  society.  He 
was  a  sharp,  hawk-eyed,  bustling  little  man,  with  an 
aspect  of  rapacious  shrewdness,  and  that  intensity  of 
look,  in  which  the  eagerness  for  the  acquisition  of 
money  is  combined  with  the  prudence  which  is 
necessary  to  retain  it.  He  was  much  more  profoundly 
versed  in  Cocker  than  in  Suarez,  and  far  fonder  of 
consulting  his  ledger  than  of  unlocking  the  brass  clasps 
of  his  breviary.  He  was  of  infinite  service  to  the 
establishment,  by  restraining  every  disposition  to 
expense,  and  by  the  regular  system  of  economy  to 
which  he  undeviatingly  adhered. 

In  one  grand  speculation,  however,  he  was  com- 
pletely foiled,  to  his  own  great  mortification,  and  that 
of  his  associates.  There  was  a  sum  of  16,000/.  in  the 
hands  of  Father  Beattie,  the  last  of  the  Irish  Jesuits 
who  had  survived  the  abolition  of  the  order.  This  sum 
had  been  bequeathed  to  the  old  priest  by  a  Father 
Callaghan,  who  held  it  himself  in  trust,  and  left  it  for 
the  purpose  of  having  a  Jesuit  college  built  in  Ireland. 
"Wright,  the  English  Jesuit,  suggested  that  Ireland 
ought  to  be  annexed  to  the  English  province,  and  that 
the  money  should  be  sent  to  Stonyhurst ;  and  accord- 
ingly he  put  every  expedient  into  practice  in  order  to 
prevail  on  Father  Beattie  to  apply  the  sacred  treasure 


to  the  extension  of  Stonyhurst.  Beattie,  however,  who 
hated  everything  English,  resisted.  Wright  applied  to 
the  General  of  the  Jesuits  in  order  to  effect  his  pur- 
pose ;  but  the  Irish  Jesuit  countermined  his  Anglican 
brother,  and,  in  place  of  swelling  the  coffers  of  Stony- 
hurst,  the  fund  was  laid  out  in  the  purchase  of  an 
estate  in  Ireland,  and  in  the  establishment  of  the 
College  of  Clongowes. 

I  have  stated  that  there  was  a  minute  allocation  of 
different  pursuits,  according  to  their  respective  talents, 
to  the  members  of  the  fraternity.     The  selection  of 
Father  Wright  to  preside  over  the  finances,  was  not 
more  appropriate  than  the  choice  of  the  remarkable 
individual  who  was  at  the  head  of  what  was  called  the 
Novitiate.      About   two  miles  from  the  college  there 
stood  upon  a  hill,  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Hodder,  a 
small  house,  which  was  dedicated  to  the  residence  of 
the  young  men  who,  desiring  to  become  Jesuits,  were, 
according  to  the  rules  of  the  company,  obliged  to  go 
through  a  probation,  of  two  years  in  continued  medi- 
tation and  prayer.     During  that  space  of  time,  a  can- 
didate   for    admission    to    the    society  must    remain 
entirely  secluded  from  the  world,  and  occupied  exclu- 
sively in  the  work  of  religious  perfection.     The  novices 
are  not  allowed  to  read  out  of  any  profane  book  more 
than  ten  lines  a  day.     The  college  itself  was  considered 
to  be  too  worldly  and  full  of  turmoil  for  such  a  process 
of    complete    purification;    and    in   order  that   their 
sequestration  might  be  more  complete,  a  little  edifice 
was  raised  upon  a  slight  elevation  which  overhung  the 
river  Hodder.     Here  no  other  sound  but  the  murmurs 
of  the  stream  as  it  gurgled  over  its  pebbly  bed  through 
the  deep  groves  that  hung  on  either  side  of  it,  were 


heard  by  the  votaries  of  silence  and  of  solitude,  who 
were  embowered  in  this  beautiful  abode. 

How  often  have  I  paused  to  look  upon  it,  in  [the 
walks  which  we  were  occasionally  allowed  to  take  in  the 
vicinity  of  this  pious  and  lonely  spot !  On  the  opposite 
side  of  the  river  was  a  wood,  in  which  we  used  to  go 
either  to  gather  nuts  or  to  hunt  squirrels.  Many  a 
time  I  have  left  the  pastimes  in  which  my  companions 
were  engaged,  and,  descending  to  the  banks  of  the 
stream,  have  fixed  my  eyes  upon  "the  Novitiate" 
upon  the  other  side ;  and  as  I  heard  the  voices  of  its 
inmates  rising  in  their  evening  hymn  through  the 
trees  which  surrounded  it,  I  have  felt  myself  thrilled 
with  all  those  sensations  which  belong  to  the  elevation 
of  piety,  and  what  the  profane  would  designate  as  the 
romance  of  religion.  In  this  probationary  hermitage 
the  novices  were  secluded,  and  over  them  there  presided 
a  man  the  most  remarkable  for  what  I  may  call  the 
chivalry  of  Jesuitism  whom  I  have  ever  seen. 

Father  Plowden  was  the  younger  brother  of  a  very 
ancient  Catholic  family,  and  was,  I  believe,  descended 
from  the  great  lawyer  of  that  name.  He  had  been 
originally  educated  in  Rome,  and  was  from  thence, 
after  spending  many  years  in  Italy,  transferred  to 
St.  Diner's.  He  was  a  perfect  Jesuit  of  the  old 
school :  his  mind  was  stored  with  classical  knowledge ; 
his  manners  were  highly  polished;  he  had  great 
eloquence,  which  was  alternately  vehement  and  persua- 
sive, as  the  occasion  put  his  talents  into  requisition; 
and  with  his  various  accomplishments  he  combined  the 
loftiest  enthusiasm  for  the  advancement  of  religion, 
and  an  utter  immolation  of  himself  to  the  glory  of  the 
order,  of  which  he  was  unquestionably  a  great  ornament. 


Though  greatly  advanced  in  years,  he  stood  erect  and 
tall,  with  all  the  evidences  of  strong  and  inextinguish- 
able vitality  about  him.  His  cheek,  though  worn,  had 
the  hues  of  health  upon  it ;  and  though  his  head  was 
quite  bald,  the  vivacity  of  his  eyes,  that  shot  their 
light  from  beneath  their  broad  and  shaggy  brows, 
exhibited  a  mind  whose  faculties  it  did  not  seem  to  be 
in  the  power  of  time  to  impair. 

His  powers  as  a  preacher  were  of  a  very  high  class. 
Students  at  a  public  school  listen  to  religious  instruction 
as  if  it  were  only  a  part  of  the  mere  routine  of  their 
ordinary  occupations.  When,  however,  Mr.  Plowden 
ascended  the  pulpit,  every  eye  and  every  ear  were 
fixed  in  attention.  His  command  of  lofty  diction; 
his  zealous  and  forcible  delivery ;  the  noble  port  which 
he  assumed  as  the  herald  of  intelligence  from  heaven ; 
and,  more  than  anything  else,  the  profound  conviction 
which  he  manifestly  entertained  of  the  truth  of  the 
doctrines  which  he  interpreted,  and  the  strenuousness 
of  his  adjuration  in  calling  men's  hearts  to  God,  gave 
him  every  title  to  be  considered  an  orator  of  the  first 
class.  Certainly,  the  belief  that  he  was  altogether 
devoted  to  the  spiritual  welfare  of  those  whom  Provi- 
dence had,  in  his  opinion,  assigned  to  his  tutelage, 
greatly  enhanced  the  impressiveness  of  his  exhorta- 
tions. He  was  looked  upon  as  a  model  of  exalted 

It  was  not  to  the  college  of  Stonyhurst  that  he 
confined  his  labours ;  he  was  also  busy  in  the  conversion 
of  the  population  in  the  vicinity.  It  not  unfrequently 
happened  that  he  was  informed,  in  the  midst  of  a 
winter's  night,  that  some  person  at  a  considerable 
distance  from  the  college  was  on  the  point  of  death, 

VOL.  II.  u 


and  stood  in  need  of  his  spiritual  aid,  The  old  man, 
who  did  not  seem  to  know  what  hardship  was,  would 
leap  from  his  hard  bed,  and  having  hurried  on  his 
clothes,  he  would  go  forth  with  a  lantern,  attended  by 
a  lay-brother  of  the  order,  and,  making  his  way  over 
the  fens  and  morasses  by  which  the  college  was  sur- 
rounded, hasten  to  the  door  of  the  expiring  sinner, 
and  arrive  at  his  bed-side  in  time,  as  he  conceived,  to 
speed  his  soul  to  heaven. 

This  truly  zealous  and  exalted  Christian  was  the 
President  of  the  Novitiate  ;  and  certainly  no  man 
could  be  better  calculated  to  infuse  into  the  minds  of 
others  that  heroical  self-abnegation,  and  that  surrender 
of  all  the  passions  to  the  advancement  of  the  society, 
which  constitute  the  perfection  of  a  Jesuit.  If  he  could 
have  contributed  to  the  saving  of  the  soul  of  a  sinner, 
or  to  the  promotion  of  the  glory  of  St.  Ignatius,  by 
laying  his  head  upon  the  block,  he  would,  I  am  sure, 
have  knelt  down  to  it  at  the  warning  of  an  instant,  and 
cried  "  strike  ! "  Yet  with  all  this  extraordinary  energy 
of  zeal,  and  though  he  carried  his  enthusiasm  to  the 
highest  point  to  which  it  could  reach,  he  was,  notwith- 
standing, wholly  free  from  those  weaknesses  and 
credulities  which  are  sometimes  found  in  minds  deeply 
imbued  with  religious  feeling.  He  was  a  firm  believer 
in  the  tenets  of  his  church;  but  he  did  not  himself 
practise,  nor  did  he  encourage  in  others,  those  usages 
which,  in  truth,  do  not  belong  to  the  general  plan  of 
Catholicity,  but  have  grown  out  of  individual  fantasy, 
and  ought  not,  in  fairness,  to  be  regarded  as  component 
parts  of  the  general  system. 

It  is  but  doing  justice  to  the  Stony  hurst  Jesuits  to 
say,  that  they  were  by  no  means  given  to  the  inculcation 


of  those  opinions,  or  to  the  observance  of  those  forms, 
which  have  chiefly  contributed  to  create  a  disrelish  for 
the  Roman  Catholic  religion  amongst  persons  who 
dissent  from  its  doctrines.  I  must,  however,  note  one 
exception.  The  Reverend  Father  Reeves,  who  was  at 
the  head  of  an  institution  called  the  Sodality  (I  have 
made  some  mention  of  a  similar  body  in  my  account  of 
the  Peres  de  la  Foi,  given  in  a  former  number),  was  as 
strange  a  specimen  of  exiguous  eccentricity  as  I 
remember  to  have  seen.  The  Sodality  itself  was  a 
curious  instance  of  the  mechanism  by  which  the 
Jesuits  contrived  to  keep  perfect  order  in  their  schools. 
It  consisted  of  the  majority  of  the  boys,  who  voluntarily 
enrolled  themselves  in  a  corporation,  which  was  insti- 
tuted in  honour  of  the  Blessed  Virgin.  The  students 
who  belonged  to  this  society  were  compelled  to  select  a 
certain  number  of  individuals  from  among  themselves, 
who  were  called  admonitors,  and  who  bound  themselves 
to  disclose  to  the  heads  of  the  school  every  malpractice 
which  should  fall  under  their  cognizance. 

They  were  in  fact,  a  set  of  tell-tales,  to  whom  no 
degradation  attached,  because  they  were  elected  to  the 
office  by  the  very  persons  whose  conduct  it  was  their 
duty  to  superintend.  Thus  their  functions  were  not 
dishonourable,  although  the  habit  which  they  engen- 
dered was  not,  perhaps,  very  useful.  Reynolds,  (the 
celebrated  Irish  Jaffier)  was  brought  up  at  Liege,  and 
was  eminent  for  his  skill  in  detecting,  and  his  fidelity 
in  disclosing,  the  offences  of  his  fellow  students.  In 
the  Sodality  (I  have  parenthetically  described  its  main 
object),  a  number  of  rites  were  introduced  which 
might,  in  my  judgment,  have  been  quite  as  well 

u  2 


omitted.  The  little  gentleman,  of  whom  I  have  above 
made  mention,  was  the  director  of  this  Sodality ;  and 
by  his  fanaticism  contributed  not  unfrequently  to  throw 
a  burlesque  upon  it. 

His  favourite  tenet  was,  that  England  was  "the 
dower  of  the  Blessed  Virgin/'  and  had  been  assigned  to 
her  by  a  peculiar  gift  from  Heaven.  Accordingly,  in 
his  spiritual  exhortations,  he  never  called  England  by 
any  other  name  than  "  Dos  Mariae."  Every  sentence 
was  concluded  with  this  strange  appellation,  to  the 
utterance  of  which  he  gave,  by  his  shrill  and  almost 
infantine  intonations,  accompanied  by  his  wild  but 
pigmy  gestures,  and  the  contortions  of  a  withered 
countenance,  a  great  peculiarity  of  ridicule.  He  used 
to  fall  into  paroxysms  of  prophecy  in  the  pulpit,  when 
he  announced  that  England  would  be  speedily  con- 
verted, that  the  Virgin  would  be  restored  to  her  rights, 
and  that  she  would  be  reinstated  in  the  plenitude  of 
possession  in  "  dos  Marise."  These  homilies  of  the 
poor  man  created  nothing  but  merriment  among  the 
students,  and  pity  among  his  brethren ;  but  they  were 
loth  to  deprive  him  of  his  office,  as  it  was  his  only 
enjoyment,  and  he  had  filled  it  for  several  years. 

Many  jokes  were  practised  upon  him.  He  had  in 
his  possession  some  handfuls  of  flour,  which  he  declared, 
and  verily  believed,  had  been  consecrated  by  St.  Aloy- 
sius  Gonzaga,  and  which  he  regarded  as  a  sovereign 
specific  for  all  maladies.  Those  who  were  fond  of 
waggery  would  call  at  his  chamber  with  a  very  devout 
aspect,  and  beg  a  little  of  this  flour,  which  he  would 
give  with  many  encomiums  upon  its  virtues.  It  was  then 
contrived  to  have  it  replaced,  and  Father  Reeves  would 


exultingly  exclaim,  that  it  had  all  the  properties  of  the 
oil  in  the  widow's  cruse  in  the  Scriptures,  and  was 
incapable  of  sustaining  a  diminution. 

But  if  Father  Reeves  created  mirth  at  his  expense, 
he  had  dreadful  opportunities,  during  what  was  called 
"the  Retreat,"  of  retaliating  upon  the  laughers,  by 
depriving  them  of  all  use  of  the  organs  of  risibility,  and 
putting  the  muscles  of  yawning  into  exclusive  use. 
"  The  Retreat "  is  a  period  of  annual  seclusion,  which 
lasts  about  seven  days,  during  which  the  students  are 
forbidden  to  speak  even  at  their  meals,  and  are  com- 
pelled to  expend  the  time  in  religious  contemplation. 
In  all  Jesuit  colleges,  some  days  in  every  year  are 
appropriated  to  the  holy  sequestration  from  which  it 
derives  its  name.  To  persons  living  in  the  world,  it 
might  be  of  considerable  use  to  retire  for  a  limited 
period  from  its  pursuits ;  but  I  question  whether  it  does 
schoolboys  (who  have,  at  a  Jesuit  school  at  least,  an 
abundance  of  daily  prayer)  any  very  substantial  or 
permanent  good. 

The  minds  of  even  the  most  pious  and  seraphic  can 
scarcely  sustain  themselves  for  such  a  continuance  upon 
the  wing  in  the  loftier  and  more  rarified  regions  of 
devotion.  It  must,  therefore,  have  been  no  very  easy 
task  for  boys  of  fourteen  or  fifteen  years  not  to  alight 
for  repose  upon  more  sublunary  objects.  However, 
everything  that  could  be  devised  in  the  way  of  external 
form  was  resorted  to  for  the  purpose  of  giving  impres- 
siveness  to  the  observances  of  this  dismal  week.  Ad- 
joining the  great  dormitory,  there  was  a  large  apartment 
situated  immediately  beneath  the  two  great  towers. 
Here  a  small  altar,  with  a  single  lamp  burning  upon  it, 


was  placed ;  all  other  light  was  excluded.  The  students 
assembled  in  this  spot ;  and,  in  the  midst  of  the  pro- 
found silence  which  was  maintained,  it  Avas  in  winter  a 
mournful  thing  to  listen  to  the  wind  that  moaned 
round  the  towers  that  hung  over  us,  and  swept  through 
the  long  and  darkened  windows.  An  hour  of  taciturn 
meditation  was  first  ordained.  This  was  followed  by  a 
sermon.  Father  Beeves  appeared  at  the  altar,  dressed 
in  the  robes  of  his  order,  which,  however,  made  him 
look  more  pragmatical  than  dignified.  The  lamp  that 
played  upon  his  features  brought  them  out,  and  gave 
him,  by  its  lucid  light,  the  aspect  of  an  old  woman, 
who  believed  herself  for  a  century  to  have  been  dealing 
with  the  devil.  A  strong  preacher  might  have  pro- 
duced some  exciting  effect  under  such  circumstances; 
but  Father  Reeves,  both  in  the  selection  of  his  subjects, 
and  in  the  manner  of  treating  them,  inflicted  upon  us 
a  tedium  which  superseded  all  necessity  of  penance. 

His  favourite  topic  was  the  overthrow  of  the  fallen 
angels.  He  described  the  whole  campaign  in  heaven, 
in  which  Lucifer  had  been  worsted  by  the  archangel, 
with  a  minuteness  of  celestial  strategy,  which  I  shall 
not  cease  to  remember.  His  favourite  text  was  "  quasi 
rudentibus  detracti."  The  pulling  down  of  Satan  with 
a  rope  from  heaven  was  the  subject  of  many  and  many 
a  description,  which,  in  elaborate  particularity  of  inci- 
dent, it  would  be  difficult  to  surpass.*  I  must  acquit 
the  other  Jesuits,  however,  of  any  participation  in  these 

*  Father  Reeve's  style  of  preaching  seems  to  have  been  that  which  was 
called  the  "  circumstantial,"  and  was  60  admirably  ridiculed  in  the  curious 
Spanish  romance  of  Friar  Gerund,  the  principal  design  of  which  was  to 
expose  and  explode  the  absurdities  prevailing  at  the  time  in  the  Spanish 


follies.  They  were  generally  men  of  good  understand- 
ing, who  combined  with  a  well-regulated  zeal  for  religion, 
sound  common-sense. 

There  were  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  boys  in  the 
college,  who  were  divided  into  six  classes.  Each  class 
had  a  separate  master,  who  at  the  termination  of  a  year 
became  the  head  of  the  next  class,  into  which  all  the 
students  under  his  superintendence  were  transferred; 
so  that  in  general  the  same  instructor  for  six  years 
carried  on  the  same  boys  through  their  successive  gra- 
dations of  tuition.  This  plan  is  the  more  deserving  of 
remark,  because  it  prevailed  through  all  the  Jesuit 
schools  upon  the  Continent.  The  lowest  class  was 
called  the  Abecedarians,  from  their  being  initiated  into 
the  elements  of  knowledge ;  the  next  was  called  Figures, 
and  afterwards  came  the  classes  of  grammar,  syntax, 
poetry,  and  rhetoric.  It  is  obvious  that  much  of  a 
boy's  acquirements,  and  a  good  deal  of  the  character  of 
his  taste,  must  have  depended  upon  the  individual  to 
whose  instructions  he  was  thus  almost  exclusively 

It  was  my  good  fortune  to  be  placed  at  first  in  the 
class  of  the  Ueverend  Father  Laurenson,  who  was  an 
excellent  Latin  scholar,  and  had  besides  a  strong  relish 
for  English  composition.  He  was  an  excellent  man, 
with  an  exceedingly  good  heart,  with  generous  and 
honourable  feelings,  and  entirely  free  from  that  supple- 
ness which  has  been  attributed,  but  in  my  mind  erro- 
neously, to  the  body  to  which  he  belonged.  The  Jesuits 
who  were  employed  in  courts  to  influence  the  minds  of 
ministers,  and  to  sway  the  decision  of  cabinets,  might 
have  been  addicted  to  habits  of  duplicity,  which  are 
almost  inseparable  from  such  pursuits;  but  in  their 


colleges,  I  apprehend,  that  they  were  little  more  than 
ardent  instructors  in  classical  learning;  and,  as  far  as 
my  experience  goes,  I  can  aver  that  I  never  observed 
the  least  tendency  upon  their  part  to  inculcate  any  doc- 
trine, or  to  hold  up  any  personal  example,  of  that  false 
dexterity  which  has  been  so  long  regarded  as  their 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Laurenson  was  a  personification  of 
greatness.  He  was  a  great  gaunt  man,  with  a  deep 
sonorous  voice,  and  a  countenance  in  which  it  was  easy 
to  discover  his  vigorous  intellect,  his  open  and  manly 
nature,  and  an  irascibility  which,  with  all  his  efforts, 
and  with  the  discipline  of  Loyola,  he  found  it  impos- 
to  conquer.  Father  Laurenson  was  obliged,  from,  I 
believe,  ill-health,  to  give  up  the  class;  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  a  gentleman  who  is  at  present  at  the  head  of 
the  college,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Brooks.  He  lately  attracted 
some  notice  in  Rome,  having  attended  as  deputy  from 
the  English  province  for  the  election  of  a  general  of  the 
society,  upon  the  death  of  Aloysius  Fortis,  and  having 
travelled  in  his  own  carriage,  which  excited  the  com- 
ments of  his  Continental  brethren,  who  thought  that  a 
Jesuit  might  travel  in  his  neighbour's  carriage,  but 
was  forbidden  by  his  vow  of  poverty  from  lolling  in 
his  own. 

If,  however,  they  attributed  the  selection  of  this 
conveyance  to  any  spirit  of  ostentation  in  the  English 
deputy,  they  mistook  Mr.  Brooks.  He  was,  when  he 
became  the  teacher  of  the  class  to  which  I  belonged,  a 
young  man  of  manners  which  were  pushed,  perhaps,  to 
the  utmost  limit  of  refinement.  His  taste  in  literature 
was  highly  cultivated,  and  his  mind  was  full  of 
examples  from  the  best  authors,  and  of  precepts  from 


the  best  ancient  and  modern  critics.  He  took  exceed- 
ingly great  pains  in  exciting  an  admiration  for  the 
beauties  of  the  classical  writers  which  it  was  his  office 
to  explain;  and  in  rendering  them  into  English,  he 
enforced  the  necessity  of  preserving  the  strength  and 
the  colour  of  the  Greek  or  the  Latin  phrase.  To 
English  composition  he  insisted  that  particular  atten- 
tion should  be  paid.  He  was  also  an  excellent  teacher 
of  recitation.  He  had  studied  it,  together  with 
another  Jesuit,  Mr.  Darrel  (one  of  the  old  Catholic 
family  of  that  name  in  Kent)  ;*  and  both  had  made 
themselves  complete  masters  of  the  principles  on  which 
it  depends. 

There  were  two  books  which  they  had  in  perpetual 
use,  one  was  Walker's  Elocution,  and  another  (it  is  not 
much  known,  though  it  contains  excellent  matter) 
called  Cheironomia,  written  by  the  E-ev.  Mr.  Austin,  a 
brother-in-law  of  the  Irish  Chief  Justice.f  Nothing 
can  be  more  barbarous  than  the  intonations  with  which 
most  boys,  after  they  leave  school,  either  read  or  speak. 
In  Ireland  the  system  of  recitation  is  detestable.  At 
Stonyhurst,  if  a  few  important  branches  of  education 
were  not  so  much  attended  to  as  they  ought  to  have 
been,  a  neglect  of  this  useful  and  pleasurable  accom- 
plishment was  not  among  their  faults.  The  passion 
which  prevailed  at  this  school  for  recitation  soon 
extended  itself  to  acting.  A  private  theatre  was  built, 
at  the  expense  of  the  students,  under  the  super- 
intendence of  the  masters.  There  were  also  exhibitions 
called  "  Academics,"  where  the  boys  were  examined  in 
Greek  and  Latin,  and  recited  their  own  verses  before  a 

*  A  Catholic  gentleman  of  that  name  is  mentioned  as  having  taken 
part  in  the  Penenden  Heath  Meeting,  the  subject  of  a  previous  paper, 
f  Chief  Justice  Bushe. 


great  concourse  of  people,  who  assembled  from  the 
neighbourhood.  These  shows  tended  greatly  to  excite 
emulation  and  that  love  of  distinction  which  the 
Jesuits  had  a  particular  faculty  in  creating. 

A  number  of  ladies  used,  at  one  period,  to  attend 
these  spectacles.  However,  the  Jesuits  thought  it 
prudent  to  dispense  with  their  attendance,  as  one  of 
them,  a  young  woman  who  lived  near  Preston,  fell 
desperately  in  love  with  the  late  Mr.  Gerald  Bagot,  of 
Castle  Bagot,  who  had  a  person  and  countenance 
endowed  with  many  captivating  qualities.  The  lady 
became  deeply  enamoured  with  him  at  first  sight. 
There  were  rumours  of  her  having  used  various 
ingenious  means  to  convey  to  him  an  intimation  of 
her  passion.  I  do  not  exactly  recollect  the  particulars 
of  the  catastrophe,  but  it  was  of  such  a  nature  as 
induced  the  Jesuits  to  prohibit  the  attendance  of  the 
gentler  sex  at  their  annual  exhibitions.  This  regula- 
tion was  only  an  extension  of  their  rule  with  regard  to 
women,  from  the  night  to  the  broad  day.  It  is  a  law 
among  the  Jesuits  that  no  women  shall  be  permitted 
to  sleep  in  their  colleges.  Under  no  circumstances, 
no  matter  how  urgent,  was  any  deviation  from  an 
ordinance  so  ungallant  ever  allowed. 

The  mothers,  and,  what  was  far  more  deserving  of 
note,  the  sisters  of  the  students,  used  occasionally  to 
come  to  Stonyhurst  to  visit  them.  I  remember  to 
have  seen,  walking  through  the  play-ground,  and 
accompanied  by  their  relatives,  some  of  the  most 
beautiful  girls  upon  whom  I  have  ever  looked.  The 
college  was  thronged  with  English  Catholics  of  the 
highest  class,  and  I  have  the  warrant  of  Lord  Byron 
for  saying,  that  the  English  Catholic  women  are 
remarkable  for  a  peculiar  loveliness,  which  a  certain 


shy  superciliousness  of  bearing  tends  to  set  off. 
Aurora  Raby,  of  -whom  Don  Juan  became  enamoured, 
and  who  is  hated  by  the  Lady  Adeline,  is  a  Catholic.* 
I  have  seen  forms  and  faces  at  Stonyhurst,  among  the 
groups  of  visitors,  from  which  the  great  poet  might 
have  selected  his  model  of  a  Popish  belle  of  the  old 
idolatrous  aristocracy  of  England,  and  who  would 
themselves  have  justified  in  their  own  persons,  "the 
invocation  of  saints." 

The  Jesuits  always  received  their  guests  with  a 
splendid  and  cordial  hospitality.  After  dinner,  how- 
ever, scenes  of  amusing  embarrassment  would  some- 
times occur.  Preston  was  at  the  distance  of  fifteen 
miles ;  the  road  ran  through  a  wild  and  unfrequented 
country,  and  to  return  there  at  a  late  hour  of  the  night 
was  exceedingly  inconvenient.  A  remote  intimation 
would  at  first  be  given  that  beds  would  be  acceptable* 
and  then  the  ear  of  Doctor  Stone  was  deaf  to  the 
insinuation ;  what  was  at  first  but  a  suggestion,  grew 
into  a  broad  hint,  and  at  length  strengthened  itself 
into  a  direct  request.  The  Doctor  would  then  state, 
with  all  the  politeness  with  which  it  was  possible  that  a 
negative  to  a  lady  could  be  enveloped,  that  Saint 
Ignatius  had,  in  founding  the  order,  laid  it  down  as  a 
fundamental  maxim,  that  none  of  the  daughters  of  Eve 
should  sleep  within  the  gates  of  the  society ;  and  in 

*  "  She  was  a  Catholic,  too,  sincere,  austere, 
As  far  as  her  own  gentle  heart  allowed, 
And  deemed  that  fallen  worship  far  more  dear, 
Perhaps  because  'twas  fallen :  her  sires  were  proud 
Of  deeds  and  days,  when  they  had  fill'd  the  ears 
Of  nations,  and  had  never  bent  or  bowM 
To  rival  power  :  and  as  she  was  the  last, 
She  held  their  old  faith  and  their  feelings  fast." 


order  to  mitigate  the  apparent  violation  of  courtesy,  he 
would  add,  with  a  pious  ejaculation,  "  Lead  us  not  into 
temptation  !" 

To  this  anouncement  it  was  impossible  to  make  any 
opposition.  The  carriage  was  ordered.  Bonnets  were 
tightly  tied  about  throats,  which  it  was  indeed  perilous 
to  look  on — tippets  of  the  warmest  fur  were  drawn 
over  bosoms  whose  undulations  would  have  shaken  the 
vows  of  Saint  Senanus.*  The  party  left  the  great 
refectory,  and  proceeded  through  the  long  and  dreary 
passages  of  the  old  castle,  attended  by  a  band  of 
Jesuits  to  the  great  entrance,  where  the  carriage  which 
was  to  convey  them  to  Preston  was  drawn  up.  Here 
the  resolution  of  the  ladies  would  fail  them.  The 
darkness  of  the  night,  the  keenness  of  the  biting  air, 
the  gusts  of  wind  that  would  come  sweeping  from  the 
dreariness  that  surrounded  the  college,  would  render  a 
journey  to  Preston  a  serious  undertaking.  Here  the 
party  would  stand  dismayed ;  and,  after  a  pause,  voices 
that,  like  music,  sound  sweetest  by  night,  would  again 
renew  their  intimations,  that  for  once  the  ordinances 
of  Ignatius  might  be  violated,  and  that,  after  all,  no 
great  risk  would  be  incurred  by  a  little  extension  of 
the  splendour  of  the  Jesuit  board  to  the  brief  lodging 
of  a  night. 

It  was,  however,  in  vain,  that  to  the  venerable  rector 
of  the  English  Province  these  adjurations  were  ad- 

*  "  Haste  and  leave  this  sacred  isle, 
Unholy  hark,  ere  morning  smile, 
For  on  thy  deck,  though  dark  it  be, 

A  female  form  I  see  j 
And  I  have  sworn,  this  sainted  sod 
Shall  ne'er  by  woman's  foot  be  trod." 

Irish  Melodies. 


dressed.  Some  of  the  younger  members  of  the  Order, 
who  stood  with  torches  beside  him,  might  have  relented, 
but  the  Doctor  was  immovable.  He  still  preserved  that 
gentlemanlike  demeanour,  which  is,  with  a  Jesuit, 
equivalent  to  a  precept  of  religion ;  but  he  was  not  to 
be  stirred  from  his  purpose.  Though  the  thunder 
should  roll,  and  shake  the  old  castle  to  its  foundation, 
and  the  lightning  should  show  the  loveliest  faces  pale 
with  dismay  by  its  nearest  and  broadest  flashings,  still 
the  Jesuit  was  never  surprised  into  a  breach  of  the 
anti-chivalrous  canons  of  his  order.  He  would  bow  the 
ladies  into  their  carriages  with  a  relentless  perseverance; 
and  in  the  midst  of  hail  and  storm,  would  command 
the  gates  to  be  closed,  while  the  postboys  cracked  their 
whips  and  put  spurs  to  their  horses,  and  the  wheels  that 
rattled  over  the  pavement  of  the  old  avenue  announced, 
as  they  rolled  away,  the  victory  which  the  disciple  of 
Loyola  had  gained  over  human  nature,  by  his  insen- 
sibility to  charms,  which  if  the  Devil  had  copied  when 
he  tempted  St.  Anthony  in  the  shape  of  a  woman,  the 
recluse  would  have  succumbed. 

Perhaps  the  rigorous  rules  adopted  by  the  Jesuits,  in 
order  to  render  themselves  impregnable  in  their  vows 
of  continence,  or  to  secure  themselves  from  all  impeach- 
ment of  their  morality,  may  be  regarded  with  some 
justice  as  carried  to  an  extremity  of  precaution.  Still 
the  alacrity  with  which  accusations  against  religious 
confraternities  are  preferred,  and  the  readiness  with 
which  they  are  received,  justiiy  to  a  great  extent,  the 
severe  discipline,  which  has  had  the  effect,  not  only  of 
preserving  the  virtue,  but  what  is  really  equivalent,  the 
moral  character  of  the  Society  of  Jesus. 

Robertson  who  was  by  no  means  favourable  to  the 


Order,  observes,  that  while  other  communities  degene- 
rated into  licentiousness,  the  Jesuits  always  sustained 
a  high  reputation  for  personal  good  conduct.  His 
commendation  is  peculiarly  applicable  to  the  College  of 
Stonyhurst.  Vice  had  no  residence  within  its  walls. 
I  do  not  recollect  having  either  remarked  or  heard  of 
the  least  deviation  from  propriety  among  the  members 
of  the  Society.  One  reverend  gentleman,  who  was  not 
however,  a  Jesuit,  but  proposed  to  become  one,  was 
slightly  addicted  to  the  pleasures  of  the  table ;  and  lest 
his  love  of  conviviality  should  grow  into  an  excess, 
although  he  was  a  man  of  considerable  abilities,  he 
was  informed  that  his  tendencies  were  not  in  conformity 
with  the  discipline  of  Ignatius,  and  was  politely  required 
to  leave  the  college.  The  Jesuits  omitted  no  effort  to 
introduce  amongst  the  students  that  regard  for  pro- 
priety which  prevailed  amongst  themselves.  The  pas- 
sages in  the  ancient  writers,  which  were  tinctured  with 
any  indelicacy  of  phrase,  were  omitted  in  editions  ex- 
pressly designed  by  the  Jesuits  for  their  schools,  and 
which  had  been  chiefly  published  by  Juvencius. 

The  boys  were  under  a  perpetual  vigilance.  From 
the  school-room,  the  dinner-room,  and  the  play-ground, 
the  superintendents  of  the  establishment,  who  performed 
the  office  of  sentinels,  were  never  absent.  Besides  these 
functionaries,  there  were  also  the  admonitors,  selected 
by  the  boys  themselves  for  the  purpose  of  keeping 
watch  over  their  conduct.  The  result  of  these  expe- 
dients was  a  propriety  in  the  demeanour  of  the  students 
which  it  would  be  difficult  to  surpass.  Blasphemy  and 
indecency  of  expression  were  wholly  unknown,  and  I 
think  that  I  may  state,  with  perfect  truth,  that,  during 
the  whole  time  I  continued  in  the  college,  I  never  heard 


a  syllable  at  which  the  modesty  of  a  girl  could  have 
been  startled. 

It  must  be  confessed,  that  many  of  the  young  men 
•who  were  educated  at  Stonyhurst,  did  not  afterwards 
exhibit  the  evidences  of  that  strict  morality  in  which 
they  had  been  educated.  Certain  English  Roman 
Catholics  of  fortune,  on  leaving  the  college  threw  them- 
selves so  headlong  into  indulgence,  that  they  attracted 
attention  even  in  London,  by  the  sudden  and  splashing 
plunge  which  they  took  into  pleasure.  But  it  is  not 
from  a  few  individuals  that  the  merits  of  a  general 
system  are  to  be  tried ;  and  it  must  also  be  remem- 
bered, that  English  Catholics  of  great  opulence  and  of 
high  rank  found  themselves,  on  entering  the  world, 
destitute  of  all  political  pursuit.  The  want  of  legitimate 
occupation  to  men,  to  whom  the  law  denied  it,  and  who 
were  above  a  profession,  was  of  necessity  an  incentive  to 
dissipation.  But,  in  truth,  it  is  only  in  a  very  few 
instances  that  Stonyhurstians  have  deviated  from  the 
habits  which  were  inculcated  by  their  Jesuit  instructors. 
If  some  members  of  the  Four-in-hand  Club  were  pro- 
duced by  this  college,  it  should  be  also  known  that  the 
generality  of  the  students  have  furnished  an  honourable 
contrast.  The  Welds,  Gages,  Stourtons,  Cliffords, 
Talbots,  were  all  educated  at  Stonyhurst,  and  are  emi- 
nent for  genuine  morality  and  worth. 

Take  the  present  Earl  of  Shrewsbury;  where  is  there 
a  better  man  to  be  found  ?  It  may  be  thought  that  he 
is  too  much  addicted  to  polemical  disputation ;  but  let 
it  not  be  forgotten,  that  he  has  only  acted  on  the  defen- 
sive, and  that  when  his  religion  was  made  an  object  01 
vilification,  he  came  forward  to  repel  imputations  which 
were  not  only  levelled  at  the  reasonableness  of  his 


opinions,  but  the  rights  which  he  has  drawn  from  a 
hero  in  British  history  with  his  splendid  title.  He  was 
my  schoolfellow.  I  remember  him  well.  John  Talbot 
was  in  person  a  chubby,  well-rounded,  plump  little 
Englishman,  with  a  face  in  which  a  peculiar  mildness 
was  suffused  from  eyes  of  a  bright  blue  colour,  over  a 
face  that  was  moulded  in  health  and  softness.  He 
was  somewhat  lubberly  in  his  movements,  and  did  not 
much  relish  the  more  animated  exercises  of  the  school. 
His  pleasure  was,  during  the  hours  of  amusement,  to 
walk  up  and  down  the  wall  of  an  old  orchard  that  ran 
along  the  playground,  with  one  of  the  Jesuits,  or  with 
some  of  the  more  grave  of  his  companions,  and  to  talk 
over  the  literary  occupations  in  which  he  had  been 

There  was  no  fagging  system  at  Stonyhurst ;  and  the 
absence  of  all  superiority  of  manner  in  the  young 
Catholic  nobility,  and  especially  in  the  future  Earl  of 
Shrewsbury,  afforded  a  proof  that  it  is  not  necessary  for 
the  purposes  of  reducing  young  patricians  to  the  useful 
level  of  equality  which  prevails  at  our  public  schools. 
The  Jesuits  took  care  to  make  no  distinctions  between 
the  children  of  tradesmen  and  the  descendants  of  the 
oldest  aristocracy  in  the  island.  John  Talbot  was  unaf- 
fectedly modest  in  his  bearing.  He  did  not  seem  in 
the  least  to  value  himself  upon  his  superior  rank,  but 
appeared  to  aim  at  superiority  by  his  literary  qualifica- 
tions. He  was  extremely  diligent,  and  had  a  high 
reputation  for  ability.  Since  he  has  left  the  college, 
he  has,  in  the  midst  of  immense  wealth,  and  on  the 
summit  of  society,  continued  to  seek  distinction  by  his 
learning  and  his  talents.  The  book  which  he  has  pub- 
lished is  fraught  with  the  true  tenets  of  liberty,  and 


•with  proofs  of  his  capacity  to  assert  them.  The  doors 
of  the  Senate  are  now  thrown  upon  to  him,  and  great 
opportunities  will  speedily  arise,  of  which  I  make  no 
doubt  that  he  will  avail  himself,  of  proving,  from  that 
seat  in  the  House  of  Lords,  which  was  won  by  his 
illustrious  ancestor,  and  with  which  so  much  glory  is 
associated,  that  a  Catholic  legislator  can  be  the  foe  to 
corrupt  abuses,  the  champion  of  religious  toleration, 
and  a  supporter  of  that  constitution,  of  which  he  will 
furnish  evidence  that  no  violation  was  perpetrated,  in 
the  admission  to  its  full  privileges  of  a  man  who  will 
employ  his  high  rank,  and  the  splendid  occasions  which 
it  will  afford  him,  to  sustain  the  best  institutions,  by 
upholding  the  freedom  of  his  country. 

There  were  at  Stonyhurst,  as  I  have  mentioned,  a 
great  number  of  English  Catholics  of  the  highest  rank. 
The  number  of  Irish  boys  was  about  half  that  of  the 
English.  They  were  generally  greatly  inferior  in  station, 
though  many  of  them  were  the  children  of  the  best 
Catholic  gentry  in  Ireland.  There  existed  among  the 
natives  of  the  two  countries  a  strong  rivalry,  which  was 
occasionally  wrought  up  to  animosity.  The  favourite 
game  at  the  school  was  a  very  violent  one,  called  foot- 
ball. The  Irish  were  marshalled  on  one  side  of  a  large 
field,  and  the  English  on  the  other.  "When  they  became 
heated,  the  boys  showed  a  spirit  of  antipathy,  which 
reminded  one  of  the  feuds  of  the  two  nations.  In 
general,  the  English  were  successful,  because  they 
showed  more  prudence  and  self-control.  The  Irish 
were  so  precipitate  and  headlong  as  constantly  to  miss 
the  victory  when  they  were  on  the  point  of  gaining  it. 
The  same  emulation  ran  into  their  school  exercises. 
Wherever  attention  and  assiduity  were  required,  the 

VOL.  II.  X 


English  were  generally  superior;  but  in  matters  of 
display  the  Irish  went  far  beyond  them.  This  was 
particularly  observable  in  their  declamation,  in  which 
the  Irish  were  unquestionably  far  more  accomplished. 

The  Jesuits  themselves  were  all  Englishmen,  and  I 
think  that  they  occasionally  exhibited  that  contempt 
for  Ireland,  which  is  exceedingly  observable  among  the 
English  Catholics  who  have  not  mixed  much  in  the 
world.  I  should  not  have  adverted  to  this  prejudice, 
had  it  not  greatly  contributed  to  the  production  of  an 
event,  to  which  some  importance  has  been  attached ;  I 
allude  to  the  establishment  of  the  College  of  Clongowes. 

I  have  already  mentioned  that  Doctor  Beattie,  the 
old  Irish  Jesuit,  had  declined  to  transfer  the  fund 
belonging  to  his  province  to  Stonyhurst.  It  was,  how- 
ever, arranged  that  a  certain  number  of  young  Irish- 
men should  be  sent  to  Stonyhurst,  to  be  educated  for 
the  Order,  and  that  the  expense  of  their  instruction 
should  be  defrayed  by  the  Irish  treasury.  Accordingly, 
several  young  men  came  over,  with  Doctor  Kenny,  the 
present  president  of  Stonyhurst,  at  their  head.  They 
were  treated,  as  they  themselves  alleged,  in  a  very 
cold,  supercilious,  and  English  fashion.  Much  discon- 
tent prevailed  amongst  them,  and  in  consequence  of 
their  complaints,  the  General  of  the  Order  gave  direc- 
tions that  they  should  be  despatched  to  Sicily  for  the 
purpose  of  completing  their  education  at  the  Jesuit 
College  of  Palermo.  They  were  accordingly  shipped 
off.  This  separation  completed  the  breach  with  the 
Irish  province.  Had  the  embryo  Jesuits,  who  were 
transmitted  from  Ireland,  been  more  cordially  received, 
an  ultimate  junction  of  both  funds  might  have  been 
accomplished.  The  Hiberno- Sicilians,  however,  on 


their  return  from  Palermo,  exhibited  an  alienation,  in 
which  nationality,  coupled  with  their  reminiscences, 
had  some  share ;  and  rejecting  all  co-operation  with  the 
English  Jesuits,  founded  the  College  of  Clongowes. 

On  its  first  establishment,  Mr.  Peel,  who  was  then 
Secretary  for  Ireland,  urged  on,  I  presume,  by  the 
alarmists  by  whom  he  was  surrounded,  and  who  were 
once  in  possession  of  his  confidence,  appeared  to  take 
fright,  and  sent  for  Doctor  Kenny,  to  interrogate  him. 
The  latter  attended,  having,  it  is  said,  first  obtained 
some  judicious  suggestions  from  Mr.  Scully,  the  author 
of  the  celebrated  book  on  the  Penal  Code.*  The  secre- 
tary was  completely  foiled  by  the  priest ;  the  College  of 
Clongowes  was  founded;  and  the  preposterous  act  of 
parliament  which  has  been  recently  introduced,  in  order, 
I  presume,  to  reconcile  the  people  of  England  to  the 
extension  of  the  principle  of  religious  toleration,  will 
prove  as  inefficient  in  arresting  its  progress,  as  the  per- 
sonal interrogatories  administered  by  Mr.  Peel,  in  the 
prevention  of  its  establishment. 

The  Act  requiring  the  registry  of  every  Jesuit,  and 
prohibiting  the  increase  of  the  Order,  is  utterly  nuga- 
tory. A  Jesuit  is  not  admitted  into  the  Society  with 
any  of  the  "pomp,  pride,  and  glorious  circumstance"  of 
the  Church.  They  prudently  avoided,  at  Stonyhurst, 
the  performance  of  such  spectacles  as  take  place  upon 
the  taking  of  the  veil.  After  the  noviceship  was  con- 
cluded, the  head  of  the  College,  who  was  also  rector  of 
the  province,  administered  the  oaths  of  religious  inaugu- 
ration, in  a  small  chapel,  from  which  strangers  were 
excluded.  It  was  not  ever  accurately  known  what 

*  See  the  paper  on  Catholic  Leaders  and  Associations. 

x  2 


persons  had  been  initiated  into  the  community.  If 
this  practice  was  adopted  before  the  recent  act  of  par- 
liament, it  is  not  likely  that  the  habits  of  secrecy,  which 
were  already  in  existence,  will  be  laid  aside,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  affording  to  the  Attorney-General  an  oppor- 
tunity of  putting  into  force  what  the  framers  of  the 
abortive  act  itself  intended  to  let  fall  still-born  from  the 
womb  of  legislation,  and  to  become  at  once  a  dead-letter 
in  the  law. 

I  am  at  a  loss  to  discover  any  evil  to  society,  and 
much  more  surprised  to  hear  it  suggested  that  any 
danger  can  accrue  to  the  state,  from  the  extension  of 
a  body  which  is  far  more  a  literary,  than  a  political  con- 
federacy in  these  countries.  In  France,  indeed,  where 
there  is  a  large  party  of  men  whose  personal  interest 
attaches  them  to  servile  habits,  it  may  be  justifiable  to 
use  the  strongest  measures,  in  order  to  counteract  the 
opinions  which  the  French  Jesuits  are  supposed  to  in- 
culcate. But  in  these  free  islands,  where  Liberty  is  of 
long  growth,  and  has  struck  its  roots  so  deeply  into  the 
public  mind,  even  if  the  Jesuits  were  disposed  to  use 
their  utmost  efforts  to  eradicate  its  principles,  they 
would  prove  utterly  unavailing.  The  intellect  of  the 
country  is  too  powerful  to  be  subdued  by  their  pro- 
verbial dexterities.  But  the  greatest  injustice  is,  in  my 
judgment,  done  to  the  British  and  Irish  Jesuits,  by 
attributing  to  them  any  opinions  which  are  in  the  least 
degree  hostile  to  true  liberty.  The  rule  of  the  order  is, 
that  a  Jesuit  should  entertain  and  teach  no  political 
tenets  which  are  not  in  conformity  with  the  institutions 
under  which  he  lives.  In  America,  the  Jesuits  are  all 
republicans.  Two  of  them  lately  visited  Rome:  on 


being  heard  to  express  some  strong  democratic  senti- 
ments, they  were  reprehended  by  the  General  of  the 
Order;  but  the  Council  of  Five,  to  whom  they  appealed, 
and  to  whom  the  General  himself  is  responsible,  de- 
clared, that  as  the  form  of  government  in  the  United 
States  was  republican,  it  was  the  duty  of  an  American 
Jesuit  to  feel  as  an  American  citizen;  and  rescinded 
the  decision  of  the  Superior. 

I  should,  however,  limit  myself  to  the  results  of  my 
own  personal  experience;  and  I  can  safely  appeal  to 
every  person  who  has  been  educated  at  Stonyhurst, 
when  I  assert,  as  I  most  emphatically  do,  that  a  base 
political  sentiment  was  never  made  a  matter  of  either 
immediate  or  indirect  inculcation.  The  Jesuits  there 
were  strongly  attached  to  the  constitution  and  liberties 
of  their  country.  For  the  glory  of  England,  notwith- 
standing political  disqualifications  which  affected  the 
Roman  Catholics,  they  felt  a  deep  and  enthusiastic 
interest :  of  this  I  recollect  a  remarkable  instance. 

The  students  were  assembled  in  order  to  witness 
some  experiments  in  galvanism,  which  a  gentleman, 
who  brought  to  the  college  a  philosophical  apparatus, 
had  been  employed  to  perform.  In  the  midst  of  pro- 
found attention,  a  person  rushed  in,  and  exclaimed  that 
Nelson  had  won  a  great  victory.  There  was  an  imme- 
diate cheer  given  by  the  Jesuits,  and  echoed  by  the 
boys.  Presently  a  neAvspaper  was  received,  and  the 
whole  college  gathered  round  the  reader  with  avidity ; 
and  when  the  details  of  the  battle  of  Trafalgar  were 
heard,  there  were  repeated  acclamations  at  almost  every 
sentence ;  and  when  the  narrative  had  been  concluded, 
continued  shouts  for  "old  England"  were  sent  up,  and 
every  cap  was  thrown  into  the  air,  in  celebration  of  the 


great  event,  by  which  the  navy  of  France  was  annihilated, 
and  our  masterdom  of  the  ocean  was  confirmed. 
Several  days  for  rejoicing  were  given  to  the  students, 
and  a  poem,  which  I  then,  at  least,  considered  a  fine 
one,  in  honour  of  the  battle,  was  composed  by  one  of 
the  Jesuits,  and  admirably  recited  in  the  great  hall, 
which  was  appropriated  to  such  exhibitions. 

It  is  time  (for  this  article  has  run,  I  perceive,  to  a 
great  length),  that  I  should  conclude  these  "  Schoolboy 
Recollections"  of  men  in  whom,  with  a  few  blemishes, 
there  was  certainly  much  to  be  admired,  and,  by  one 
who  was  educated  among  them,  a  great  deal  to  be 
gratefully  remembered.  I  found  amongst  them  great 
kindness,  faithful  friendship,  a  generous  and  most  dis- 
interested zeal  for  the  advancement  in  learning  of  the 
persons  whose  minds  they  had  in  charge ;  and  to  their 
purity  of  life,  their  sincere  piety,  and  their  spirit  of 
wise  toleration,  I  am  only  discharging  a  duty  which  I 
owe  to  truth,  in  bearing  my  warmest  attestation. 

The  general  policy  of  the  Order  may  have  been  found 
injurious  to  the  well-being  of  states,  in  which  they 
acquired  an  illegitimate  ascendency ;  their  diplomatists 
and  politicians  may  have  accommodated  their  morality 
with  too  ready  a  flexibility  to  the  inclinations  of  kings 
and  of  women ;  they  may  have  placed  the  confessional 
too  near  the  cabinets  of  the  one,  and  the  boudoirs  of 
the  other;  but  as  instructors  of  youth,  when  far  from 
courts,  and  from  a  pernicious  contact  with  those  vices 
which  the  danger  of  infection  renders  it  perilous  to 
cure,  they  were,  I  believe,  in  the  main,  what  my  own 
personal  experience  has  taught  me  to  consider  the 
individuals  of  their  Order  whom  I  had  any  personal 
opportunity  of  observing ;  and  I  confess,  that  I  give  my 


full  assent  to  the  sentiments  which  were  expressed  in 
their  regard  by  Gresset,  in  the  beautiful  poem  which  he 
wrote  on  leaving  them  for  ever,  entitled  "  Adieux  aux 
Jesuites  \" 

"  Qu'il  m'est  doux  de  pouvoir  leur  rendre  un  temoignage 

Dont  1'interet,  la  crainte,  et  Fespoir  sont  exclus. 

A  leur  sort  le  mien  ne  tient  plus. 
L'impartialite  va  tracer  leur  image. 

Oui,  j'ai  vu  des  mortels,  j'en  dois  ici  1'aveu, 

Trop  combattus,  connus  trop  pen, 
J'ai  vu  des  esprits  vrais,  des  cceurs  incorruptibles, 

Voues  a  la  patrie,  a  leurs  rois,  a  leur  Dieu, 
A  leurs  propres  maux  insensibles, 

Prodigues  de  leurs  jours,  tendres  et  parfaits  amis, 
Et  souvent  bienfaiteurs  paisibles 

De  leurs  plus  fougueux  ennemis  : 

Trop  estimes  enfin,  pour  etre  moins  hais. 
Que  d'autres  s'exhalent,  dans  lenrs  haine  insensee, 

En  reproches  injurieux, 

Cherchent  en  les  quittant  a  les  rendre  odieux : 
Pour  moi,  fidele  au  vrai,  fidele  a  ma  pensee, 

C*e8t  ainsi  qu'en  partant  je  leur  fais  mes  adieux." 



[Nor.  1830.] 

"  He  spake  also  of  beasts,  and  of  fowl,  and  of  creeping  things,  and  of 
fishes."—!  KIXGS  iv.  33. 

THE  lovers  of  literature  and  science  in  Ireland 
have  attributed  the  neglect  of  all  pursuits  which  are 
unconnected  with  the  factions  of  either  politics  or 
polemics  to  the  agitation  of  the  Catholic  Question.  I 
believe  that  there  is  no  capital  in  Europe  in  which  less 
regard  is  paid  to  eminence  of  a  purely  intellectual  kind ; 
and  I  attribute  this  undue  appraisement  of  qualities, 
upon  which  so  high  an  estimate  is  set  elsewhere,  to  the 
higher  rate  which  is  set  upon  those  popular  endow- 
ments, by  which  a  stimulant  to  the  popular  passions  is 
applied.  This  was  a  natural  consequence  of  the  dis- 
cussions, which  rendered  every  other  object  compara- 
tively valueless.  The  settlement  of  the  great  contro- 
versy is  likely  to  generate  results  as  favourable  to  the 
promotion  of  the  arts,  and  to  the  progress  of  studies 
which  have  been  justly  called  "  humane,"  from  their 


softening  influences,  as  to  the  establishment  of  rational 
tranquillity  and  concord.  However  vitiated  the  public 
palate  may  have  become,  it  will  ultimately  acquire  a 
relish  for  more  simple  and  more  wholesome  nutriment, 
and  as  much  enjoyment  will  be  derived  from  the  acqui- 
sition of  knowledge,  and  from  the  investigation  of  the 
works  of  nature,  as  from  the  virulent  vituperations 
and  inflammatory  harangues,  that,  during  the  late 
period  of  excitement,  afforded  the  only  materials  for 
the  mind  of  the  people. 

These  observations  have  been  suggested  by  the  first 
attempt  which  has  been  made  since  the  adjustment  of 
Catholic  Emancipation  to  turn  the  national  attention  to 
pursuits  different  from  those  to  which  it  has  been  fami- 
liarized. I  allude  to  a  meeting  held  not  long  ago  at  the 
Rotunda  for  the  establishment  of  a  Zoological  Society, 
and  which  I  was  induced,  by  my  solicitude  for  the  intro- 
duction of  new  tastes  into  Ireland,  to  attend.  Some 
account  of  what  took  place  will  not,  I  hope,  (in  the  view 
which  I  have  suggested,  independently  of  the  nature  of 
the  subject,)  be  devoid  of  interest. 

I  found,  upon  entering  the  room,  the  Duke  of  Lein- 
ster  in  the  chair.  That  nobleman  has  an  utter  aver- 
sion to  public  assemblies  of  a  political  kind.  This  is  to 
be  regretted,  because  his  great  station,  his  opulence, 
and,  above  all,  the  associations  which  are  connected 
with  his  name,  would  give  him  the  power  of  doing  in- 
calculable good.  But  an  instinct  too  strong  for  reason, 
and  what  is  to  others  an  unaccountable  shyness,  has 
induced  him  to  sequestrate  himself,  except  upon  very 
remarkable  occasions,  from  all  political  meetings.  He 
does  not  appear  to  have  the  same  reluctance  to  take  the 
arts  and  sciences  under  his  auspices;  and  though  he 


may  not  love  the  agitation  of  those  wild  scenes,  where 
the  passions  blow  so  strongly,  he  feels  no  objection  to 
walk  forth  amongst  the  "  groves  of  the  academy"  in 
search  of  natore  and  of  truth,  where  he  runs  no  risk  of 
encountering  those  rude  guests,  by  which  the  robes  of 
his  nobility  might  be  discomposed. 

His  Grace  declared  himself  to  be  most  anxious  for 
the  formation  of  a  Zoological  Society,  analogous  to 
those  of  Paris  and  of  London,  to  which  he  was  a  contri- 
butor. He  was  seconded  by  Lord  Longford,  the  brother- 
in-law  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington,  and  a  very  strong 
politician  of  the  Ascendancy  school.  It  was  agreeable 
to  see  him  capable  of  any  view  of  the  national  good, 
which  had  not  the  maintenance  of  lofty  Protestanism, 
in  its  exclusiveness,  for  its  foundation.  The  next  speaker 
was  Mr.  Crampton,  the  Surgeon- General,  who  was  the 
chief  means  of  calling  the  assembly  together.  The 
speech  he  delivered,  in  furtherance  of  the  useful  object 
which  he  has  so  much  at  heart,  was  one  of  the  most 
agreeable  and  instructive  I  have  ever  heard.  Although 
wholly  unpractised  in  public  speaking,  Mr.  Crampton 
addressed  the  meeting  for  nearly  an  hour,  in  a  speech, 
of  which  the  pure  and  polished  diction  was  set  off  by 
a  delivery  of  peculiar  facility  and  grace.  It  was  not 
exactly  what  is  called  oratory,  for  there  was,  of  course, 
no  appeal  to  vehement  emotion,  nor  any  burst  of  enthu- 
siasm; but  the  even  flow  of  thought,  through  the 
medium  of  beautifully- decorated  language  and  rich 
illustration,  is,  perhaps,  more  difficult  of  attainment 
than  the  more  turbid  current  of  rapid  emotion,  to  which 
the  designation  of  eloquence  is  commonly,  but  not 
always  appropriately,  assigned. 

Mr.  Crampton  is,  indeed,  one  of  the  most  accom- 


plished  men  in  mind  and  manners  whom  I  have  ever 
seen.  Master  of  his  profession,  he  has  united  with  its 
study  all  the  collateral  branches  that  so  intimately 
associate  it  with  the  investigation  of  our  nature :  his 
mind  is  admirably  skilful,  and  as  full  of  resource  as  his 
hand  is  dexterous  and  rapid.  With  these  acquirements 
he  joins  a  passion  for  literature  and  the  fine  arts, 
which  diffuse  over  his  whole  demeanour  a  peculiar  soft- 
ness and  urbanity,  and  enable  him,  by  his  gentle  and 
polished  address,  to  assuage  the  pains  of  malady,  and  to 
take  from  the  instruments  of  his  art"  one  half  of  their 
ordinary  torture  away.  He  availed  himself  of  the  large 
influence  he  possesses  to  collect  together  the  splendid 
assemblage  which  had  met  for  the  purpose  of  promoting 
an  object  that,  as  a  lover  of  science,  he  held  most  dear ; 
and,  although  the  Duke  of  Leinster  presided,  it  was 
evident  that  the  whole  business  of  the  inchoate  society 
was  conducted  under  his  auspices. 

His  speech  bore  distinct  evidence  of  his  enthusiastic 
devotion  to  the  theme  upon  which  he  expatiated.  Some 
extracts  from  that  excellent  essay  upon  the  advantages 
of  such  an  institution,  which  he  proposed  to  establish, 
will  not  be  considered  to  be  inapposite.  I  pass  over  the 
introductory  matter,  which,  like  every  other  avenue  to 
a  subject,  could  not  fail  to  be  a  little  customary.  He 
proceeded  to  enlarge  upon  the  advantages  which  are 
likely  to  ensue  from  the  cultivation  of  those  sciences, 
of  which  experiment  and  actual  proof  afford  the  ground- 
work. He  said — 

"  In  the  early  part  of  the  last  century,  the  genius  of  two  great  men, 
operating  in  different  ways,  gave  an  impulse  and  a  direction  to  the 
minds  of  men,  turning  them  from  the  pursuit  of  the  impalpable  phantom 
of  metaphysics  to  the  real  and  solid  truths  of  natural  science,  laying 


open  the  three  great  kingdoms  of  Nature,  the  simple  and  solid  organiza- 
tion of  minerals,  the  wonders  of  animal  instinct,  the  flowers,  the  fruits, 
and  the  perfumes  of  botany.  Linnaeus  and  Buffon— • names  which  must 
be  as  durable  as  the  works  of  Nature,  on  which  they  are  inscribed — were 
the  men  who  effected  this  great  revolution ;  the  one,  by  his  powers  of 
comprehension  and  arrangement,  drawing  forth  a  fair  creation  from 
chaos ;  the  other  lighting  it  up  by  the  splendour  of  his  genius.  Far  be 
from  us,  then,  the  impertinence  of  ignorance,  which  would  check  the 
bold  and  free  career  of  science  on  her  voyage  of  discovery,  to  ask  her 
whither  she  is  bound,  and  what  freight  she  has  on  board.  Zoology, 
however,  has  no  need  to  stand  on  this  general  defence :  the  benefits 
which  have  resulted,  and  which  must  still  result,  to  mankind  from 
the  cultivation  of  this  delightful  department  of  natural  history,  are 
of  a  nature  so  direct  and  so  important,  that  they  have  only  to  be 
named  to  engage  your  warmest,  your  most  unqualified  approbation  and 
support.  If  the  pleasure  derivable  from  the  mere  pursuit  of  natural 
knowledge,  independently  of  its  application  to  what  are  called  the  uses  of 
life,  were  all  that  is  proposed  from  the  study  of  natural  history,  it  should 
be  a  sufficient  motive  to  engage  any  rational  being,  who  has  leisure,  in 
the  pursuit ;  for  the  enjoyment  of  intellectual  pleasure,  and  the  conse- 
quent advancement  in  knowledge  and  virtue  which  grows  out  of  that 
enjoyment,  is  in  itself  a  great  good,  and  is  undoubtedly  one  of  the  chief 
ends  of  our  existence.  By  the  dispensation  of  a  beneficent  Creator,  we 
are  so  constituted  as  to  derive  pleasure  from  the  exercise  of  all  our 
faculties,  but  especially  from  the  exercise  of  the  faculty  of  observation. 
Whatever  deeply  engages  the  attention,  even  though  the  subject  should 
not  in  itself  be  agreeable,  becomes  a  source  of  positive  pleasure.  But 
this  is  not  all — the  exercise  of  the  faculty,  by  excluding  painful  impres- 
sions, whether  of  a  physical  or  a  moral  nature,  by  weakening  the  influ- 
ence of  the  imagination  and  the  passions,  leaves  the  mind  in  that  state, 
at  once  vigorous  and  calm,  which  fits  it  for  the  exercise  of  the  highest 
contemplations  and  the  most  active  virtues.  Who  is  there  who  has  not 
felt  that  buoyancy  of  spirit,  that  generous  expansion  of  mind,  which 
results  from  the  reception  of  new  ideas  ?  Is  there  an  affliction  so  heavy, 
or  bodily  pain  so  great,  that  has  not  been  lightened  or  assuaged  by 
powerfully  directing  the  attention  to  some  object  of  intellectual  interest  ? 
Natural  history  is  essentially  a  science  of  observation ;  it  is  not,  like  the 
other  sciences,  founded  on  experiment  or  calculation ;  but  by  the  variety 
and  beauty  of  its  details,  it  addresses  itself  at  once  to  the  senses  and  the 
feelings,  and  is  equally  accessible  and  attractive  to  the  peasant  and  to 
the  sage.  It  is,  says  the  illustrious  Cuvier,  one  of  the  great  advantages 


attendant  on  the  study  of  natural  history,  that  the  mind  necessarily 
acquires  the  habit  of  arranging  a  great  number  of  ideas ;  and  this  habit 
once  acquired,  can  be  applied  with  infinite  advantage  to  subjects  the 
most  remote  from  natural  history.  Every  discussion  which  supposes  a 
classification  of  facts,  every  research  which  requires  a  distribution  of 
materials,  must  be  conducted  upon  the  same  plan ;  so  that  a  young  person 
who  has  cultivated  natural  history  merely  as  an  amusement,  will  be  sur- 
prised to  find  that  he  has  unconsciously  acquired  a  power  of  unravelling 
the  most  oomph' cated  aflairs.  Nor  is  the  study  of  this  delightful  sci 
less  useful  hi  solitude ;  sufficiently  extensive  to  occupy  an  intellect  the 
most  vast,  it  is  sufficiently  simple,  varied,  and  interesting,  to  engage  the 
attention  of  the  most  uninstructed ;  and  it  has  been  stated,  by  the  illus- 
trious philosopher,  whose  words  I  have  just  quoted,  that,  among  the 
motives  which  induced  him,  by  all  possible  means,  to  extend  the  cultiva- 
tion of  this  peaceful  study,  was  the  conviction  that  it  was  more  capable 
than  any  other  to  satisfy  that  craving  for  occupation  which,  he  thought, 
had  so  much  contributed  to  the  troubles  of  the  age." 

Mr.  Crampton  proceeded  to  illustrate  the  benefits 
which  the  study  of  animal  nature  has  contributed  to 
the  art  of  which  he  is  so  distinguished  a  practitioner. 

"  How  are  we  to  proceed,"  said  he,  "  in  order  to  acquire  a  competent 
knowledge  of  the  actions  of  so  complicated  a  structure  as  the  human 
body  ?  Not  by  analysis — that  is,  separating  its  parts,  and  examining 
them  singly ;  for  Bo  intimate  is  the  connexion  between  the  parts,  so 
mutually  dependent  are  they  on  each  other,  that  any  attempt  at  sepa  ra- 
tion stops  or  deranges  the  whole  machine.  Happily,  however,  this 
analysis  has  been  made  for  us  by  Nature.  In  the  different  classes  of  the 
lower  animals,  we  find  all  the  organs  which  exist  in  man  iu  every  variety 
of  simplicity  and  complication.  We  have  animals  consisting  simply  of  a 
stomach  and  its  appendages,  for  the  purpose  of  nutrition;  we  liave 
animals  without  a  circulating  system,  without  a  respiratory  system,  :nul 
even  without  a  nervous  system.  Organs  so  indistinctly  marked,  in  one 
daw,  as  to  leave  their  uses,  or  even  their  existence,  in  doubt,  are  found 
in  another  in  such  a  state  of  development  as  to  direct  us  to  a  just  con- 
clusion as  to  the  part  they  perform  in  the  animal  economy.  For  example 
the  most  minute  examination  of  the  lungs  and  liver,  in  the  human  sub- 
ject, would  never  enable  us  to  understand  the  relation  which  probably 
subsist*  between  the  functions  of  these  important  organs.  But  let  us  see 


if  comparative  anatomy  does  not  throw  some  light  on  the  subject.  It  is 
well  established,  that  a  species  of  combustion  is  carried  on  in  the  lungs, 
the  combustible  principles  contained  in  the  blood  uniting  with  the 
oxygen  of  the  atmosphere  conveyed  into  the  lungs  by  the  act  of  inspira- 
tion ;  and  when  it  is  found  that  the  liver  is  largest  in  the  animals  which 
breathe  the  least  (as  fishes  and  the  amphibia?),  and  that  in  many  of  those 
it  is  loaded  with  oil,  which  consists  exclusively  of  the  combustible  parts  of 
the  blood ;  and  when  it  is  observed  that  the  liver  is  totally  wanting  in 
the  animals  whose  respiration  is  the  most  complete — as  in  the  insect  tribes, 
who  are,  as  it  were,  all  lungs — we  are  led  to  conclude  that  there  is  some- 
thing in  common  in  the  functions  of  these  great  organs,  and  that  the 
liver  is,  in  some  sort,  supplemental  or  ancillary  to  the  lungs,  in  disposing 
of  the  combustible  part  of  blood.  Who  is  there  whose  mind  does  not 
spring  at  once  to  the  practical  inference  deducible  from  this,  and  which  is 
so  directly  applicable  to  the  healing  art  ?  There  is  no  intelligent  observer, 
medical  or  other,  who  has  not  noticed  the  connexion  between  the  diseases 
of  the  liver  and  the  lungs,  and  has  not  seen  that  when  the  liver  becomes 
hardened  and  obstructed  (too  often  by  intemperance)  the  lungs  perform- 
ing a  double  labour,  soon  bocome  inflamed  and  disordered.  And  is  it 
nothing  to  know  the  cause  of  all  this  ?  Does  the  empiric,  who  boasts 
the  possession  of  a  nostrum  for  curing  a  cough,  and  the  philosophic  phy- 
sician, who  traces  that  cough  to  a  disorder  of  the  liver,  and  addresses  his 
remedies  to  that  organ,  not  to  the  lungs — do  they,  I  inquire,  stand  on 
the  same  ground  ?  " 

I  am  obliged  to  pass  over  much  of  what  is  exceed- 
ingly good  and  pertinent,  which  was  pressed  by  Mr. 
Crampton,  and  proceed  to  cite  the  conclusion  of  his 
speech,  in  which  he  took  a  higher  tone,  and  pointed 
out  the  subserviency  of  zoology  to  the  purposes  of 
natural  religion,  and  exhibited  science  as  one  of  the 
noblest  ministers  (as  she  unquestionably  is)  to  the  wor- 
ship of  the  Almighty  Being,  of  whose  existence,  and  of 
whose  boundless  benevolence  and  bounty  such  evi- 
dences are  impressed  upon  all  his  works,  but  more 
especially  upon  those  sentient  creatures,  of  whose  struc- 
ture he  is  the  wise,  and  cannot  be  the  purposeless 
author.  The  speaker,  in  enlarging  upon  this  the 


noblest  topic  which  is  incidental  to  his  theme,  spoke  to 
this  effect : 

"  A  belief  in  a  superintending  Providence  must,  to  be  effective,  be 
something  more  than  the  cold  assent  which  the  understanding  cannot 
refuse  to  a  philosophical  proposition  which  is  clearly  stated  and  rigorously 
proved ;  it  should  be  a  deep,  fervent,  and  habitual  conviction,  which 
should  strike  the  heart  with  all  the  weight  of  a  truth,  and  all  the  force  of 
a  sentiment.  To  produce  such  a  conviction,  we  must  engage  the  senses 
and  the  feelings,  as  well  as  the  understanding.  Where  is  the  man  who 
can  walk  through  the  Zoological  Garden  of  London,  or  the  Jardin  des 
Plantes  of  Paris,  and  can  observe  the  needle-like  bill  of  the  tailor-bird— 
the  trowel-like  tail  of  the  beaver — the  warning  rattle  of  the  rattle-snake 
— the  long  and  slender  neck  and  limbs  of  the  wading  birds — the  short, 
strong,  and  full-webbed  feet  of  the  swimming  birds — the  partially- 
webbed  feet  of  those  birds  which  both  run  and  swim — but,  above  all, 
when  he  observes  the  tender  and  generous  friendships  which  are  formed 
among  animals  of  different  classes — their  leagues  for  mutual  defence — 
the  sagacity  with  which  they  accommodate  themselves  to  their  new 
situations,  giving  a  new  direction  to  their  instincts,  and  obliging  us  to 
pause  before  we  draw  the  line  which  is  to  separate  the  suggestions  of  a 
blind  instinct  from  the  conclusions  of  deliberative  reason, — I  am  quite  sure 
that  no  man  who  sees  these  things  (and  how .  small  a  part  is  this  of  what 
he  may  see  in  a  short  visit  to  a  zoological  collection  !)  can  choose  but  feel 
to  his  very  inmost  soul,  that  he  is  in  the  hands  of  an  all-seeing  Provi- 
dence, whose  arrangements  in  the  material  world,  so  far  as  they  can  be 
seen  and  comprehended,  are  those  of  consummate  wisdom  and  benevo- 
lence, and  whose  government  of  the  moral  world,  though  unseen  and 
incomprehensible,  must  be  conducted  on  the  same  principles.  This  is  (in 
iny  mind)  a  great  and  a  practical  good,  which  may  be  derived  from  the 
study  of  animated  nature ;  but  there  is  another,  and  perhaps  a  more 
direct  one,  which,  nevertheless,  may  not  be  so  generally  acknowledged. 
I  should  think  that  the  question  which  would  first  arise  in  the  mind  of 
any  thinking  man,  on  leaving  a  great  collection  of  living  animals,  would 
be,  what  are  the  uses  of  those  creatures  ? — what  is  the  end  of  then- 
creation  ?  I  will  not  stop  to  examine  any  of  the  many  solutions  which 
have  been  offered  of  this  great  enigma  of  Nature ;  but  I  will  venture  to 
say,  that,  of  all  the  solutions  which  can  be  offered,  the  very  last  which 
could  suggest  itself  to  a  sane  mind  would  be,  that  all  or  any  of  them 
were  created  for  the  purpose  of  satiating  that — what  shall  I  call  it  ?— 
that  accursed  passion  of  the  human  soul,  which  seeks  its  gratification  in 


the  Infliction  of  pain  and  death  on  unoffending  and  unresisting  animals. 
My  Lord,  I  trust — nay,  I  am  quite  sure — that  the  question  would  give 
rise  to  a  very  different  and  a  very  opposite  train  of  thought  and  feeling. 
The  boy  who,  day  after  day,  shares  his  cake  with  the  bear,  who  runs  up 
a  pole  to  receive  it  with  the  activity  and  almost  the  gestures  with  which 
a  sailor  climbs  the  mast,  will  scarcely  go  out  of  his  way  to  see  such  an 
animal  baited  and  torn  to  pieces  by  infuriated  dogs,  set  on  by  the  most 
brutalized — but  I  will  not  say  brutalized,  for  that  would  be  to  honour  them 
—but  the  most  abandoned  of  men.  Indeed,  I  should  utterly  despair  of 
human  nature,  if  I  heard  that  such  a  boy,  on  his  return  from  a  zoological 
garden,  had  purchased  a  badger,  which  is  but  a  small  and  perfectly  harmless 
bear,  and  kept  him  in  his  room  for  the  purpose  of  worrying  him  with  dogs 
— tearing  open  the  festering  wounds  from  day  to  day,  until  the  poor 
animal,  tenacious  as  he  is  of  life,  surrendered  it  at  last  to  mere  torture 
and  exhaustion.  But  the  thing  is  impossible.  If  there  be  evil  qualities 
in  human  nature,  there  are  also  redeeming  virtues ;  if,  in  the  '  mingled 
yarn,'  of  which  our  '  web  of  life'  is  spun,  there  is  a  vice  which  finds  its 
gratification  in  giving  pain,  there  is  a  virtue  which  puts  us  in  a  relation 
of  kindness  towards  all  beings  who  attract  our  notice  by  qualities  which 
are  either  useful  or  pleasing.  To  cultivate  a  .kindly  disposition  towards 
animals,  it  is  only  necessary  to  know  them  :  an  intimate  knowledge  of 
their  characters,  dispositions,  and  talents,  may,  while  it  affords  a  salutary 
lesson  to  the  intellectual  pride  of  man,  tend  to  abate  that  spirit  of  cruelty 
and  selfishness  which  leads  us  to  seek  amusement  in  the  sufferings  and 
destruction  of  the  most  beautiful,  harmless,  and  happy  of  sentient  beings. 
That  so  favourable  a  change  in  the  state  of  our  feelings  will  extend 
beyond  the  brute  creation,  and  infuse  its  humanizing  influence  through 
the  whole  system  of  social  life,  is  no  very  extravagant  supposition ;  and 
the  goodness  of  a  man  may  still  be  tried  by  that  sacred  test,  that  he  is 
'  merciful  to  his  beast.'" 

It  was  in  this  strain  of  eloquent  humanity  that  Mr. 
Crampton  concluded.  The  applause  by  which  his 
speech  was  followed  was  loud  and  repeated.  It  is  need- 
less to  say  that  it  was  deserved.  His  motion  was 
seconded  by  Lord  Howth. 

The  next  orator  who  appeared  was  Dr.  Stokes.  The 
canvass  on  which  I  am  painting  is  not  large  enough 
to  admit  of  a  distinct  portraiture  of  this  very  remark  - 

VOL.    II.  Y 


able  person.  A  drawing  of  him,  however,  I  cannot 
refrain  from  making.  Dr.  Stokes  was  a  fellow  of 
Trinity  College  in  1798,  and  was  deeply  implicated  iii 
the  events  of  that  momentous  period.  His  recklessness 
of  all  consequences ;  his  high  and  independent  spirit ; 
his  stoical  preference  of  what  his  honour  told  him  to  lu> 
the  right,  to  what  his  interest  might  have  suggested 
to  be  expedient ;  his  devoted  love  of  country,  and  his 
hatred  of  domination,  induced  him  to  take  a  very  un- 
qualified and  decided  part,  and  what  that  part  was  it  is 
not  necessary  that  I  should  more  distinctly  intimate. 
How  he  contrived  to  retain  his  fellowship  I  have  not 
precisely  ascertained;  one  thing,  however,  is  certain, 
that  it  was  not  by  any  mean  compliance,  or  any  paltry 
accommodation,  he  secured  his  college  emoluments. 
He  had,  I  believe,  numerous  friends  upon  the  Govern- 
ment side,  who  represented  him  as  a  Quixote  in  demo- 
cracy, for  whose  chivalry  in  politics  a  large  allowance 
was  to  be  made.  The  matter  was  so  arranged  that 
he  was  permitted  to  retain  his  fellowship,  and  he  became, 
by  a  regular  progression  in  the  grades  of  the  University, 
master  of  about  2000/.  a-year.  All  political  disquietude 
has  passed  away  ;  he  had  escaped  by  a  kind  of  miracle ; 
and  after  having  been  rudely  tossed  in  the  agitation  in 
which  he  had  well-nigh  been  foundered,  he  was  now 
safely  anchored  in  the  moorings  which  the  University 
of  Dublin  afford  to  a  senior  fellow  of  that  opulent  and 
exceedingly  quiescent  institution. 

But  it  was  in  the  Doctor's  destiny  not  to  bear  with 
good  fortune — to  the  stimulants  of  patriotism  the  ex- 
citements and  the  impulses  of  orthodoxy  succeeded. 
The  oestrum  of  theology  fastened  upon  him;  and 
although  he  could  endure  the  wrongs  of  Ireland,  he 


declared  that  to  the  Athanasian  creed  he  could  no 
longer  conscientiously  submit,  and  refused  to  attend 
the  College  chapel.  This  offence  would  have  been 
unpardonable  in  any  university,  but  in  Trinity  College 
it  became  indispensable  to  make  an  example  of  an 
Unitarian,  whose  intrepid  infidelity  was  rendered  the 
more  alarming  from  his  acknowledged  integrity  and 
his  lofty-minded  virtue.  To  do  his  associates  justice, 
they  did  not  act  suddenly  or  severely.  Every  effort 
was  used  to  reconcile  him  to  the  Homousion;  it  was  even 
suggested  that  the  profession  of  a  mitigated  Arianism 
would  not  be  considered  wholly  incompatible  with  the 
receipt  of  2000/.  a-year ;  but  the  Doctor  was  inexorable. 
He  as  peremptorily  refused  all  compromise  upon  the 
unity  of  the  Godhead,  as  if  he  had  been  made  a  privy- 
counsellor  in  the  cabinet  of  omnipotence,  and  knew  all 
that  was  going  on  in  heaven ;  and  gave  up  his  fellow- 
ship, his  cushion  in  the  college  chapel,  and  his  fortune. 
His  obstinacy  in  error  was  pitied  by  his  brethren  of 
the  college,  and  by  some  good-natured  contrivance,  in 
which  Christian  charity  prevailed  over  divinity,  a  pro- 
fessorship was  secured  to  him.  So  much  for  the  Doctor's 
general  history. 

He  made  his  appearance  at  the  assembly  of  which  I 
have  undertaken  to  record  the  incidents.  I  was  not  a 
little  struck  by  his  aspect.  A  tall,  slender,  and  emaci- 
ated figure  stood,  in  an  attire  of  manifest  antiquity, 
of  which  black  had  been  the  original  colour,  but  which 
was  now  variegated  with  all  the  diversities  of  hue  that 
time  could  produce,  and  was  disposed  upon  his  person 
with  the  evidences  of  carelessness  which  generally 
attend  the  dishabille  of  genius.  His  long,  lank,  white 
hair  fell  wildly  down  his  head,  and  over  his  ghastly  and 

y  2 


deeply-furrowed  features  there  was  diffused  an  expres- 
sion of  the  mind  of  which  enthusiasm  and  abstraction 
were  the  chief  ingredients.  When  he  rose  to  speak,  I 
heard  a  smart  Bluestocking  whisper  that  he  looked 
himself  like  a  specimen  in  zoology,  and  that  she  sus- 
pected that  the  surgeon-general  had  dressed  up  "  the 
old  man  of  the  woods,"  in  the  cast-off  suit  of  a  fellow 
of  Trinity  College,  to  perform  a  part  on  the  occasion. 

The  Doctor  pronounced  a  speech  replete  with  erudi- 
tion, but  in  which  the  different  topics  introduced  by 
him  were  most  strangely  blended,  and  brought  in  with 
such  a  suddenness,  that  his  mind  seemed  to  take  leaps 
from  one  subject  to  another,  over  a  wide  interval  to  be 
filled  up  by  such  conjecture  as  to  his  meaning  as  to  the 
hearer  might  seem  meet.  He  opened  by  pointing  out 
the  facility  with  which  Cashmere  shawls  might  be 
manufactured  in  Ireland.  This  was  reasonable  enough, 
and  excited  great  attention  in  the  fair  portion  of  his 
auditors,  who  seemed  to  think  that  the  Doctor  had 
offered  a  stronger  argument  in  favour  of  zoology  than 
any  which  the  surgeon-general  had  suggested.  But  his 
next  proposition  was  not  a  little  startling.  The  substi- 
tution of  the  zebra  and  the  quagga,  for  the  purposes  of 
Irish  posting,  appeared  to  be  the  boldest  vision  in 
zoology,  upon  which  any  speculator  in  the  advantages 
of  that  science  had  yet  adventured.  I  quote  the  exact 
words  of  the  Doctor,  which  in  the  concluding  sentence 
furnish  a  specimen  of  the  felicity  of  transition,  which  I 
have  mentioned  as  characteristic  of  his  eloquence: — 
"There  is  an  abundant  variety  of  animals/'  he  exclaimed, 
"calculated  for  swift  draught,  of  sufficient  strength  and 
wonderful  speed,  such  as  the  zebra  and  the  quagga 
among  the  solid-hoofed,  and  a  great  variety  of  ante- 


lopes,  elks,  and  deer,  among  the  cloven-footed.  Isolated 
man  is  miserable :  the  productions  of  his  industry  are 
increased  many  thousand  times  by  the  division  of 
labour.  Land  within  four  miles  of  this  city  has  been  set 
for  25 /.  an  acre,  on  a  long  lease" 

The  Doctor  having  got  to  Dublin,  did  not  long  abide 
there.  He  took  flight  with  a  migratory  instinct,  and 
was  off  for  Africa.  He  lighted  upon  Timbuctoo,  and 
observed  that  Irish  linen  there  sells  for  its  weight  in 
gold.  The  Doctor  proceeded  to  demonstrate,  not  only 
the  importance  but  the  ease  with  which  a  communica- 
tion might  be  opened  with  the  most  mysterious  parts  of 
Africa.  He  relied  mainly  upon  the  antelope  for  this 
useful  purpose,  and  compared  the  utility  that  would 
result  from  the  application  of  that  animal  to  the  pur- 
poses of  conveyance  to  the  wonders  which  have  been 
achieved  by  vapour  and  the  railway.  He  summed  up  this 
portion  of  his  discourse  by  observing  that,  "  in  general, 
the  application  of  science  to  facilitate  the  commerce  of 
the  caravans  might  diminish  the  waste  of  animal  life, 
which  whitens  the  desert  path  with  bones."  It  would 
be  difficult  to  pursue  him  through  all  the  diversities  of 
topic  through  which  he  passed  in  the  course  of  his  very 
multifarious  oration ;  it  is  enough  to  say  that  he  entered 
into  a  dissertation  upon  the  mode  of  civilizing  wild 
beasts,  observing  that  "  a  dangling  rope  deters  the 
wolves  from  attacking  a  sledge:  the  odour  of  white 
feathers  repels  the  white  bear." 

He  then  expatiated  on  the  benefits  of  incubation, 
and  said,  "  one  hundred  millions  of  eggs  are  annually 
hatched  in  Egypt ;  sixty  millions  are  annually  disposed 
of  in  the  eastern  parts  of  Ireland.  Poultry  abounds  in 
Ireland."  He  then  enlarged  upon  the  excellence  of 


sea-birds,  and  observed  that  the  rancid  taste  of  some  of 
the  sea-birds  may  be  removed  by  feeding  them  on  vege- 
table food.  This  suggestion  is  an  improvement  npon 
Mrs.  Glasse's  premises.  The  Doctor's  preliminary  step 
in  his  application  of  the  resources  of  the  culinary  art  to 
aquatic  birds  is,  "  first  to  catch  a  cormorant,"  and  next 
to  feed  him. 

The  Doctor,  after  having  indulged  in  a  good  deal  of 
lore  upon  ocean-fowl,  deviated  from  the  course  which 
he  had  adopted  in  the  preceding  parts  of  his  speech : 
for,  instead  of  rushing  into  another  subject  quite  uncon- 
nected with  that  which  he  had  been  just  treating,  he 
plunged  into  the  sea,  upon  whose  surface  he  had  been 
just  floating,  and,  like  one  of  the  birds  he  had  been 
describing,  dived  with  a  piscatory  promptitude  into  the 
depths  of  the  ocean.  The  result  of  his  investigations 
was,  "  that  fish  supports  a  great  proportion  of  many 
savage  and  several  civilized  nations."  He  recom- 
mended the  promotion  of  salt-water  ponds  in  the 
vicinity  of  Dublin  for  the  preservation  of  fish.  To  go 
through  his  whole  speech  would  be  a  difficult  under- 
taking. It  was  like  Noah's  menagerie.  He  embraced 
all  living  nature.  The  miracle  was  how  he  contrived  to 
include  such  an  assemblage  of  materials  within  such  a 

The  next  resolution  was  proposed  by  Lord  Longford, 
a  Protestant  of  the  very  first  orthodoxy.  Mr.  Shell, 
the  Catholic  demagogue,  seconded  hia  lordship.  Both 
these,  animals  ferce  natures,  were  singularly  coupled  to- 
gether. Dr.  Macartney,  a  man  justly  celebrated  for  his 
learning  and  astuteness,  contributed  his  valuable  aid  to 
the  projected  institution.  He  was  seconded  by  Mr. 
Carmichael  (the  surgeon),  a  man  of  great  celebrity  in 


his  profession,  and  who  has  suggested  some  new  theories 
upon  the  subject  to  which  Fracastorius  dedicated  his 
poetical  powers.*  Dr.  Jacob,  who  is  also  a  very  clever 
man,  moved  a  resolution.  With  his  speech,  and  the 
nomination  of  a  committee  of  Lords,  Doctors,  and 
Gentlemen,  the  proceedings  terminated  for  that  day, 
and  since  then  I  have  heard  nothing  more  upon  the 

As  far  as  I  can  learn,  the  project  has  hitherto  been 
abortive.  The  mind  of  Ireland  is  still  too  deeply 
engaged  by  its  recollections  of  the  fierce  feuds  by 
which  it  was  agitated,  to  permit  any  considerable  dedi- 
cation of  its  faculties  to  any  pursuit  which  to  the  poli- 
tical passions  do  not  minister  their  incitement.  This 
state  of  things  must  needs  be  of  some  continuance :  but, 
as  I  have  already  intimated,  I  do  not  despair  of  living 
to  see  the  fields  of  literature  and  of  science  cultivated 
with  diligence  in  a  country  which  has  hitherto  been  so 
rankly  fertile  in  the  production  of  passions,  antipathies, 
and  of  envenomed  discords.  The  first  attempt  made  to 
establish  a  scientific  society  is  valuable,  and  great  praise 
should  be  bestowed  upon  the  honourable  intention  which 
prompted  the  undertaking.  One  of  the  speakers  at  the 
meeting  pointed  to  the  example  of  Scotland,  as  de- 
serving of  imitation,  and  ventured  to  anticipate  the 
time  when  Ireland  should  resemble  her  in  her  devoted 
attachment  to  objects  of  pure  intellectual  pleasure,  and 
exhibit  the  same  extraordinary  change.  I  shall  con- 
clude this  article,  which  has,  I  fear,  run  to  too  great  a 

*  The  late  Mr.  Richard  Carmichael  was  a  very  eminent  member  of  his 
profession,  not  alone  as  a  practitioner,  but  as  a  man  of  science  and  genius 
for  original  investigation.  The  new  theory  alluded  to  was  upon  the 
medicinal  uses  of  mercury.  His  death  in  1848  was  extremely  melan- 


length,  with  the  observations  of  the  gentleman  to  whom 
I  have  referred : — * 

"  Why  should  not  Ireland  become  the  rival  of  Scotland  in  her  prospe- 
rous industry,  and  in  her  high  intelligence,  as  she  was  once  assimilated 
to  her  in  her  discords  and  her  feuds  ?  There  was  a  time  when  Edin- 
burgh exhibited  a  very  different  spectacle  to  that  which  it  now  presents. 
The  streets  which  are  lined  with  the  temples  of  science,  were  occupied 
with  feudal  castles  in  which  her  citizens  stood  in  arms ;  the  rapiers  of  the 
Gordons  and  of  the  Hurrays  flashed  in  the  streets,  where  tbe  volumes 
in  which  their  deeds  are  recorded  by  the  inimitable  Scotsman  are  now 
arrayed.  The  shops  of  the  bibliopolist  have  superseded  the  forge  of  the 
armourer ;  the  pulpits,  from  which  the  thunders  of  controversy  were 
once  hurled,  have  made  way  for  the  polished  shafts  of  criticism,  and 
literature  and  Jeffrey  exercise  their  pacific  dominion  where  John  Knox 
and  divinity  were  supreme.  And  if  this  revolution  has  taken  place 
amongst  our  accomplished  and  highly -cultured  neighbours — if,  to  use 
the  expression  of  our  own  incomparable  countryman,  '  Scotland  has  won 
her  flight  against  the  blaze  of  every  science,  with  an  eye  that  never 
winks,  and  a  wing  that  never  tires,'  why  should  not  Ireland,  with  the 
same  eagle  spirit,  become  her  rival  in  the  same  illustrious  flight,  and 
emulate  the  loftiness  of  her  magnificent  ascent  ?  " 

choly ;  he  was  drowned  in  sight  of  his  own  house,  while  attempting  to 
ride  across  a  narrow  strip  of  water  on  the  sea-shore  under  the  promon- 
tory of  Howth. 

*  The  speaker  was  Mr.  Sheil  himself. 



[JULY  1831.] 

IN  reviewing  the  most  remarkable  of  the  Irish  elec- 
tions, and  giving  some  account  of  their  parliamentary 
products,  I  shall  begin  with  Dublin.  There  the  corpo- 
ration has  sustained,  not  only  a  signal,  but  extraordinary 
defeat.  Mr.  George  Moore,  the  hereditary  champion 
of  ascendancy,  and  Mr.  Frederic  Shaw,  the  Recorder, 
have  been  overthrown  by  the  combined  forces  of  the 
Government  and  the  people,  and  the  genius  of  Orange- 
ism  has  been  vanquished  in  its  loftiest  and  strongest 
hold.  It  was  imagined  that  the  position  in  which  they 
stood  was  impregnable;  but  Reform  has  scaled  the 
fortress,  and  planted  the  green  flag  on  the  proudest 
tower  on  which  the  standard  of  the  Williamites  ever 
waved ! 

X)f  Mr.  George  Moore  a  brief  account  ought  to  be 
given.  He  derives  his  main  title  to  the  predilections  of 
his  party  from  the  recollections  of  George  Ogle.  The 
latter  was  his  uncle  by  marriage,  and  left  him  his  prin- 
ciples and  his  estate.  He  was  a  man  once  well  known 
in  the  circles  of  fashion  and  politics  in  Dublin,  and 


having  a  turn  for  literature  as  well  as  for  faction,  alter- 
nately presided  over  the  orgies  of  ascendancy  and  "  con- 
sorted with  the  small  poets  of  the  time."  Of  his  com- 
positions, two  or  three  songs  remain.  The  memory  of 
his  political  intemperance  is  not  yet  passed  away.  He 
was  wont  to  say  that  a  Catholic  would  swallow  an  oath 
as  soon  as  a  poached  egg.  Mr.  Bernard  Coyne,  once 
known  in  the  annals  of  Popery,  called  him  out  for 
reflection  on  the  veracity  of  the  nation.  They  dis- 
charged their  pistols  ten  or  twelve  times.  The  arms 
had  not  been  loaded,  and  the  people,  aware  of  the  fact 
(of  which  the  combatants  were  ignorant),  gathered  to 
witness  the  scene  in  a  wide  circle  of  derision. 

This  is  all  I  remember  of  George  Ogle.  Mr.  Moore 
his  successor,  was  a  man  distinguished  at  the  Irish  Bar 
for  the  urbanity  of  his  manners,  set  off  by  a  sweet  smile 
— a  look  of  ruddy  juvenility  at  forty-eight — a  formid- 
able flow  of  tautology,  and  a  great  charm  and  gentle- 
ness of  demeanour,  which  rendered  him  an  agreeable 
companion,  and  endeared  him  to  all  those  who  mixed 
with  him  in  the  intercourse  of  private  life.  He  was 
known  to  be  a  strong  politician,  but  his  aspect,  his  into- 
nations, and  his  address,  made  those  who  differed  from 
him  pay  little  regard  to  any  acerbity  in  his  opinions. 
He  took  little  active  part  in  politics.  Mr.  Saurin,  the 
ex-Attorney  General,  perceived  that  the  recollections 
Avhich  were  associated  with  him  might  be  turned  to  a 
good  account,  and  brought  him  into  public  life.  Being 
in  want  of  a  candidate,  he  selected  Mr.  Moore,  and 
threw  him  into  the  deepest  vortex  of  Corporation  ani- 
mosities. Mr.  Moore  was  received  with  acclamation 
by  the  "  good  Protestants"  of  Dublin,  and  returned  by 
a  vast  majority.  He  was  thenceforward  the  great  Cory- 


phaeus  of  orthodoxy  :  he  became  inflamed  and  heated 
by  his  contact  with  the  fiery  mass  of  faction,  and 
reflected  all  the  intemperance  of  his  constituents  with 
fidelity,  although  his  tranquil  manner  and  natural 
suavity  did  not  depart.  It  was  pleasant  to  see  him  in 
the  House  of  Commons  delivering  himself  of  the  most 
ferocious  conceptions  in  the  gentlest  and  most  simper- 
ing fashion.  He  was  happily  called  Sir  Forcible  Feeble. 
Mr.  Doherty  having  noted  that  he  commenced,  pro- 
gressed, and  ended  in  every  speech  with  "  the  glorious 
^Revolution  of  1688,"  took  advantage  of  it,  in  order  to 
produce,  in  a  piece  of  ridicule,  one  of  those  "  im- 
promptus faits  a  loisir,"  which  sometimes  make  a  man's 
fortune  in  the  House  of  Commons.*  Mr.  Moore  might 

*  Mr.  Moore  presented  a  petition  against  Catholic  Emancipation  from 
the  Lord  Mayor  and  Corporation  of  Dublin,  and  made  his  usual  speech. 
Mr.  Doherty  is  reported  by  Hansard  to  have  spoken  as  follows  : — 

"  When  he  heard  his  honourable  and  learned  friend  tell  the  House 
that  he  was  presenting  a  petition  from  the  Corporation  of  Dublin,  and 
that  the  Lord  Mayor  of  that  loyal  corporation  was  not  intimidated  by 
the  existing  state  of  things  in  Ireland,  he  was  reminded  of  another  Lord 
Mayor,  who  being  out  a  hunting  and  starting  a  hare,  exclaimed — '  I'm 
not  afraid !'  What  cause,  I  would  ask,  is  there  for  the  Lord  Mayor  of 
Dublin  to  be  afraid  ?  He  honoured  and  respected  the  manner  in  which 
the  petitioners  put  forward  their  views,  but  he  could  not  help  observing 
he  heard  little  of  the  arguments  by  which  they  supported  them.  Even  his 
honourable  and  learned  friend  (Mr.  Moore),  with  all  his  ingenuity,  had 
not  favoured  them  with  any  thing  in  the  shape  of  an  argument.  Night 
after  night  had  his  honourable  and  learned  friend  dinned  into  their  ears 
the  year  1688 :  it  was  his  everlasting  cry.  He  had  left  the  house  for 
a  short  time  one  evening,  and  the  last  words  he  heard  from  the  h'ps  of 
his  learned  friend  were  1688.  He  came  back,  expecting  to  find  that  at 
the  end  of  that  time  his  honourable  and  learned  friend  had  got  at  least 
a  century  in  advance ;  but  no,  he  had  not  stirred  from  his  darling  1688. 
It  still  sounded  on  his  tongue,  formed  the  beginning,  the  middle,  and 
the  end  of  every  speech  of  his  honourable  and  learned  friend." 


have  suffered  in  the  House  from  the  happy  laughter  of 
the  present  Lord  Chief  Justice,  but  was  only  exalted 
by  the  martyrdom  of  ridicule  into  greater  favour  with 
the  Corporation.  He  was  deemed  invincible,  and  yet 
has  been  overthrown ! 

Mr.  Shaw,  his  co-partner  in  the  representation  of 
Dublin,  was  less  an  object  of  political  partiality,  but 
had  many  advantages  to  second  him.  His  father's 
bank  was  a  tower  of  strength,  and  the  coffers,  it  is 
supposed,  of  the  Master  of  the  Rolls  were  thrown  open 
— their  ponderous  lids  creaked  on  their  rusty  hinges  in 
his  behalf.  Sir  W.  M'Mahon  is  his  uncle.  Mr.  Shaw 
had,  besides,  the  recommendation  arising  from  very 
considerable  ability,  which  he  had  displayed  in  his  reply 
to  O'Gorman  Mahon,  in  which  he  gave  a  description  of 
that  gentleman  by  exhibiting  a  picture  of  another,  and 
was  accounted  not  only  one  of  the  sustainments,  but, 
what  is  far  more  rare,  one  of  the  ornaments  of  the 
Corporation.  He  was  altogether  a  most  creditable 
representative.  His  solemnity  of  aspect — his  full,  large 
black  and  brilliant  eye — his  handsome  countenance, 
overspread  with  an  air  of  evangelical  as  well  as  judicial 
solemnity — his  grave  judicial  walk,  and  his  Recorder 
emphasis  on  every  word,  constituted  an  assemblage  of 
imposing  circumstances,  which  rendered  Mr.  Shaw  an 
object  of  pride  to  the  body  which  had  delegated  him  to 
Parliament.  It  was  imagined,  on  the  dissolution,  that 
no  attempt  would  be  made  to  resist  him  and^Mr. 

Two  candidates,  however,  were  produced  by  the 
people,  in  the  persons  of  Mr.  Perrin  and  Sir  Robert 
Harty.  The  Government,  laying  aside  the  quiescence 
which  had  neutralised  the  power  of  the  Irish  adminis- 


tration  in  so  many  instances,  interfered  in  their  behalf. 
Orders  were  issued,  or  hints,  which  are  equivalent  to 
injunctions,  were  given,  which  were  perfectly  intelli- 
gible in  the  Police  Offices  and  the  Paving  Board,  and 
a  phenomenon  in  political  conversion  was  presented 
in  the  person  of  the  famous  (famous  at  least  in  the 
world  of  provinciality  called  Ireland)  Major  Sirr. 
Sirr  had  been  the  Eouche  of  the  Rebellion.  He 
was  a  renowned  traitor-catcher,  and  has  been  com- 
mended to  immortality  in  one  of  Curran's  speeches. 
He  was  a  loyalist  of  the  first  zeal  and  acrimony, 
and  lately  superadded  sanctimony  to  the  spirit  of 
allegiance,  which,  among  the  ascendancy  party,  is 
always,  if  not  synonymous  with  a  man's  interest, 
quite  inseparable  from  it.  "The  Major"  was  the 
name  by  which  he  was  known  in  Dublin,  and  the 
designation  was  enough  to  make  many  a  lover  of  "  Ould 
Ireland"  thrill  at  the  sound.  Sanctity,  ascendancy, 
and  magistracy,  all  combined  to  render  him  one  of  the 
great  props  of  what  are  called  the  institutions,  and 
"the  Major"  would  a  little  time  ago  as  readily  have 
anticipated  his  being  called  on  to  "  eat  a  crocodile,"  as 
Hamlet  says,  as  to  swallow  and  digest  the  proposal  of 
what  is  called  a  Popish  candidate  for  the  representation 
of  the  city  of  Dublin.  It  was,  however,  suggested  to 
him  by  the  Castle,  and  though  it  must  have  cost  him 
many  a  straining  and  stretching  of  his  political 
conscience,  he  stomached  the  mandate  of  His  Excellency 
at  last.  It  was  a  sight  to  behold  the  Major  upon  this 
occasion.  His  friends  gathered  to  see  him  go  through 
the  operation,  and  as  he  went  through  it,  the  public 
face  wore  one  universal  grin.  His  example  was  of  no 
mean  use.  The  other  dependants  on  authority  were 


desired  to  look  on  the  Major  as  a  pattern,  and  the 
model  was  immediately  copied.  A  fierce  contest 
ensued,  and  Sir  Robert  Harty  and  Mr.  Perrin  were, 
after  a  strenuous  struggle,  returned  members  for  the 
city  of  Dublin.  The  pride  of  the  Corporation  was 
levelled  to  the  earth,  and  the  proud  ascendancy  that 
had  so  long  trampled  on  the  head  of  Ireland,  was 
compelled,  although  with  gnashing  teeth,  to  bite  the 
dust.  Than  Sir  Robert  Harty  and  Mr.  Perrin  there 
can  scarcely  be  two  persons  more  dissimilar.  The 
former  was  originally  in  trade,  but  having  acquired  a 
large  fortune,  retired  from  business.  He  is  a  good- 
humoured,  rosy-faced,  blue-eyed  person,  with  a  prompt 
and  ready  smile,  accompanied,  however,  with  a  con- 
sciousness of  that  dignity  which  fifty  thousand  pounds 
and  a  baronetcy,  the  reward  of  his  honourable  services 
as  Lord  Mayor,  are  calculated  to  impart.  He  has 
always  been  a  liberal  man,  and  was  wont  to  express  his 
advocacy  of  emancipation  in  good  set  terms  in  that 
convivial  rhetoric  in  which  the  aldermen  of  Dublin  are 
admitted  to  excel. 

Mr.  Perrin  is  a  remarkable  man.  He  is  of  French 
origin,  and  has  the  peculiar  Huguenot  expression  observ- 
able in  almost  all  French  Calvinists  strongly  impressed 
on  his  face.  A  democratic  character  is  stamped  upon 
it.  Yet  it  is  free  from  any  acerbity,  which  indeed  is  no 
ingredient  of  his  nature,  but  has  a  directness  and  spirit 
of  plain  dealing  which  indicates  that  he  would  not  give 
himself  the  trouble  of  disguising  his  opinions,  and  a 
recklessness  of  the  judgments  and  estimate  of  other 
men.  It  is  singularly  thoughtful,  and  in  the  paleness 
which  is  suffused  over  its  expanse,  the  evidences  of  long 
and  laborious  mental  occupation  are  readily  to  be 


discerned.  The  brows  are  dark  and  massive,  and  over- 
hang eyes,  in  which  there  are  no  flashes  of  imagination, 
but  which  are  occupied  by  a  thinking  and  reflective 
spirit,  and  combine  frankness  and  boldness  of  character 
with  the  intimation  of  high  intellectual  endowment. 
The  manners  of  Mr.  Perrin  are  well  suited  to  his 
aspect  and  bearing.  They  are  independent,  abrupt, 
and  honest — a  little  curt,  perhaps,  but  never  purposely 
uncivil.  He  is  evidently  a  man  as  incapable  of  offering 
as  of  brooking  an  offence,  and  would  as  much  disdain 
to  treat  his  inferiors  with  indignity,  as  those  above 
with  abjectness  and  servility.  He  came  to  the  bar 
without  any  patron,  except  his  high  personal  merit, 
and  under  no  other  auspices  has  he  made  his  way. 
He  has  attained  the  highest  place  in  his  profession  as  a 
most  expert  and  erudite  advocate,  and  has  never 
stooped  to  a  judge,  or  offered  adulation  to  authority  in 
all  that  time.  It  is  a  most  creditable  circumstance  in 
his  conduct,  that  when  almost  the  whole  Bar  concurred 
in  offering  incense  to  Lord  Manners  in  an  address  on 
his  departure,  Mr.  Perrin  refused  to  put  his  hand  to  a 
document  expressing  opinions  which  not  a  single 
barrister  entertained.*  But  I  go  into  details  too 
minute  for  the  compass  within  which  I  ought  to 
confine  myself.  I  pass,  without  regard  to  the  order 
in  which  I  select  the  localities,  to  the  county  of  Clare. 

Alas !  for  O'  Gorman  Mahon.  How  has  he  declined 
from  the  high,  although  it  was  a  somewhat  fantastical 

*  Mr.  Perrin  is  the  present  Judge  Perrin.  He  subsequently  repre- 
sented the  county  of  Monaghan,  and  was  an  able  and  efficient  member  of 
parliament.  In  1835  he  held  the  office  of  Attorney-General,  and  in  the 
same  year  succeeded  Judge  Vandaleur  in  the  Queen's  Bench. 


station  on  which  he  stood  not  long  ago,  when  he 
lighted  on  the  tops  of  parliamentary  eminence  like 
Mercury  on  a  heaven-kissing  hill !  There  he  remained 
poised  in  a  "posture  peculiar  indeed,  and  sufficiently 
strange ;  but  it  was  much,  after  all,  to  have  had  all  eyes 
directed  on  him,  and  by  his  dress,  his  attitude,  his 
deportment,  and  an  eloquence  which  is  entirely  his  own, 
to  have  attracted  the  regards  and  occupied  the  ear 
of  London.  He  is  hurled  down  from  the  peaks  of 
fashion,  and  instead  of  alternately  figuring  in  Regent 
street  and  St.  Stephen's  chapel,  and  astounding  the 
one  with  his  rhetoric  and  the  other  with  his  attire,  he 
is  condemned  to  wander  through  the  solitudes  of  Clare, 
and  to  gaze  on  those  mountains  which  his  friend  Steele 
has  associated  with  the  immortal  name  of  O'Connell, 
and  given  an  eternity  to  their  fame  as  doubtless  as  that 
of  the  foundations  on  which  they  stand.  I  own  it 
grieves  me  to  see  this  change  in  his  political  fortunes, 
and  the  incident  which  pains  me  most  is  the  separation 
which  took  place  between  him  and  Thomas  Steele. 
They  were  wont  to  call  each  other  by  vocatives  of 
fraternal  friendship,  and  Tom  Steele  would  end  every 
sentence  by  a  panegyric  on  the  virtues  and  services  of 
his  brother  O'  Gorman  Mahon.  At  the  late  Clare 
election  the  passion  of  Tom  Steele  for  his  country,  or 
what  he  considers  as  equivalent,  his  admiration  of 
Daniel  O'Connell,  overcame  his  enthusiasm  for  his 
friend,  and  they  who  would  have  gladly  perished  for 
each  other's  sake  but  a  little  while  ago,  were  animated 
by  the  most  deadly  resentment.  The  public  are  too 
well  aware  of  all  the  gladiatorial  interchanges  of 
messages,  and  appointments,  and  "moving  accidents 


by  flood  and  field,"  which  prevented  any  rencounter 
between  the  bands  of  belligerents  on  that  memorable 
occasion.  It  would,  however,  be  preposterous  to  throw 
any  doubt  on  the  courage  of  any  of  the  parties.  They 
are  all  men  approved  in  their  vocation,  but  fortunately 
for  them  and  for  their  country,  their  O'Trigger  propen- 
sities were  disappointed  by  a  series  of  events  which 
cannot  be  considered  fortuitous,  but  in  which  the 
finger  of  a  guardian  Providence  can  be  distinctly 
traced.  Why  go  through  the  half-melancholy,  half- 
ridiculous  narrative  of  the  incidents  of  that  election? 
It  terminated,  however,  with  a  circumstance  so  honour- 
able to  both  parties,  that  it  ought  not  to  be  kept  back. 
O'  Gorman  Mahon  was  assailed  in  Limerick  by  an 
infuriated  rabble.  He  defended  himself  with  a  valour 
which  was  really  heroic.  When  he  was  on  the  point  of 
being  overpowered,  his  former  friend  Steele,  perceiving 
his  danger,  forgetting  all  their  recent  animosities  in  the 
remembrance  of  their  ancient  friendship,  rushed 
forward,  and  raising  him  with  his  vigorous  arm, 
snatched  him  from  the  grasp  of  a  sanguinary  mob,  and 
bore  him  in  safety  off.  That  two  men,  both  full  of 
worth  and  of  high  personal  as  well  as  public  merit, 
have  shaken  hands,  with  "hearts  in  them/'  is  the 
sincere  wish  of  all  those  who  are  aware  of  all  the  good 
which  they  accomplished  when  they  were  honourably 
emulous  for  the  service  of  their  country,  and  left  it 
matter  of  difficulty  to  arbitrate  between  their  compara- 
tive claims  on  the  gratitude  of  Ireland. 

Mr.  Maurice  O'Connell,  the  son  of  "  the  Liberator," 
defeated  O' Gorman  Mahon.  He  has  spoken  but  once 
in  the  House  of  Commons,  and  on  that  occasion  spoke 
with  success.  His  demeanour  was  modest  and  un- 

VOL    II.  Z 


affected,  and  won  the  praises  of  those  who  were  least 
disposed  to  allow  him  merit.  He  is  singularly  improved 
in  every  particular,  and  instead  of  endeavouring  to 
obtain  distinction  (a  pardonable  frivolity)  by  any  pecu- 
liarity of  dress  and  deportment,  he  has  begun  to  seek 
the  acquisition  of  a  genuine  reputation.  He  has  many 
of  his  father's  attributes — a  fine  memory,  quickness, 
and  facility.  It  is  certainly  an  injury,  in  many  regards, 
to  bear  the  name  of  a  distinguished  person,  by  creating 
a  perpetual  comparison ;  but  it  is  also  in  many  respects 
serviceable  by  opening  to  the  display  of  talent  a  career 
already  formed. 

The  Waterford  election  (for  I  proceed  to  it)  was 
attended  with  a  striking  circumstance.  The  Beresford 
family — that  family  which  had  been  so  long  absolute  in 
Ireland,  and  which  held  a  pre-eminence  in  its  politics 
as  lofty  as  the  tall  hills  which  crown  the  demesne  of 
their  splendid  mansion — did  not  venture  to  enter  the 
field  for  the  contest  of  an  honour  on  which  they  had 
expended  thousands  upon  thousands,  and  which  they 
not  only  considered  as  an  appurtenance  to  their  rank, 
but  as  a  constituent  of  their  political  being.  Here  was, 
indeed,  the  triumph  of  Reform  !  Before  its  spirit  the 
ancient  aristocracy,  attended  with  all  the  power  which 
boundless  opulence  could  give,  was  obliged  to  retreat, 
and  to  hide  itself  in  the  recesses  of  the  fine  woods  of 
Curraghmore.  The  two  gentlemen  elected  are,  the 
brother  of  the  late  member,  Mr.  Robert  Power,  and 
Sir  Richard  Musgrave.  The  former  is  a  sharp,  active, 
quick-sighted  man,  with  shrewd  sense  and  good  faculties, 
and  likely  to  be  a  very  useful  member  of  parliament. 
Sir  Richard  Musgrave  is  remarkable  for  having  in- 
herited the  estate  and  baronetcy  of  the  celebrated 


partisan  and  Irish  historian  of  that  name,  -whose  wild 
volumes  purport  to  be  a  history  of  the  Rebellion,  and 
contain  little  else  than  the  visions  of  an  imagination 
ridden  by  a  bloody  incubus.  His  nephew,  Sir  Richard 
Musgrave,  is  in  every  political  respect  his  exact  oppo- 
site. He  is  a  man  of  views  as  enlightened  as  his 
manners  are  bland,  and  who  possesses  an  understanding 
as  clear  and  vigorous  as  his  purpose  is  pure  and  sound. 
He  is  beloved  by  the  people — respected  by  the  gentry 
— the  model  of  a  country-gentleman — a  kind  neigh- 
bour— a  faithful  friend,  and,  in  the  largest  and  most 
honourable  sense  of  that  noble  designation — "'an  honest 

In  the  City  of  Waterford,  Sir  John  Newport  was 
elected  without  opposition.  The  Nestor  of  the  Irish 
Whigs  is  too  well  known  to  require  a  description.  He 
is  seventy-five,  but  his  heart  still  beats  with  a  vigorous 
passion  for  his  country,  though  I  am  sorry  to  perceive 
that  his  hand  has  begun  to  tremble  and  his  fine  eyes 
have  lost  their  lustre. 

Tipperary  conferred  a  second  time  an  honour  on 
itself  by  re-electing  Mr.  Wyse.  It  was  apprehended 
that  the  death  of  Mr.  Lanigan,  an  attorney,  who,  by 
his  talents  and  influence  over  the  public  mind,  has 
before  so  essentially  contributed  to  the  triumph  of  Mr. 
Wyse,  would  strip  him  of  all  likelihood  of  success.  But 
the  merits  of  Mr.  Wyse  were  too  well  appreciated  by 
the  people ;  they  justly  felt,  that  however  a  man  un- 
known and  undistinguished  might  be  well  repudiated  as 
an  alien,  genius  and  integrity  should  everywhere  find  a 
domicile.  There  was,  accordingly,  no  contest.  Mr. 
Wyse  has  been  so  much  before  the  public  that  a 
description  of  him  is  almost  superfluous ;  yet  to  those 

z  2 


who  have  not  seen  him,  it  is  as  well  to  say  what  manner 
of  man  he  is.  His  person  is  small  and  rather  below  the 
middle  size ;  he  has,  however,  an  exceedingly  gentle- 
manlike bearing,  which  takes  away  any  impression  of 
diminutiveness.  He  holds  himself  erect,  and  seems  a 
little  animated  by  a  consciousness  that  he  belongs  to  an 
ancient  family  and  is  owner  of  the  manor  of  St.  John. 
He  is  exceedingly  graceful  in  his  manners,  and  at  once 
conveys  the  conviction  of  his  having  lived  in  the  best 
society.  His  countenance  is  more  refined  than  marked 
and  expressive,  and  indicates  gracefulness  and  elegance 
of  thought  and  feeling  rather  than  any  strong  and 
broad  traits  of  character.  Mr.  Wyse  is  eminently 
accomplished;  a  master  of  several  languages;  a  poet, 
a  painter ;  versed  in  antiquities,  and  a  traveller  in  the 
East,  he  presents  a  rare  combination  of  personal  merits 
and  adventitious  advantages.  His  eloquence  is,  per- 
haps, a  little  too  rotund  and  full,  and  he  is  too  whole- 
sale a  dealer  in  abstractions,  and  too  lofty  an  intonator 
of  high-sounding  diction  :  but  it  flows  out  of  a  copious 
and  abundant  fountain,  and  runs  through  a  broad 
channel,  amidst  all  the  rich  invcstings  of  highly- 
decorated  phrase.  What  he  mainly  wants  is  simplicity 
and  directness  in  position  and  in  argument.  He  gives 
his  hearer  credit  for  more  velocity  in  following  him 
than  he  is  entitled  to,  and  forgets  that  when  he  arrives 
himself  per  saltum  at  a  conclusion,  full  many  an  auditor 
may  not  be  able  to  leap  with  the  same  agility  to  his 
consequences  as  himself.* 

The  associate  of  Mr.  Wyse  is  Mr.  Hutchinson.     He 
is  generally  known  by  the  name  of  Lavalette,  from  his 

*  This  accomplished  gentleman  is  the  present  minister  at  the  Court 
of  Athens. 


having,  in  conjunction  with  Mr.  Bruce,  performed  a 
signal  feat  of  courage,  with  which  the  world  are  too 
familiar  to  make  a  more  distinct  reference  to  it  appro- 
priate. Mr.  Hutchinson  had  incurred,  notwithstanding 
the  long  advocacy  of  the  Catholic  Question  by  his 
family,  a  good  deal  of  popular  disrelish  by  writing  what 
was  certainly  a  very  incautious  letter  of  admonition,  in 
reply  to  an  invitation  to  dine  at  a  public  dinner  at 
Clonmel.  This  imprudence  cost  him  the  county  at  a 
former  election.  He  did  not  regret  it,  but  it  grieved 
old  Lord  Donoughmore  to  the  heart.  He  is  now  again 
elected,  and  it  is  pleasurable  to  think  that  the  animo- 
sities between  him  and  the  people  are  at  an  end.  He 
is  what  is  commonly  called  "  a  good  fellow,"  who  does 
not  set  up  any  claims  to  eminent  faculty,  but  whose 
title  to  good  sense  is  beyond  dispute. 

The  city  of  Kilkenny  has  again  sent  Mr.  Leader  to 
Parliament.  Mr.  Leader  is  a  most  useful  member  of 
the  House.  He  has  a  minute  knowledge  of  Ireland, 
and  possesses  perhaps  more  acquaintance  with  its 
statistics,  than  any  other  of  its  representatives.  I 
understand  he  never  speaks  without  conveying  informa- 
tion, and  on  that  account  is  always  attended  to, 
although  it  must  be  owned,  that  he  sometimes  displays 
so  much  vivacity,  and  animates  his  oratorical  physique 
with  so  much  impetuosity  of  emotion,  that  he  gives  the 
Saxon  temperaments  of  his  hearers  a  start.  But  these 
imperfections  ought  not  to  be  mentioned  in  any  com- 
parison with  his  most  valuable  qualities.  He  has  a 
clear  vigorous  mind,  amply  stored  with  facts,  and 
possesses  a  perspicuous,  full,  and  simple  diction,  which 
from  its  freedom  from  the  false  brilliancy  of  that  Irish 
eloquence  which  is  held  in  about  as  much  value  as  Irish 


diamonds,  is  a  good  deal  prized  in  the  House  of 
Commons,  as  the  most  appropriate  vehicle  of  sound 
reasoning  and  illustrative  fact. 

Daniel  O'Connell  is  at  last  Member  for  Kerry,  and 
has  refuted  the  sacred  aphorism,  by  becoming  a  pro- 
phet in  a  country  where  his  claims  to  inspiration  had 
been  hitherto  the  subject  of  incredulity.  In  the  county 
of  Kerry  he  had  less  influence  than  in  any  other  part 
of  Ireland,  from  causes  which  I  have  not  heard  ex- 
plained— I  presume  on  account  of  the  pre-eminence 
which  the  Kenmare  family  have  for  generations  enjoyed 
in  that  district.  It  appeared  singular  to  Englishmen, 
that  when  he  started,  after  his  unfortunate  exclusion 
from  the  benefits  of  the  Relief  Bill,  for  any  Irish 
county,  he  should  not  have  selected  his  native  onc.::~ 
Some  imagined  that  it  was  in  order  to  give  evidence 
of  his  power  that  he  wandered  through  the  country, 
leaving  it  to  put  its  counties  into  emulation  for  the 
honour  of  selecting  him.  The  truth  was,  however, 
that  he  had  not  at  that  period  any  hold  over  Kerry. 
His  recent  election  there  gives  the  best  proof  of  his 
increased  popularity,  and  of  the  extent  to  which  "  the 
Repeal"  has  possessed  itself  of  the  national  mind. 
Mr.  O'Counell  has  substituted  it  for  the  Catholic  Ques- 
tion, and  turned  it  to  even  a  more  exciting  account. 
It  has  effected  for  him  in  Kerry  what  the  former  mea- 
sure could  not  accomplish,  and  from  the  summits  of 
the  mountains  of  Ivra  he  beheld  the  Lords  of  Ken- 
mare,  if  not  tributary  to  his  dominion,  subject,  at 
all  events,  to  his  ascendancy.  With  him,  Mr.  Mul- 

*  As  to  Mr.  O'ConnelTs  "  exclusion  from  the  benefits  of  the  Catholic 
Belief  Bill/'  see  the  note  appended  to  the  papers  on  the  Clare  Election. 


lins,  the  son  of  a  clergyman,  and  a  relation  of  Lord 
Ventry,  was  returned.  The  brother  of  Lord  Kenmare 
(Mr.  Brown)  did  not  venture  to  come  to  the  poll. 
Neither  did  the  Knight  of  Kerry,  Mr.  Maurice  Fitz- 
gerald. The  exclusion  of  the  latter  is  a  source  of 
regret  to  those  who  know  him.  However  opposed  to 
his  late  proceedings  in  Parliament,  they  recollect  his 
services  to  Ireland,  and  his  inflexible  adherence,  in  the 
midst  of  temptations  the  most  trying,  to  the  cause  of 
his  countrymen.  In  an  unhappy  moment  he  joined 
the  Duke  of  Wellington.  For  this  union  much  allow- 
ance should  be  made ;  he  was  the  Duke's  early  friend ; 
they  both  lived  together  in  the  dissipation  of  the  Irish 
Court,  and  formed  that  ligature  of  friendship  which 
circumstances  are  least  likely  to  snap  or  time  to  wear 
away.  The  Duke,  in  his  splendid  prosperity,  always 
reverted  to  the  social  hours  of  his  youth  with  pleasure, 
and  honoured  the  Knight  of  Kerry  with  testimonies  of 
his  undiminished  regard.  When  he  came  into  power, 
he  tendered  him  office.  It  was  difficult  to  resist  place, 
when  held  out  by  the  hand  of  an  old  friend  to  one  who 
stood,  perhaps,  in  some  domestic  need  of  it.  The 
Knight  of  Kerry  gave  way — he  accepted  office,  and  is 
now  banished,  I  fear,  from  public  life  for  ever.  I 
lament  it.  He  is  a  high-minded  gentleman,  belongs 
to  the  old  school  of  dignity  and  lofty-breeding,  and  has 
a  heart,  whose  location  in  its  right  place  in  his  bosom 
has  never  been  suspected. 

This,  the  fourth  return  of  Alexander  Dawson  for  the 
county  of  Louth,  is  at  once  a  testimony  to  his  merits, 
and  a  proof  that  the  Roman  Catholic  body  are  not  as 
forgetful  of  services  as  has  been  sometimes  suggested 
by  those  who  employed  their  own  estimate  of  their 


claims  to  thankfulness  as  the  standard  of  that  virtue  in 
others.  The  benefit  conferred  by  him  was  signal,  and 
the  return  which  has  been  made  for  it  has  been  com- 
mensurate. Mr.  Dawson  broke  the  yoke  of  the  aris- 
tocracy by  coming  forward  from  his  retirement  in  1826, 
and  has  rendered  it  impossible  that  it  should  ever  be 
again  placed  upon  the  necks  of  the  people.  His  first 
speech  in  Parliament  was  greatly  praised,  and  was 
admired  almost  beyond  any  other  by  Mr.  Canning, 
who  was  struck  with  the  intellectual  bonhommie  of  the 
plain,  unvarnished  agricultural  delegate  from  an  Irish 
county,  who  told  the  truth  with  a  strenuous  frank- 
ness, far  preferable  to  the  gaudy  eloquence  which  in 
Ireland  has  obtained  so  undue  a  portion  of  the  popular 

The  colleague  of  Mr.  Dawson  is  Mr.  Sheil,  who  has 
at  length  succeeded  in  obtaining  the  object  of  his 
aspirations,  although  it  would  have  been  as  well  for 
himself,  and  better  for  the  country,  if  he  had  continued 
Member  for  Milbourne  Port.  He  was  already  in  Par- 
liament, and  it  looked  ungracious  that  he  should  inter- 
fere with  Sir  Patrick  Bellew,  the  natural  representatve 
of  the  county,  and  who  has  thrown  himself  with  much 
devotion  into  alliance  with  the  people.  Sir  Patrick 
Belle\v  would,  by  his  election,  have  confirmed  the 
popular  influence,  and  given  it  a  permanent  basis; 
whereas  the  hold  of  Mr.  Sheil  cannot  be  considered  as 
very  tenacious,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  he  will 
be  strongly  opposed  by  the  gentry  on  the  next  election, 
who  superaddcd  to  an  aversion  for  his  politics,  a  resent- 
ment for  his  intrusion.  The  friends  of  Mr.  Sheil 
consider  it  desirable  that  he  should  be  placed  in  an 
independent  relation  to  the  country,  but  Mr.  Sheil 


cannot  forget  the  obligations  which  he  owes  to  the 
Marquess  of  Anglesey  to  such  an  extent  as  to  act 
against  his  government.*  There  is  this  farther 
awkwardness  in  his  position :  as  a  Government  mem- 
ber, allowance  would  have  been  made  for  his  necessity 
to  sustain  the  Administration  which  put  him  in :  he 
has  now  no  apology  to  make  to  his  constituents.  If 
he  votes  against  Government,  he  will  be  charged  with 
an  oblivion  of  favours ;  and  if  he  votes  with  Govern- 
ment, he  will  be  denounced  by  his  friends  as  a  traitor 
to  the  people.  The  little  gentleman  is  in  a  practical 
dilemma,  from  which  it  will  require  some  of  his  habits 
of  rhetorical  artifice  to  escape.  Mr.  Stanley  has 
already,  in  the  House  of  Commons,  given  him  some 
hint  of  his  displeasure,  by  referring  to  his  characteristic 
impetuosity  in  insisting  that  the  Government  should  at 
once  proceed  to  the  relief  of  the  grievances  of  Ireland. 
The  rebuke  was  well  deserved;  for  while  Mr.  Sheil 
found  fault  with  his  patrons  for  their  tardiness,  he 
made  no  suggestion  of  a  single  practical  measure  for  the 
benefit  of  his  country,  in  a  speech  which  was  delivered 
on  very  ill-selected  topics  upon  a  very  inappropriate 

Mr.  Wallace  has  been  defeated  at  Drogheda  by  Mr. 
North.  The  former  has  now  expended  some  thousands 
of  pounds  in  his  parliamentary  pursuits,  and  it  is  to  be 
lamented  that  money  so  hardly  earned  should  have  been 
so  deplorably  misapplied.  In  the  House  of  Commons 
Mr.  Wallace  had  failed;  that  failure  arose  far  more 
from  accident  and  obstinacy  than  from  any  deficiency 

*  Mr.  Shell's  first  introduction  to  Parliament  was  as  member  for 
Milbourne  Port,  one  of  the  boroughs  in  Schedule  A,  of  which  the 
Marquess  of  Anglesea  was  patron. 


in  fitness  for  the  House.  He  rose  at  three  in  the 
morning  on  the  fourth  night  of  the  Catholic  debate, 
and  commenced  with  the  Treaty  of  Limerick.  He 
plunged,  as  I  have  heard  it  observed,  at  once  into  one 
of  the  old  moats  of  that  ancient  city,  and  lost  himself 
in  the  ooze,  if  I  may  so  call  it,  with  which  his  infeli- 
citous topic  was  overspread.  The  House  had  been 
wearied  with  eternal  discussion  on  a  matter  which  the 
Joseph  Surfaceism  of  Sir  Robert  Peel  had  first  thrown 
out  for  discussion ;  for  he  had  declared  that  if  he  could 
be  convinced  that  the  treaty  was  violated,  he  would  at 
once  give  way.  Mr.  Wallace  undertook  to  convince 
him,  with  what  success  is  well  known.  The  conscious  - 
ness  which  he  must  have  of  his  capacity  probably 
induced  him  to  feel  solicitous  to  return  to  Parliament. 
He  flung  two  thousand  pounds  away  on  the  adventure, 
and  discovered  at  that  cost  that  the  power  of  the  Cor- 
poration was  not  to  be  resisted.  Mr.  North  was  re- 
turned. He  is  thus  once  more  in  Parliament;  but 
when  will  he  be  again  elected  for  any  Irish  borough  'i 
Reform  will  extinguish  his  political  life.  I  am  sorry 
that  he  has  exhibited  so  strange  a  contrast  between  his 
faculties  and  his  discretion.  With  great  abilities  he 
has  contrived  to  render  himself  of  little  practical  weight 
in  the  House,  and  an  object  of  great  aversion  to  his 
country.  An  advocate  of  Emancipation,  he  perpetually 
shocked  the  Catholics  by  his  sustainment  of  the  Bible 
institutions,  which  they  held  in  abhorrence;  and 
although  a  supporter  of  the  Kildare-street  Society,  he 
created  among  the  Protestant  faction  an  irreconcileable 
hostility  by  his  voting  for  Emancipation.  In  the  House 
of  Commons  he  fell  into  the  same  mistakes.  His  attack 
on  Mr.  O'Connell  was  ill-timed,  because  it  was  no  part 


of  his  duty  to  fall  on  a  man  whom  Mr.  Doherty  had 
officially  assailed.  In  his  recent  speeches  in  Parliament 
on  Reform,  although  he  has  evinced  abundance  of 
ability,  he  has  constantly  permitted  himself  to  be 
carried  away  by  his  emotions  into  the  utterance  of 
language  offensive  to  an  entire  nation;  and  while  others 
asserted  their  principles  with  as  much  zeal,  he  has 
committed  himself  by  the  use  of  unfortunate  phrases, 
which  gave  great  offence  to  one  party,  and  proved  no 
recommendation  to  the  other.  I  fear  that  he  will  not 
be  elected  after  the  dissolution,  and  think  it  matter  of 
regret.  He  is  one  of  the  few  members  in  whose  oratory 
the  traces  of  the  Pitt  and  Canning  school  are  to  be 
discovered;  and  nothing  but  the  blindness  of  party, 
which  shuts  men's  eyes  so  close,  could  fail  to  perceive 
in  his  eloquence  a  more  than  ordinary  splendor. 

The  University  of  Dublin,  true  to  its  principles,  and 
anxious  to  have  a  representative  in  the  House  in  whom 
its  politics  and  literary  eminence  should  be  faithfully 
represented,  has  sent  Mr.  Lefroy  a  second  time  to  the 
House  of  Commons.  As  the  University  has  never 
deemed  it  requisite  to  give  any  evidence  of  the  progress 
made  by  Science,  or  by  the  Arts,  in  its  cloisters,  and 
not  a  book  of  any  kind  appears  in  the  course  of  years 
to  rescue  its  professors  from  the  imputation  of  incom- 
petence, it  was  not  unnatural  that  it  should  choose 
for  its  member  a  gentleman  who  had  never  obtained 
any  sort  of  distinction  within  its  walls,  and  who  has  as 
studiously  concealed  his  own  great  proficiency  in  learn- 
ing, and  his  extraordinary  talents,  as  the  very  venerable 
body  which  he  represents  in  the  House  of  Commons. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  known  abilities,  the  scholarship, 
and  literary  and  scientific  qualificatious  of  Mr.  Cramp- 


ton,  who  had  obtained  a  fellowship  in  the  college  with 
great  eclat,  were  quite  sufficient  to  disentitle  him  to  the 
honour  of  sitting  for  the  "  silent  sister "  in  the  House 
of  Commons.  It  is  true  that  Mr.  Lefroy  has  in  one 
instance  departed  from  the  character  of  his  constituents 
and  violated  a  prudential  taciturnity.  I  did  not  hear 
him,  but  have  understood  that  it  was  exceedingly  im- 
probable that  the  House  would  ever  permit  such  a 
deviation  from  his  parliamentary  character  again. 

But  what  shall  I  say  of  the  County  of  Carlow? — 
what  of  Sir  John  Miley  Doyle  and  of  Mr.  Walter 
Blakeney? — and  what,  above  all,  of  their  nominator, 
who  turned  them  into  Members  of  Parliament  with  a 
single  touch  of  his  magic  crosier,  Doctor  Doyle? 
Strange  vicissitudes !  Who  could  have  conjectured 
that  a  "Bachelor  of  Salamanca"  (for  there,  I  believe, 
the  Doctor  was  initiated  into  theology),  and  afterwards 
a  parish  priest  in  some  part  of  Wexford,  and  then  a 
Professor  of  dogmatic  divinity  at  the  sarcedotal  College 
of  Carlow,  should  now  with  a  mitre,  lofty  as  that  of 
Becket  (although  without  a  gem  in  it),  on  his  brow,  and 
a  pastoral  staff  of  Bellarmine  potency  in  his  hand, 
legislate  for  the  passions  of  the  people,  and  not  only 
summon  and  dismiss  at  his  bidding  the  popular  emo- 
tions, but  without  stretch  or  effort,  and  by  the  simple 
intimation  of  his  will,  accomplish  that  which  not  a  Peer 
in  the  empire  could  have  effected  ?  Where  is  the  man, 
except  James  or  John  (I  forget  which),  Bishop  of 
Leighlin  and  Kildare,  who  could  return  two  county 
members  ?  Even  the  great  Daniel  himself  could  not 
achieve  so  much  in  any  single  Irish  county.  He  can 
recommend  the  principle,  but  not  prescribe  the  men — 
but  the  episcopal  Franciscan  can  with  a  hint  of  his 


sacred  predilection  return  two  members  without  a 
struggle.  It  must  be  confessed  that  his  choice  was 
singular.  Sir  John  Miley  Doyle  had  been  hitherto 
famous  as  a  walking  Wellington  testimonial  (so  he  was 
called  from  the  profusion  of  his  military  decorations), 
for  his  prodigal  whiskers  that  are  spread  in  minacious 
profusion  over  his  jaws,  and  his  being  the  best  whistler 
in  Ireland.  lie  was  an  excellent  officer,  and  served 
with  great  distinction  in  the  Peninsula,  but  his  genius 
as  a  legislator  was  not  conjectured,  until  it  was  detected 
by  the  sagacity  of  Doctor  Doyle.  Mr.  Blakeney  is  a 
country  gentleman,  who  did  not  even  take  a  part  in 
Catholic  politics,  and  was  unknown  in  the  Association. 
His  only  claim  to  public  honours  must  have  been  con- 
fined to  the  great  respectability  of  his  family,  and  to 
his  personal  virtues  and  worth.  It  is  not  the  least  dero- 
gation from  his  real  merits  to  say,  that  no  one  ever  re- 
garded him  as  likely  to  become  the  trustee  of  the  interest 
of  the  empire — yet  these  gentlemen  were  not  only  placed 
in  Parliament  by  Doctor  Doyle,  but  Mr.  Cavenagh  and 
Mr.  Bruen,  the  heads  of  the  old  Protestant  aristocracy, 
did  not  even  venture  to  enter  the  lists  against  them. 
Such  a  man  is  Doctor  Doyle ;  and  yet  this  man,  whose 
abilities  are  of  the  first  class,  whose  power  over  popular 
opinion  is  incalculable,  and  who  would,  if  he  were  per- 
mitted, enter  into  cooperation  with  the  Government 
for  any  legitimate  object  of  public  utility,  and,  above 
all,  the  production  of  peace  and  happiness  through  the 
country,  is  kept  apart  by  a  miserable  system  from  the 
authorities,  and  has  not  even  succeeded  in  persuading 
them  to  abandon  that  system  of  education,  which, 
beyond  anything  else,  irritates  and  exasperates  the 
Roman  Clergy  of  Ireland. 


The  county  of  Wexford  1ms,  in  throwing  out  Lord 
Valentia,  got  rid  of  a  man,  in  whom  the  morgue  aristo* 
cratique  was  combined  with  a  feudalism  in  religion, 
(for  there  is  such  a  thing  in  Ireland,)  and  has  accom- 
plished the  double  good  of  removing  an  evil  and  sub- 
stituting a  great  good  in  the  person  of  Mr.  Henry 
Lambert.  This  gentleman  unites  all  the  requisites  for 
the  representative  of  a  popular  county.  He  has  a  large 
property,  he  is  of  ancient  family,  is  devoted  to  the 
cause  of  true  freedom,  is  at  the  same  time  reasonable 
in  his  views,  and  not  only  has  the  judgment  to  see  what 
is  likely  to  conduce  to  the  public  benefit,  but  the  talents 
requisite  to  enforce  his  opinions,  and  become  a  powerful 
expositor  of  Irish  wrongs  in  the  House  of  Commons. 
For  many  years  he  did  not  take  any  very  active  concern 
in  the  business  of  agitation  in  Ireland.  His  tastes  and 
habits  are  perhaps  a  little  fastidious,  and  he  did  not  in 
all  likelihood  relish  the  close  approximation  with  tur- 
bulence and  the  ruder  attributes  of  democracy,  which 
a  large  participation  in  the  pursuits  of  the  Association 
would  have  involved.  He  led  rather  a  secluded  life  at 
his  country  seat,  where  be  beguiled  his  time  with  the 
graceful  literature  and  the  study  and  cultivation  of  those 
accomplishments  which  are  most  in  affinity  with  a  mind 
of  a  nice  and  delicate  texture.  He  published  some 
tracts  on  politics  which  were  full  of  just  observations, 
and  written  in  a  sparkling  and  vivacious  style.  But  he 
seldom  appeared  in  the  convocations  of  the  people,,  and 
to  the  great  mass  of  his  fellow- religionists  was  hardly 
known.  He  has  now  come  forward  to  take  the  station 
which  his  circumstances  and  endowments  entitle  him  to 
fill,  and  has  already,  by  his  forcible  observations  on  the 
Newtownbarry  massacre,  approved  himself  to  be  and- 


mated  by  the  sentiments  and  possessed  of  the  qualities 
requisite  for  the  efficient  service  of  his  country. 

The  member  for  the  town  of  Wexford  is  Mr.  Walker, 
son  of  a  gentleman  who  was  one  of  the  Masters  in  the 
Irish  Chancery,  and  who  has  a  large  estate  near  the 
town.  Mr.  Walker,  although  a  Protestant  and  a  mem- 
ber of  the  highest  class  of  gentry  in  his  country,  was 
always  distinguished  for  his  steadfast  and  zealous  sup- 
port of  the  Catholic  claims.  He  ingratiated  himself 
in  the  popular  liking  to  such  an  extent,  that  it  is  hardly 
exaggeration  to  say  that  he  was  almost  adored  by  the 
people.  He  never  omitted  an  opportunity  to  sustain 
the  lower  classes,  when  oppressed  by  their  superiors^ 
and  on  the  seat  of  magisterial  justice  was  the  dauntless 
champion  of  the  poor.  In  one  instance  he  particularly 
distinguished  himself.  He  found  in  an  English  parson 
settled  in  a  good  living  in  his  neighbourhood,  no  other 
pastoral  quality  than  a  peculiar  genius  for  the  shearing 
of  his  flock.  This  shepherd  of  the  people  was  also  a 
Justice  of  the  Peace.  This  nuisance  of  the  altar  and 
this  tyrant  of  the  bench  was  resisted  by  Mr.  Walker, 
He  turned  his  weapons  against  himself,  and  dragged 
him  into  the  Ecclesiastical  Court  as  a  delinquent  against 
decency,  and  a  mocker  of  the  name  of  God.  After 
having  broken  many  hearts,  it  became  his  turn  to  perish 
of  that  malady  which  he  had  so  often  inflicted.  The 
"  arte  perire  sua"  was  a  just  retribution. 

Lord  Roden  had  already  given  some  strange  instances 
of  that  enthusiasm  in  religion  which  consists  fully  as 
much  in  interference  with  that  of  his  neighbours  as  in 
attending  to  his  own.  He  had  incurred  the  resentment 
of  the  inhabitants  of  Dundalk,  by  introducing  a  clause 
in  all  leases  made  by  him,  to  prevent  any  of  his  tenants 


from  building,  or  allowing  to  be  built,  a  Roman  Catho- 
lic Chapel  on  the  demised  premises.  This  was  suffi- 
cient, it  is  almost  needless  to  say,  to  arm  the  priesthood 
and  array  the  whole  mass  of  religious  passions  against 
him.  He  might  have  been  contented  with  the  effects 
produced  by  this  offence  to  the  most  sensitive  of  all 
feelings,  bnt  as  if  he  had  not  succeeded  to  the  utmost  of 
his  desires,  he  has  recourse  to  an  ensuring  expedient, 
and  puts  in  Captain  Gordon  of  the  Royal  Navy,  and  of 
missionary  celebrity  in  Ireland,  as  his  nominee  for  the 
borough  of  Dundalk.  The  captain  may  be,  peradven- 
venture,  a  most  estimable  individual  in  all  his  personal 
relations,  and  he  may  have  received  a  special  delegation 
from  heaven  on  the  quarter-deck  on  some  fine  moon- 
light night  upon  the  high  seas.  He  might  have  travel- 
led on  his  tour  of  conversion,  when  he  performed  his 
progress  through  Ireland  with  Mr.  Gerard  Noel,  from 
motives  in  which  his  heart  alone,  and  not  his  stomach, 
were  concerned,  and  without  the  least  reference  to  the 
justice  of  Pope's  culinary  predilection,  when  he  ex- 
claims— "  still  let  me  dine  with  saints  ! "  but  admitting 
him  to  be  as  sincere,  though  as  yet  not  as  fortunate  as 
Mr.  Wolfe,  the  converted  Jew,  it  was  a  strange  selection 
on  the  part  of  Lord  Roden  to  choose  a  man  so  obnoxious 
to  the  Irish  people,  who  have  been  accustomed  to  asso- 
ciate derision  and  contumely  with  his  name.  But  that 
Lord  Roden  is  known  to  be  an  inveterate  antagonist  of 
Reform,  one  would  be  tempted  almost  to  believe  that 
he  intended  to  expose  the  monstrosities  of  the  Irish 
borough  system,  by  the  nomination  of  a  man,  as  an 
Irish  representative,  whom  beyond  any  other  perhaps, 
Ireland  would  strenuously  repudiate,  and  who  is  no 
otherwise  distinguished  than  by  those  barbarous  homi- 


lies  in  which  mysticism  is  involved  in  nautical  phraseo- 
logy, set  off  by  a  Caledonian  intonation. 

O'Connor  Don  is  gone.  His  white  and  venerable  head, 
his  face  flushed  with  rural  health  at  seventy-two,  his  tall, 
straight,  and  erect  figure  are  "  in  my  mind's  eye."  He 
was  the  descendant  of  the  last  of  the  Irish  kings,  and 
tempered  his  monarchical  prerogatives  by  manners  of 
peculiar  kindness,  which  only  reflected  the  affability  of 
his  benign  and  gentle  nature.* 

*  It  seems  to  have  been  the  writer's  intention  to  have  continued  the 
account  of  the  general  election  of  1831  in  a  subsequent  article,  but  he 
left  it  in  the  present  fragmentary  state. 

VOL.    II,  2  A 



[AUGTJST,  1831.] 

IRELAND  is  regarded  as  a  province;  and  a  province 
must  be  always  much  less  under  the  control  of  the 
legislature,  than  at  the  disposal  of  a  man.  The  Chief 
Secretary  is  the  government  of  Ireland.  Since  the 
Union  there  have  been  seventeen ;  Lord  Castlereagh, 
Right  Hon.  C.  Abbot,  William  Wickham,  Sir  Evan 
.Nepean,  Nicholas  Yansittart,  Charles  Long,  William 
Elliott,  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley,  Robert  Dundas,  W.  W. 
Pole,  Robert  Peel,  Charles  Grant,  Henry  Goulburn, 
William  Lamb,  Lord  F.  L.  Gower,  Sir  H.  Hardinge, 
•and  lastly,  (but  it  is  difficult  to  say  how  long  he  is  so 
to  continue),  the  Right  Hon.  E.  G.  S.  Stanley. 

It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  say,  that  this  rapid  succes- 
sion of  functionaries  must  have  been  attended  with  the 
most  pernicious  results  to  Ireland.  Each  had  his  indi- 
vidual opinions,  views,  and  projects,  and  each  was 
allowed  to  try  "  his  'prentice  hand"  upon  the  passions, 



the  discords,  the  turbulence,  and  factions  of  a  vehement 
and  long-agitated  people.  But  even  in  this  system  of 
mutations,  time  enough  was  not  allowed  to  almost  any 
one  of  the  tentative  and  probationary  Statesmen  to  put 
his  first  essay  through  any  process  of  fair  experiment : 
scarcely  was  a  plan  proposed  by  one,  when  its  execution 
was  committed  to  another,  and  in  the  midst  of  the 
performance,  a  third  was  suddenly  introduced  to  devise 
a  new  scheme,  which  was  quickly  confided  to  a  fourth, 
who  passed  away  to  make  room  for  a  newly-initiated 
adventurer  in  the  arts  of  legislation.  Not  to  go  too  far 
back,  Sir  Henry  Hardinge,  who  was,  perhaps,  the  best 
Secretary  that  ever  administered  the  affairs  of  Ireland, 
was  permitted  to  frame  eighteen  bills  for  the  ameliora- 
tion of  the  country,  and  almost  immediately  after  the 
commencement  of  his  projects,  Mr.  Stanley  steps  into 
his  office,  and  assumes  the  government  of  eight  millions 
of  the  people. 

The  great  and  responsible  station  which  is  filled  by 
this  gentleman,  would  in  itself  be  sufficient  to  direct  to 
it  a  large  portion  of  the  public  notice ;  but  the  figure 
which  he  has  already  made  in  the  House  of  Commons, 
in  addition  to  the  importance  which  is  attached  to  his 
office,  makes  him  an  object  of  singular  interest.  His 
disposition,  his  tendencies,  and  his  qualifications  have 
not  as  yet  been  fully  developed  and  completely  disclosed; 
but  enough  is  already  seen  to  enable  an  impartial 
observer  to  form  a  tolerably  correct  estimate  of  his 
capacity,  and,  what  is  far  more  important  in  a  states- 
man, his  political  character  and  habits.  He  is  the 
grandson  and  heir  to  the  estates  and  title  of  the  Earl 
of  Derby.  Thus  fortune  has  been  prodigal  to  him  of 


the  most  splendid  opportunities  for  the  achievement  of 
still  greater  honour  than  that  to  which  he  has  been 

The  debut  of  Mr.  Stanley  was  made  in  the  House  of 
Commons  on  the  30th  of  March,  1824.  It  is  commonly 
supposed  that  his  maiden  speech  was  in  favour  of  the 
Established  Church.  That,  however,  is  a  mistake.  It 
was  upon  the  Manchester  Gas  Light  Bill  that  he  first 
addressed  the  House,  and  upon  that  occasion  Sir  James 
Mackintosh  said,  that  he  had  heard  with  the  greatest 
pleasure  the  speech  which  had  been  just  delivered,  and 
which  afforded  the  strongest  promise  that  the  talents 
which  the  Honourable  Member  had  displayed  in  sup- 
porting the  local  interests  of  his  constituents,  would  be 
exerted  with  equal  ardour  and  effect  in  maintaining  the 
rights  and  interests  of  his  country. 

"  Xo  man  could  have  witnessed  with  greater  satisfac- 
tion than  himself,  an  accession  to  the  talents  of  that 
House,  which  was  calculated  to  give  lustre  to  its  cha- 
racter, and  strengthen  its  influence ;  and  it  was  more 
particularly  a  subject  of  satisfaction  to  him,  when  he 
reflected  that  those  talents  were  likely  to  be  employed 
in  supporting  principles,  which  he  conscientiously  be- 
lieved to  be  most  beneficial  to  the  country."*  On  the 

*  Referring  to  the  speech  thus  highly  eulogized,  as  we  find  it  in 
Hansard,  it  is  difficult  to  understand  how  it  cotdd  have  attracted  so 
much  notice.  The  subject  was  the  most  common-place,  and  the  observa- 
tions seem  to  have  been  equally  so.  It  was  a  merit,  certainly,  that  the 
speech  was  not  above  the  level  of  the  matter ;  but  the  maiden  effort  of  a 
young  man  of  Mr.  Stanley's  name  and  station  was  sure  to  interest  the 
House  of  Commons,  and  we  are  also  to  remember  the  effect  of  voice  and 
delivery,  which  probably  contributed  largely  to  the  success  of  the  debut. 


6th  of  May  succeeding,  1824,  Mr.  Stanley  delivered  his. 
second  speech,  which  attracted  great  attention  at  the 
time,  and  to  which  it  is  likely  that  his  antagonists  will, 
not  unfrequently  have  occasion  to  revert. 

Mr.  Hume  had  moved  the  following  resolution :  "That 
it  is  expedient  to  inquire  whether  the  present  Church 
establishment  of  Ireland  be  not  more  than  commensurate 
to  the  services  to  be  performed,  both  as  regards  the 
number  of  persons  employed,  and  the  income  they 

It  was  with  astonishment  that  the  House  saw  the 
representative  of  a  great  Whig  family  rise  to  reply  to 
the  speech  of  Mr.  Hume,  and  it  was  with  still  greater 
wonder  that  the  following  sentiments  were  heard  to  fall 
from  his  lips.  Mr.  Stanley  said,  (the  speech  is  so 
important,  as  containing  an  early  profession  of  his 
political  faith,  that  I  shall  extract  liberally  from  it  :)  — 

"  It  was  but  too  well  known  that  within  the  last  few  years  attempts 
had  been  made  by  the  press,  and  through  the  more  dangerous  channels 
of  private  dissemination,  to  cast  odium  on  the  Irish  Established  Church. 
Her  revenues  had  been  commented  on  with  unjustifiable  severity,  and 
the  private  vices  and  errors  of  individual  members  had  been  dragged  for- 
ward with  malignant  avidity,  and  had  been  most  unfairly  employed  to 
cast  odium  on  the  establishment  to  which  they  belonged.  He  would 
venture  to  say  that,  if  one  half  of  the  industry  which  had  been  exerted 
to  malign  the  Established  Church,  had  been  employed  to  draw  forth  to 
public  notice  the  virtues  which  many  of  its  members  displayed  in  the 
unostentatious  discharge  of  their  sacred  functions,  the  Chnrch  might 
have  defied  the  boldest  efforts  of  calumny  and  detraction.  He  would 
not  assert  that  there  might  not  be  circumstances  which  would  justify  an 
interference  with  the  property  of  the  Church,  but  he  would  maintain 
that  no  such  circumstances  could  exist  which  would  not  equally  justify 
an  interference  with  landed,  funded,  and  commercial  property.  Such 
circumstances  did  not  exist  now,  nor  was  there  any  probability  of  their 
existence  at  any  future  period.  It  was  said  that  the  Protestant  Church 


had  been  forced  upon  Ireland.  It  was  true  that  a  bigoted  illiterate 
people,  possessing  all  the  virtues  and  vices  of  savages,  must  have  looked 
with  jealousy  to  the  first  introduction  of  a  new  religion,  which  had  the 
appearance  of  being  forced  on  them  by  their  conquerors.  The  Pro- 
testant Church  was  now,  however,  firmly  established  in  Ireland.  Whether 
the  present  proposition  were  considered  as  one  of  conciliation  or  financial 
advantage,  there  was  no  imminent  danger  which  could  warrant  them  in 
violating  the  rights  and  property  of  the  Established  Church.  If  the 
feelings  of  the  Catholics  of  Ireland  towards  the  Established  Church  were ' 
intemperate,  it  was  time  to  show  that  the  Church  was  not  deserted  by 
the  Legislature — it  was  time  to  show  that  her  natural  protectors  were 
neither  too  weak  nor  too  indifferent  to  uphold  her,  and  that  her  wealth 
excited  no  alarm  among  her  friends,  whatever  jealousies  it  might  excite 
among  her  enemies.  Happily  the  time  was  not  yet  come  when  her  enemies 
might  rush  in  and  lay  claim  to  her  spoils,  under  the  specious  pretence  of 
affording  relief  to  Ireland,  and  when,  under  the  guise  of  toleration,  they 
might  give  a  sanction  to  oppression.  Warmly  as  he  advocated  toleration, 
in  its  fullest  extent,  he  would  still  grant  encouragement  to  one  religion, 
alone;  above  all,  he  would  avoid  all  such  measures  as  had  a  tendency  to 
excite  in  one  party  the  bitter  feelings  produced  by  a  desertion  of  their 
interests,  and  in  the  other  the  encroaching  influence  of  rising  power.  A 
publication  entitled,  Remarks  on  the  Consumption  of  the  Public  Wealth 
by  the  Clergy,  had  gone  to  a  fourth  edition  in  1822,  and  in  1824  a  pub- 
lication, equally  hostile  to  the  Church,  admitted  that  the  incomes  of  the 
Irish  clergy  were  in  the  first-mentioned  work  greatly  overstated.  It 
was  in  the  more  recent  publication  stated,  that  there  were  1309  benefices 
in  Ireland,  according  to  the  Parliamentary  returns,  at  800?.  a  year  ave- 
rage income.  Now,  it  would  be  supposed  from  this  that  the  incomes 
were  ascertained  by  Parliamentary  returns  to  be  8001.  a  year  on  the 
average.  On  the  contrary,  all  that  was  ascertained  was,  that  the 
number  of  benefices  was  1309,  while  the  average  amount  of  the  incomes 
was  founded  on  a  conjecture  only.  The  manner  in  which  this  conjecture 
was  framed  was  as  follows — in  the  diocese  of  Cloyne  there  were  fifty-six 
benefices,  the  amount  of  the  incomes  of  which  was  40,OOOZ.  a-year ;  now 
it  was  notorious  that  the  diocese  of  Cloyne  was  the  richest  in  Irelandj 
and  because  these  benefices,  not  taken  indifferently,  but  selected  from  the 
richest  of  that  richest  diocese,  had  an  average  of  714Z.,  it  was  computed 
that  the  average  of  all  Ireland  was  eighty-six  pounds  a-year  per  benefice 
more.  In  fact,  the  person  forming  the  computation  had  taken  the  maxi- 
mum incomes  of  the  richest  livings  in  the  richest  diocese  of  Ireland,  at 


the  highest  time,  and  had  taken  an  average  at  one-eighth  more  for  the- 
average  of  all  Ireland.  The  Honourable  Member  (Mr.  Hume)  had  stated 
the  average  of  the  Irish  livings  at  5001.  a-year.  He  (Mr.  Stanley)  had 
made  inquiries  as  to  the  rate  of  livings  in  the  North  and  in  the  South* 
and,  as  far  as  his  inquiries  went,  he  was  persuaded  that  the  average 
would  not  be  taken  too  low  at  2502.  instead  of  6002. ;  and  he  was  per- 
mitted by  the  Right  Reverend  Prelate,  to  whom  he  had  before  alluded 
(Dr.  Jebb),  to  state  that,  from  his  personal  knowledge,  this  average 
was  correct  for  the  benefices  of  Limerick  and  Ardfert,  and  that,  to  the 
best  of  his  knowledge  and  belief,  it  was  correct  for  the  rest  of  Ireland. 
When  this  average  was  taken  it  would  be  found  that,  instead  of 
1,047,0002.  (the  income  which  had  been  assigned  the  Church  of  Ireland 
in  these  extravagant  estimates)  the  real  income  would  be  found  to  be. 
about  327,0002.  a-year.  The  incomes  of  the  Bishops,  like  those  of  the 
Clergy,  had  been  grossly  exaggerated.  Out  of  eighteen  Bishops,  from 
hia  inquiries,  he  could  confidently  state  that  eleven  were  at  or  under 
60002.  a-year — four  were  at  or  under  60002.— one  under  70002.,  and 
two  others  were  not  well  known.  The  Honourable  Member  had  stated 
the  incomes  of  the  Catholic  Bishops  to  be  from  3  to  4002.  a-year.  This, 
he  believed  to  be  very  much  understated,  for  he  had  reason  to  believe 
that  even  the  Catholic  Parish  Priests  had  incomes  from  3002.  and  4002. 
to  5001.  and  even  8002.  a-year."  * 

*  See  an  article  on  the  Irish  Church  Establishment  in  the  New 
Monthly  Magazine  for  July  (1831),  in  which  extracts  are  given  from  Par- 
liamentary returns,  which  will  exhibit  the  fallacy  of  Mr.  Stanley's  reason- 
ing in  favour  of  the  Irish  Church  Establishment.  It  will  not  be  inap- 
propriate to  condense  the  very  valuable  information  contained  in  that 
article.  In  Ireland  there  are  not  more  than  seven  hundred  thousand 
professors  of  the  Established  Religion,  and  the  Irish  Hierarchy  consists 
of  four  Archbishops  and  eighteen  Bishops,  while  in  England  there  are 
but  two  Archbishops  and  twenty-four  Bishops.  In  a  recent  return  made 
on  the  subject  of  "  First  Fruits,"  the  following  are  the  valuations  of 
fifteen  out  of  twenty -two  Irish  dioceses : — Armagh,  15,0802.  15s.  Gd. — 
Tnam,  5,5482.  19s,  lid. — Cashel,  3,5002.  (this  is  a  gross  diminution) 
and  upwards ;  of  Dublin  there  is  no  return.  Clogher,  90001. — Deny, 
10,OOOZ.  (the  Bishop  of  Ferns  allows  it  to  be  15,0002.)— Meath,  5,8152. 
14*.  6d. — Raphoe,  5,3792. 14s.  Id. — Leighlin  and  Ferns,  5,0002. — Ossory, 
30002.— Dromore,  4,8632.  3*.  5d.— Waterford,  5,0002.— Cork,  3,0002.— 


Such  was  the  speech  made  by  Mr.  Stanley  at  the  out* 
set  of  his  political  career,  when  he  was  only  about  twenty- 
six  years  of  age,  and  when  it  might  have  been  expected 
that  his  mind,  not  yet  brought  into  reconciliation  by 
familiarity  with  abuses,  would  have  been  in  arms  against 
the  system  of  which  he  thus  stood  forward  as  the 
"preux  chevalier."  Mr.  Plunket  (now  Lord  Plunket) 
who  was  the  great  advocate  of  the  Irish  hierarchy  and 
clergy  at  the  time,  (I  suspect  that  his  opinions  have 
since  undergone  a  very  salutary  modification  with 
respect  to  the  merit  of  his  former  clients,)  pronounced 
upon  Mr.  Stanley  a  high  eulogium.  He  particularly 

Limerick,  2,915?.  19*.  8^.— Cloyne,  2000?. — Killala,  4,600?.  From  the 
diocese  of  Tuam  there  is  no  return.  As  to  the  benenc£|f  Clergy,  is 
appears  by  the  returns  to  Parliament  in  1828,  that  one  thousand  one 
hundred  and  fifty-one  parishes  had  compounded  for  their  tithes.  The  total 
amount  of  the  composition  was  278,036?.  Talcing  the  number  of  parishes 
to  be  a  mean  between  Dr.  Beauforfs  computation  and  the  statement  of 
Baron  Foster,  or  about  2,250?.,  the  total  amount  of  tithes  will  be  542,250?. 
a-year.  By  a  return  to  Parliament  in  1824  it  appears  there  are  eighty- 
three  thousand  acres  of  glebe,  and  estimating  each  acre  at  one  pound, 
the  tithe  and  glebe  lands  produce  625,250?.  a-year.  (In  Scotland,  the 
whole  expense  of  the  Church  is  234,0002.)  The  revenues  of  thirty -three 
Corporations  of  Deans  and  Chapters  are  moderately  rated  at  66,000?. 
Church  fees  amount  to  187,000?.  The  Rectors  of  forty-eight  parishes  in 
Dublin,  and  some  other  cities,  are  paid,  not  by  tithe,  but  ministers* 
money.  The  aggregate  income  is  24,000?.  Dublin  University  is  mode- 
rately valued  as  worth  in  lands  above  20,000?.  These  several  sums 
amount  to  1,053,000?. — -just  the  expenditure  at  which  France,  with  thirty 
millions  of  souls,  provides,  not  for  the  religious  wants  of  one  sect  only,, 
but  of  all  denominations  of  Christians  in  her  empire. — A.* 

*  When  these  calculations  were  made,  the  Rent-charge  Act  (which, 
although  a  great  boon  to  the  beneficed  clergy  of  Ireland,  nominally 
deducted  a  fourth  part  from  their  incomes)  had  not  been  passed.  It  is 
necessary  to  keep  this  in  mind,  or  the  statements  in  the  article  quoted 
will  appear  much  exaggerated. 


adverted  to  the  promptitude  which  he  had  displayed  in 
meeting  these  arguments  of  Mr.  Hume,  which  he  could 
not  have  anticipated,  and  the  manifestation  of  that 
peculiar  faculty  for  debate  for  which  he  has  since 
become  so  conspicuous. 

The  praise  given  by  Mr.  Plunket  is  as  much  a  proof 
of  his  own  discrimination  as  it  was  a  tribute  to  the  indi- 
vidual on  whom  it  was  conferred.  The  speech,  however, 
which  was  thus  hailed  by  the  Church  faction,  created 
displeasure  in  that  party  to  which  Mr.  Stanley  was 
attached  by  an  hereditary  lien.  Sir  Francis  Burdett 
replied  with  some  severity,  and  there  was  a  powerful 
minority  of  seventy-nine,  which  afforded  a  strong  proof 
that  there  was  a  disposition  in  the  House  of  Commons 
to  lay  its  hand  upon  the  ark. 

Mr.  Stanley  did  not  speak  again  in  Parliament  until 
April,  1826.  He  went  to  America,  accompanied  by 
Mr.  Labouchere  and  Mr.  Denison.  On  his  return  to 
England,  although  he  became  a  member  of  the  House 
again,  he  took  no  very  active  part,  and  although  he  occa- 
sionally spoke,  did  not  attract  much  notice.  He  held  a 
situation  in  the  Colonial  Office,  where  he  was  remark- 
able for  diligence,  ability,  and  the  spirit  of  self-reliance, 
which  has  since  so  much  characterised  him  in  his  con- 
duct as  Minister  for  Ireland.  In  'Ireland,  where  his 
family  have  an  estate,  (I  believe  in  the  county  of  Lime- 
rick,) he  occasionally  spent  some  time,  and  built  a 
Bouse  there.*  His  motive  in  this  undertaking  was  the 
creditable  one  of  giving  employment  to  the  poor,  for 

*  Not  in  Limerick,  but  in  Tipperary.  During  Mr.  Stanley's  most 
unpopular  Secretaryship,  memorable  cliiefly  for  Arms-Bills  and  Coercion  , 
Acts,  the  public  was  frequently  reminded  that  Lord  Strafford  also  built 
himself  a  house  in  Ireland. 


whom  it  is  observable  that  he  has  taken  every  occasion 
to  express  a  strong  sympathy.  When  in  Ireland,  he  led 
a  secluded  and  somewhat  extraordinary  life.  He  held 
no  kind  of  intercourse  with  the  gentry  in  his  neighbour- 
hood. He  acquired  amongst  them  a  reputation  for 
s.trangeness ;  he  lived  alone,  was  a  great  walker, — would 
pace  rapidly  for  some  fourteen  or  fifteen  miles  along  the 
high  road,  with  a  staff  in  his  hand  and  with  a  slouched 
hat  on  his  head,  and  was  designated  as  "  the  odd  gen- 
tleman from  England."  > 

On  the  change  of  government,  he  was  selected  to  co- 
operate with  Lord  Anglesea  in  the  government  of  Ire- 
land. Having  vacated  his  seat,  he  stood  again  for  his 
borough  of  Preston.  He  was  defeated  by  Hunt,  and 
sustained  no  ordinary  mortification.  It  is  said  that  his 
failure  arose  from  some  orders  given  by  him  with  regard; 
to  the  public-houses,  whence  the  usual  good  cheer  that 
attends  an  election  was  withdrawn.  The  people,  too, 
were  angry  with  him  for  having  declined  to  subscribe 
to  the  races,  which,  he  observed,  did  not  constitute  any 
part  of  his  parliamentary  duties.  He  proceeded  to  Ire- 
land. Sir  H.  Hardinge  had  just  left  the  country,  and 
notwithstanding  the  quarrel  with  the  Homan  Catholic 
party  occasioned  by  the  proclamations,  he  had  by  his 
spirit  of  fair  and  candid  dealing,  and  by  the  kindness 
and  cordiality  of  his  manner,  secured  a  very  general 
liking.  Thus  Mr.  Stanley  had,  from  an  inevitable 
comparison,  some  disadvantage  to  contend  with. 

It  was  with  some  surprise  that  the  people  of  Dublin, 
saw  in  their  new  Chief  Secretary  an  exceedingly  juve- 
nile and  boyish-looking  functionary,  with  a  demeanour, 
which  his  shrewdness  rescued  from  puerility,  but  in 
which  a  more  than  ordinary  carelessness,  and  a  sort  of; 


harsh  levity,  not  quite  consistent  with  good  breeding,  and 
alien  from  the  nature  of  his  duties,  were  observed.  In 
Ireland,  an  Englishman  in  office  is  sure  on  his  arrival  to 
be  surrounded  by  a  body  of  conversazione  orators  and 
after-dinner  statesmen,  each  of  whom  has  his  peculiar 
remedy  and  certain  specific  for  the  evils  of  Ireland. 
Such  men  seize  with  earnestness  every  occasion  which 
is  afforded  them  of  setting  forth  to  any  member  of  a 
new  government  their  projects  for  the  tranquillization 
of  the  country.  Mr.  Stanley,  like  every  other  secretary, 
was  of  course  condemned  to  go  through  this  ordeal,  but 
instead  of  listening  with  the  "  sad  civility"  which 
would  become  the  reception  of  such  oracular  intima- 
tions, he  would  intimate  with  some  abrupt  jeer,  which 
bordered  on  mockery,  his  utter  disregard  of  the  advice, 
and  his  very  slender  estimate  of  the  adviser. 

His  rule  of  conduct  seemed  to  be  founded  on  prin- 
ciples diametrically  opposite  to  the  injunction  which 
was  bequeathed  to  Sir  Pertinax  Mac  Sycophant,  "  to 
make  every  man  well-pleased  with  himself,"  insomuch 
that  it  was  difficult,  I  have  understood,  to  approach  him 
without  feeling  some  self-depreciation;  and  men  who 
stood  several  cubits  high  in  their  own  admeasurement 
of  their  intellectual  stature,  sank  before  Mr.  Stanley 
into  an  instantaneous  and  almost  dwarfish  diminution. 
That  the  manner  by  which  this  sudden  reduction  from 
their  ordinary  height  was  effected  in  his  interlocutors 
was  unpurposed,  is  quite  evident ;  but  it  was  a  fault, 
especially  in  Ireland,  which  nothing,  excepting  distin- 
guished talents  in  the  House  of  Commons,  before  which 
every  defect  nearly  disappears,  could  redeem. 

The  impression  made  by  Mr.  Stanley,  in  his  inter- 
course with  Irish  society,  was  certainly  not  favourable. 


As  a  public  man  he  came  into  collision  with  Mr.  O'Con- 
nell,  who  denounced  him  for  having  followed  up  the 
spirit  of  the  Northumberland  administration,  and  pro- 
ceeded upon  what  is  called  in  Ireland  the  Algerine  Act. 
He  dispersed  the  political  "  dejeuners"  which  were 
held  at  Mr.  Home's.  Of  course  Mr.  O'Connell  retaliated, 
and  opened  the  batteries  upon  the  secretary,  whose  guns 
he  had  so  long  and  effectively  worked.  He  designated 
Mr.  Stanley  as  "a  shave -beggar;"  alluding  to  the 
practice  of  Irish  barbers  to  commit  mendicants  to  their 
apprentices.  There  was  also  a  good  deal  said  by  him 
in  derision  of  so  multifarious  a  name  as  Edward 
Geoffrey  Smith  Stanley.  It  was  said,  not  unhappily 
in  reference  to  the  eternal  reiterations  of  this  formid- 
able name, 

"  The  war  that  for  a  time  did  fail, 
Now  trebly  thundering  swelled  the  gale, 
And  Stanley  !  was  the  cry." 

All  this  was  borne  by  the  object  of  so  much  vitupe- 
ration not  only  with  patience  but  with  some  scorn.  He 
knew  that  the  hour  of  ample  retribution  was  at  hand, 
and  was  heard,  I  have  been  told,  to  intimate  that  the 
Honourable  Member  for  Waterford  would  change  his 
tone  in  the  House  of  Commons. 

The  prediction  was  verified.  Mr.  Stanley  displayed, 
in  his  very  first  rencounter  with  Mr.  O'Connell,  so 
much  acuteness,  dexterity,  fearlessness,  and  so  much  of 
that  subdued  and  polite  virulence  which  constitutes  the 
highest  merit  in  the  sarcastic  oratory  of  the  House  of 
Commons,  that  his  antagonist  was  taught  to  beware  of 
him,  and  since  that  time  nothing  more  has  been  heard 
of  "  shave  -beggar,"  and  of  the  other  somewhat  con- 
tumelious designations  which  were  attached  in  the 


miscellany  of  tribunitian  invective  to  the  Secretary  for 
Ireland.  Mr.  Stanley  gave  still  higher  indications  of 
ability  in  his  reply  to  Sir  Robert  Peel,  and  in  a  little 
.while  established  his  character  as  by  far  the  ablest 
debater  on  the  Treasury  Bench. 

His  progress  in  improvement  was  singularly  rapid : 
it  was  not  that  his  faculties  were  much  more  fully 
developed,  but  that  every  night  he  acquired  a  still 
stronger  confidence  in  his  own  powers,  and  that  con- 
sciousness of  high  talents  which  gives  them  so  ample 
and  so  strong  a  wing.  He  who  rises  to  speak  with  a 
beating  heart,  and  retains  the  palpitation,  cannot,  no 
matter  how  eminently  he  may  be  endowed,  achieve 
anything  in  a  public  assembly.  Perfect  coolness  and 
self-possession  are  among  the  most  useful  attributes  of 
Mr.  Stanley. 

Some  sketch  of  him  in  a  debate  may  not  be  destitute 
of  interest.  While  his  adversary  is  speaking  he  shows 
little  self-command ;  he  listens  with  a  spirit  of  mockery 
which  is  not  intended  to  be  offensive,  but  which  causes 
displeasure ;  he  turns  round  to  his  neighbouring  minis- 
ter and  whispers  and  laughs;  he  tosses  up  his  head, 
and  exhibits  a  restlessness  and  impatience  of  what  he 
considers  to  be  either  sophistry,  ignorance,  or  absur- 
,  dity.  He  cannot  sit  for  a  moment  in  tranquillity,  but 
alternately  throws  himself  back,  or  opens  his  knees, 
and  putting  the  palms  of  his  hands  together  bends 
down  his  head,  and  after  remaining  in  this  attitude 
suddenly  recovers  himself  and  seems  ready  to  spring 
forward  to  reply. 

This  sort  of  parliamentary  pantomime  is  not  relished 
by  the  Opposition.  When,  however,  he  has  got  fairly 
on  his  legs,  he  shows  an  utter  absence  of  the  nervous- 

ME.    STANLEY   IN   IRELAND.  367 

ness  and  susceptibility  which  one  might  have  anti- 
cipated from  an  orator  whose  silence  is  so  much  on 
wires.  With  a  clear,  distinct  voice,  whose  fault  con- 
sists in  its  approach  to  occasional  shrillness,  and  with  a 
surprising  facility  of  neat  and  simple  phrase,  which  is 
admirably  adapted  to  the  purposes  of  exposition,  he 
takes  up  every  argument  and  every  fact  which  have 
been  pressed  upon  the  other  side,  and  leaves  no  topic 
and  no  assertion  untouched.  If  he  cannot  contradict, 
he  qualifies — if  he  cannot  refute,  he  embarrasses — and 
where  he  can  contradict,  and  can  refute,  he  performs 
one  office  with  asperity  and  the  other  with  derision. 
His  gesture  is  easy,  graceful,  unaffected,  and  impres- 
sive. His  attitude  is  manly,  and  free  from  any  of  the 
artifices  of  deportment  which  Sir  Robert  Peel  is  sup- 
posed at  times  to  employ.  He  has  great  strenuousness, 
and  even  ardour,  and  after  having  laid  his  antagonist 
prostrate  exults  in  his  overthrow. 

Is  he  then  a  great  orator?  That  is  a  question  which 
as  yet  it  would  be  difficult  to  answer.  What  he  pos- 
sesses has  been  told ;  the  qualities  which  he  wants — or 
I  should  perhaps  say,  which  he  has  not  yet  exhibited — 
are  of  importance  as  ingredients  of  the  highest  excel- 
lence in  one  to  whom  the  distinctions  of  such  an  appel- 
lation as  that  of  a  true  orator  should  be  assigned.  He 
addresses  himself  exclusively  to  the  reason,  and  seldom 
or  ever,  and  certainly  with  little  success  if  ever  he  does 
so,  to  the  heart;  he  does  not  exhibit,  and  therefore 
does  not  create,  much  emotion,  and  satisfies  the  under- 
standing without  bearing  the  passions,  over  which  he  has 
little  control,  away.  His  manner  is  fervid,  but  is  never 
raised  to  that  high  pitch  of  excitation  which  in  Plunket, 
Brougham,  and  Canning,  and  lately  in  Macaulay,  wrought 


to  much  effect  in  men  who  sympathise  through  the  eye 
and  ear  as  well  as  through  the  mind.  He  does  not,  like 
she  last  distinguished  speaker,  indulge  in  any  general 
reflections,  and  although  a  metaphysical  character  is  by 
no  means  commendable  in  a  parliamentary  orator,  still 
we  would  desire  to  hear  occasionally  some  general 
remark  indicative  of  his  having  meditated  upon  the 
interests  and  progression  of  society. 

Mr.  Stanley  never  indulges  in  large  views,  or  in  lofty 
sentiments — no  generous  exclamation  ever  breaks  from 
his  lips ;  his  eyes  are  never  on  fire  with  a  moral  inspi- 
ration j  he  is  never  "  lifted  beyond  the  ground"  by  any 
ascendancy  of  emotion.  His  language,  although  it  is 
faultless  and  flows  from  "the  well  of  English  unde- 
nted,"* is  not  rich,  coloured,  or  diversified ;  his  expres- 
sion does  not  sparkle;  it  has  neither  the  glitter  of 
fancy  nor  the  splendour  of  imagination.  He  does  not 
afford,  like  Mr.  Macaulay  (I  refer  frequently  to  him 
because  he  strikes  me  to  be  the  man  of  most  genius  in 
the  House  of  -Commons),  a  proof  of  the  possibility  of 
uniting  with  success  the  vigorous  logic  of  parliamentary 
debate  with  the  most  striking  embellishments  of  com- 
position,— for  Mr.  Macaulay  leaves  its  vigour  to  a  syllo- 
gism while  he  clothes  it  with  the  richest  attire  which 
the  finest  wardrobe  of  diction  can  supply,  and  does  not 
shut  out  or  envelope  his  arguments  because  he  curtains 
them  with  the  gorgeous  awnings  of  a  richly-coloured 
phraseology.  Still,  for  ordinary  and  practical  purposes, 
Mr.  Stanley  would  be  far  more  efficient  in  debate,  and 

*  There  was  one  exception— he  used  the  word  "  talented."  Sir 
Robert  Peel  referred  it  to  his  American  associations,  and  prayed  him 
never  to  employ  it  again  with  all  the  strenuousness  of  Oxonian  adjura- 


however  a  mere  critic  might  be  disposed  to  assign  the 
palm  to  the  one,  it  is  to  the  Secretary  for  Ireland  that  a 
minister  would  always,  I  suspect,  even  independently 
of  the  weight  of  great  rank  and  extensive  connections, 
be  inclined  to  give  the  preference. 

Such  is  Mr.  Stanley  as  a  speaker,  as  far  as  I  can 
judge  of  him  from  having  seen  him  not  unfrequently 
from  the  gallery  of  the  House  of  Commons.  But  what 
is  he,  or  will  he  be  hereafter,  as  a  statesman,  and  when 
he  shall  have  been  advanced  to  that  leadership,  which 
his  abilities  and  his  great  location  amongst  the  aristocracy 
entitle  him  to  hold?  As  yet  he  has  proposed  no  more 
than  a  single  measure;  but  that  single  measure  has 
not,  it  must  be  confessed  by  his  warmest  admirers, 
redounded  to  his  fame. 

In  the  year  1807  the  Irish  Arms  Bill  was  first  pro- 
posed in  the  Imperial  Parliament.  It  was  vehemently 
denounced  by  the  Whig  party.  It  was  represented  to 
be  an  infringement  of  the  Constitution,  and  a  proceed- 
ing of  such  harshness  and  severity,  that  nothing  but  an 
insurrectionary  state  of  society  could  furnish  its  justi- 
fication. The  Bill,  by  which  every  Irishman  was 
obliged  to  register  his  arms,  by  which  a  magistrate  was 
empowered  to  break  open  the  door,  and  search  the 
house  of  every  inhabitant  within  his  jurisdiction,  was 
passed.  Thus  the  article  in  the  Bill  of  Eights,  which 
secured  to  every  British  subject  the  right  of  carrying 
arms,  was  declared  to  be  inapplicable  to  Ireland.  The 
penalty  imposed  for  any  violation  of  the  law  in  this 
regard  was  ten  pounds  fine,  or  two  months  imprison- 
ment for  the  first  offence,  and  a  graduated  scale  of 
penalty  was  introduced  for  every  succeeding  delin- 

VOL.  II.  2  B 


This  statute  was  to  last  for  three  years.  It  was  after-- 
wards  renewed  by  the  50th  of  George  III,  for  a  limited 
period,  and  has  since  that  time  been  at  different  periods 
tept  in  existence  for  stated  times.  The  Bill  was  about 
to  expire,  and  Mr.  Stanley  came  forward  to  announce 
his  determination  to  renew  it.  It  was  a  source  of  great 
pain  to  the  Irish  members,  of  liberal  opinions,  to  learn 
that  snch  a  .measure  was  deemed  necessary  by  a  govern- 
ment composed  of  that  party  which  had  originally  made 
so  strong  a  protestation  against  it.  They  were,  how- 
ever, prepared  not  to  support  it,  indeed;  but  to  yield  to 
it,  on  the  presumption  that  it  was  dictated  by  a  sore 
necessity,  a  reluctant,  and  extorted  assent : — but  what 
.was  their  astonishment,  and  what  was  the  wonder  of 
the  English  members  who  are  in  the  habit  of  voting 
with  government,  when  they  heard  Mr.  Stanley  an- 
nounce with  his  ordinary  fluency,  that  it  was  proposed 
in  place  of  fining  a  delinquent  Irishman  ten  pounds,  or 
imprisoning  him  for  two  months,  for  having  an  old 
pistol  in  his  possession,  to  transport  him.  to  Australia 
for  seven  years  ! 

This  declaration  was  not  made  with  any  prefatory  inti- 
mation of  the  necessity  of  strong  measures — no  descrip- 
tion was  given  of  the  calamitous  state  of  Ireland.  It 
was  not  said  that  murder  and  incendiarism  took  nightly 
walks  through  the  island.  It  was  not  suggested  that  Ire- 
land should  be  treated  like  a  maniac,  and  that  she  should 
be  denied  the  use  of  those  privileges,  which  would  have 
become  a  sounder  and  saner  state  of  popular  opinion ; — 
but,  without  preface,  without  any  preliminary  extenu- 
ation, without  any  attempt  to  make  the  House  of  Com- 
mons susceptible  of  the  proposition,  at  once,  and  almost 
as  a  matter  of  course,  and  (if  the  word  be  allowable) 


\vith  a  sort  of  glib  facility,  the  Secretary  for  Ireland 
expressed  his  resolution  to  introduce  a  clause  for  the 
transportation  for  seven  years  of  any  offenders  in  a 
proclaimed  district,  against  the  act. 

At  first  there  was  a  deep  silence — it  was  succeeded 
by  a  simultaneous  exclamation  of  "Oh!  Oh!"  from 
.the  Irish  members  on  the  ministerial  bench,  Mr. 
Stanley  turned  round,  and  looked  half-angry  and  half- 
astonished.  Mr.  O'Connell  started  up  on  the  opposite 
side,  and  cried  out  against  this  .tyrannical  measure. 
Mr.  Stanley,  in  his  vindication,  declared  that  there 
never  was  a  time  at  which  "a  strong  government"  was 
more  necessary  in  Ireland.  There  was  a  feeble  cheer 
from  the  Irish  Orange  members;  the  House  was 
adjourned,  and  down  Mr.  Stanley  came  in  a  few  hours 
after,  and  recanting  all  that  he  had  said,  receding  from 
the  lofty  ground  which  he  had  occupied,  in  a  tone,  and 
with  a  look  of  deference  and  of  depression,  he  humbly 
intimated  that  his  mind  had  undergone  a  change,  and 
that  he  should  not  press  the  adoption  of  a  clause  which 
had,  to  his  surprise,  created  so  much  displeasure. 

This  speaks  volumes.  The  incidents  to  this  propo- 
sition rendered  it  still  more  important  and  illustrative. 
It  afterwards  came  out,  that  not  a  single  minister,  not 
a  man  in  office,  even  knew  that  this  new  scheme  for  the 
government  of  Ireland  was  in  the  Secretary's  contem- 
plation. Not  a  member  of  the  Cabinet  had  been  con- 
sulted— not  one  had  even  cognizance  of  what  was 
.intended ;  but  without  consultation,  and,  it  should  be 
added,  without  reflection,  this  measure,  which  has  exas- 
perated Ireland,  and  produced  an  universal  reprobation 
in  this  country,  was  brought  forward  by  the  Whig 
statesman,  who,  in  the  opening  of  Parliament,  had 



expressed  his  conviction  that  it  was  only  by  conciliatory 
means  that  Ireland  could  be  pacified,  and  reconciled  to 
her  junction  with  Great  Britain. 

Thus  stand  the  facts,  and  they  are  of  the  greater  im- 
portance because  they  are  connected  with  a  man  who  is 
likely  hereafter  to  become  the  Prime  Minister  by  whom 
the  destinies  of  this  mighty  empire  are  to  be  controlled. 
What  are  we  to  augur  from  all  this?* 

The  next  step  taken  with  regard  to  Ireland  is  scarcely 
of  less  consequence.  A  few  days  after  this  proposition 
had  been  made,  and  had  been  thus  abandoned  with  a 
precipitation  corresponding  with  the  haste  with  which 
it  had  been  thrown  forward,  Mr.  O'Connell  got  up  to 
move  for  liberty  to  bring  in  a  bill  to  amend  and  to  con- 
solidate the  laws  respecting  Juries  in  Ireland.  This  is 
of  all  others  the  most  momentous  measure,  as  it  imme- 
diately affects  the  administration  of  justice.  What 
does  Mr.  Stanley  do  ?  He  who  had  directed  the  prose- 
cutions against  Mr.  O'Connell,  who  had  pledged  himself 
that  Mr.  O'Connell  should  be  prosecuted,  who  had 
brought  before  the  House  a  Bill  of  a  character  far  more 
despotic  than  any  which  had  been  contemplated  by  the 
Tory  government,  openly  and  before  a  full  House 
advanced  to  the  table  of  the  House  from  the  Treasury 
bench,  and  expressed  his  gratification  that  Mr.  O'Con- 
nell had  undertaken  a  task  so  important,  begged  of 

*  Mr.  Shell's  prediction  was  strikingly  realized  in  the  late  Derby 
Administration,  the  spirit  and  conduct  of  which  were  such  as  might  well 
have  been  "  augured  "  from  the  Irish  beginnings  of  its  chief.  In  Eng- 
land, as  in  Ireland,  the  necessity  for  "  a  strong  Government "  was  the 
word;  while  no  set  of  ministers  that  ever  ruled  either  country  ever 
exhibited  more  lamentable  weakness  or  instability.  Their  instability, 
indeed,  was  the  only  quality  they  had  with  which  the  nation  had  reason 
to  be  pleased. 


him  to  accept  of  the  cooperation  of  the  Solicitor- 
General  for  Ireland,  and  hoped  that  the  Government 
would  have  the  benefit  of  the  Hon.  Gentleman's  assist- 
ance on  every  other  occasion,  where  subjects  with 
which  he  was  so  immediately  conversant  were  con- 

It  must  be  confessed  to  be  a  system  of  anomalies : 
the  Yeomanry  are  armed — the  people  are  slaughtered 
— the  magistrates  who  direct  the  proceedings  still  retain 
the  commission  of  the  peace, — a  return  of  the  evidence 
taken  before  the  barrister  deputed  by  the  Government 
for  the  purpose  is  refused.  An  Arms  Bill,  containing 
the  most  irritating  provision  that  could  be  devised,  is 
introduced' — it  is  at  once  abandoned,  and  Mr.  O'Connell 
is  selected  to  draw  up  Acts  of  Parliament  for  the  admin- 
istration of  justice  in  Ireland. 

The  conclusion  at  first  deducible  from  these  illustra- 
tions of  character,  would  be  unfavourable  to  Mr. 
Stanley — and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  his  reputa- 
tion has  sustained,  in  the  House  of  Commons,  no 
inconsiderable  damage,  but  it  would  be  unfair  to  form, 
on  such  grounds,  an  absolute  and  unqualified  judgment 
of  his  qualifications  for  Government,  and  of  his  genius 
as  a  Legislator.  It  is  probable  that  the  obnoxious 
clause  was  suggested  to  him  from  Ireland  by  some  of 
those  underlings  of  office  in  whom  too  great  a  confi- 
dence is  apt  to  be  reposed.  In  the  midst  of  the  hurry  ( 
of  his  official  occupations,  with  his  mind  engrossed  by 
imperial  cares,  preparing,  as  he  must  have  been,  to 
meet  the  Anti-Reformers  upon  matters  of  far  more 
apparent  (though  not  real)  moment  than  provincial 
concerns  of  Ireland — engaged  as  the  chief  support  of 
the  Treasury  Bench,  and  busy  in  the  storing  of  his 


mind  with  arguments  and  with  sarcasms  to  be  levelled 
against  Mr.  Peel,  it  is  not  quite  unnatural,  and  it  is  to 
a  certain  extent,  perhaps,  excusable,  that  he  should 
have  at  one  or  two  in  the  morning,  after  a  long  debate, 
have  produced  this  his  new  scheme  for  the  government 
of  Ireland. 

It  is  therefore  reasonable  not  only  to  hope,  but  to 
expect,  that  such  errors  will  not  be  of  early  or  frequent 
recurrence,  and  that  he  will  correct  the  first  mistake 
which  he  committed  with  regard  to  the  Church,  and 
the  second  with  respect  to  the  Country,  which  it  requires 
so  much  skill  and  caution  to  govern  with  success.  For 
my  own  part,  I  entertain  a  confidence  that  he  will  show 
a  prudence  and  sagacity  commensurate  with  his  talents 
as  a  debater,  and  that,  instead  of  being  a  mere  dis- 
putant in  the  House  of  Commons,  he  will  approve 
himself  worthy  of  the  highest  trust  which  his  Sovereign 
and  his  Country  can  repose  in  him,  and  not  only  rise  to 
the  first  dignity,  but  keep  a  firm  and  lofty  occupation 
of  what  Cowley  calls, — 

"  The  slippery  tops  of  fate, 
The  glittering  pinnacles  of  state." 




Just  Ready,  in  Two  Vols.,  Post  8vo., 











One  Vol.,  Post  8vo. 

Second  Edition,  Post  8vo.,  6s.,  Bound, 



JANUARY  1855. 







ASSISTED  BY  ALAR1C  A.  WATTS.  3  vols.  post  8vo.  with  Portrait,  &c. 
(7n  the  press.) 

Among  the  Correspondents  of  the  Poet  of  Bremhill,  including  many  of  the 
most  distinguished  persons  of  his  time,  may  be  enumerated  the  following: — 
Byron — Wordsworth — Southey — Coleridge — Moore — Campbell — R.  B.  Sheridan 
— Crabbe— Rogers— Milman  —  Warton  —  Heber  —  James  Montgomery  —  The 
Marquess  of  Lansdowne — Lord  and  Lady  Holland — Lord  Brougham — Sir  G. 
and  Lady  Beaumont — Sir  T.  N.  Talfourd — Dr.  Parr — Archdeacon  Cox — Arch- 
deacon Nares — Sir  H.  Davy — Dugald  Stewart — Sir  R.  Colt  Hoare — James 
Dallaway— Joseph  Jekyl — W.  Sotheby — W.  Giffard — J.  G.  Lockhart— Professor 
Wilson — W.  Roscoe — W.  S.  Landor — Madame  de  Stael — Joanna  Baillie — Mrs. 
Opie — Mrs.  Southey,  &c.  &c. 

GRAPHY. By  the  RIGHT  HON.  B.  DISRAELI,  M.P.  Fifth  and  cheaper 
Edition,  Revised.  Post  8vo.  10s.  6d. 

"  This  biography  cannot  fail  to  attract  the  deep  attention  of  the  public.  We  are  bound 
to  say,  that  as  a  political  biography  we  have  rarely,  if  ever,  met  with  a  book  more  dexterously 
handled,  or  more  replete  with  interest.  The  history  of  the  famous  session  of  1U46,  as 
uiitten  by  Disraeli  in  that  brilliant  and  pointed  style  of  which  he  is  so  consummate  a  master, 
is  deeply  interesting.  He  has  traced  this  memorable  struggle  with  a  vivacity  and  power 
unequalled  as  yet  in  any  narrative  of  Parliamentary  proceedings." — Blacku-ood'a  Mag. 

"  Mr.  Disraeli's  tribute  to  the  memory  of  his  departed  friend  is  as  graceful  and  as 
touching  as  it  is  accurate  and  impartial.  No  one  of  Lord  George  Bentinck's  colleagues 
••  •  i'd  have  been  selected,  who,  from  his  high  literary  attainments,  his  personal  intimacy,  and 
party  associations,  would  have  done  such  complete  justice  to  the  memory  of  a  friend  and 
Parliamentary  associate.  Mr.  Disraeli  bus  here  presented  us  with  the  very  type  and  embodi- 
ment of  what  history  should  be.  His  sketch  of  the  condition  of  parties  is  seasoned  with 
some  of  those  piquant  personal  episodes  of  party  manoeuvres  and  private  intrigues,  in  the 
author's  happiest  and  most  captivating  vein,  which  convert  the  dry  details  of  politics  into  a 
tparkling  and  agreeable  narrative." — Morning  Herald. 


MINISTER,  DIPLOMATIST,  AND  STATESMAN,  during  more  than  Forty  Years 

of  Public  Life.     1  vol.  8vo  with  Portrait,  12s. 


"  This  work  ought  to  have  a  place  In  every  political  library.  It  gives  a  complete  view 
of  the  sentiments  and  opinions  by  which  the  policy  of  Lord  Palmerston  has  been  dictated  a* 
a  diplomatist  and  statesman." — Chronicle. 

"  This  is  a  remarkable  and  seasonable  publication  ;  but  it  is  something  more — it  Is  a 
valuable  addition  to  the  historical  treasures  of  our  country  during  more  than  forty  of  the 
most  memorable  years  of  our  annals.  We  earnestly  recommend  the  volume  to  geneial 
perusal." — Standard. 



the  DUKE  OF  BUCKINGHAM  AND  CHANDOS,  K.G.,  &c.  Second 
Edition,  Revised.  2  vols.  8vo.,  with  Portraits.  30s. 


"  These  volumes  contain  much  valuable  matter.  The  letters  which  George,  first 
Marquis  of  Buckingham,  laid  by  as  worthy  of  preservation  have  some  claim  to  see  the  light, 
for  he  held  more  than  one  office  in  the  State,  and  consequently  kept  up  a  communication  n  ith 
a  great  number  of  historical  personages.  He  himself  was  twice  Lord- Lieutenant  of  Ireland, 
first,  under  Lord  Rockingham,  and  secondly,  under  Pitt ;  his  most  constant  correspondents 
were  his  two  brothers,  William  and  Thomas  Grenville,  both  of  whom  spent  the  chief  part  of 
their  lives  in  official  employments,  and  of  whom  the  former  is  sufficiently  known  to  fame  as 
Lord  Grenville.  The  staple  of  the  book  is  made  up  of  these  family  documents,  but  there  are 
also  to  be  found  Interspersed  with  the  Grenville  narrative,  letters  from  every  man  of  note, 
dating  from  the  death  of  the  elder  Pitt  to  the  end  of  the  century.  There  are  three  periods 
upon  which  they  shed  a  gocd  deal  of  light.  The  formation  of  the  Coalition  Ministry  In  1783 
the  illness  nf  the  King  in  1788,  and  the  first  war  with  Republican  France.  Lord  Grenville's 
letters  to  his  brother  aflfo^  a  good  deal  of  information  on  the  machinations  of  the  Prince's 
party,  and  the  conduct  of  the  Prince  and  the  Duke  of  York  during  the  King's  illness." — 
The  Timet. 

"  A  very  remarkable  and  valuable  publication.  The  Duke  of  Buckingham  has  himself 
undertaken  the  task  of  forming  a  history  from  the  papers  of  his  grandfather  and  great- 
uncle,  the  Earl  Temple  (first  Marquis  of  Buckingham),  and  Lord  Grenville,  of  the  days  of 
the  second  Won.  Pitt.  The  letters  which  are  given  to  the  public  In  these  volumes,  extend 
over  an  interval  commencing  with  1782,  and  ending  with  1800.  In  that  interval,  events 
occurred  which  can  never  lose  their  interest  as  incidents  in  the  history  of  England.  The 
Coalition  Btinistry  and  its  dismissal  by  the  King — the  resistance  of  the  Sovereign  and  Pitt 
to  the  effortr^jf  the  discarded  ministers  to  force  themselves  again  into  office — the  great  con- 
stitutional question  of  the  Regency  which  arose  upon  the  King's  disastrous  malady— the 
contest  uoon  that  question  between  the  heir  apparent  and  the  ministers  of  the  Crown — the 
breaking  out  of  the  French  Revolution,  and  the  consequent  entrance  of  England  upon  the 
great  European  war, — these,  with  the  Union  with  Ireland,  are  political  movements  every 
detail  of  which  possesses  the  deepest  interest.  In  these  volumes,  details,  then  guarded  with 
the  most  anxious  care  from  all  eyes  but  those  of  the  privileged  few,  are  now  for  the  first  time 
given  to  the  public.  The  most  secret  history  of  many  of  the  transactions  is  laid  bare.  It  is 
not  possible  to  conceive  contemporary  history  more  completely  exempli'ied.  From  such 
materials  it  was  not  possible  to  form  a  work  that  would  not  possess  the  very  highest  interest. 
The  Duke  of  Buckingham  has,  however,  moulded  his  materials  with  no  ordinary  ability  and 
skill.  The  connecting  narrative  is  written  both  with  judgment  and  vigour — nut  unfrequently 
in  a  style  which  comes  up  to  the  highest  order  of  historical  composition — especially  in  some 
of  the  sketches  of  personal  character.  There  is  scarcely  a  single  individual  of  celebrity 
throughout  the  period  from  1762  to  1800  who  is  not  introduced  into  these  pages  ;  amongst 
others,  besides  the  King  and  the  various  members  of  the  royal  family,  are  Rockingham, 
Shelburne,  North,  Thurlow,  Loughborough,  Fox,  Pitt,  Sheridan,  Burke,  Portland,  Sydney, 
Fitzwilliam,  Tierney,  Buckingham,  Grenville,  Grey,  Malmesbury,  Wilberforce,  Burdett, 
Fitzgibbon,  Grattan,  Flood,  Cornwallis,  the  Beresfords,  the  Ponsonbys,  the  Wellesleys,  &c." 
— Morning  Herald. 

"  These  memoirs  are  among  the  most  valuable  materials  for  history  that  have  recently 
been  brought  to  light  out  of  the  archives  of  any  of  our  great  families."—  Examiner. 

"  These  volumes  are  a  treasure  for  the  politician,  and  a  mine  of  wealth  for  the  historian." 





STOCQUELER,  Eso.,  at  the  request  of  the  Daughters  of  the  late  General, 
from  Private  Papers  and  Official  Documents  in  their  possession.  2  vols. 
8vo.,  with  Portrait.  28s.  bound. 

"  One  of  the  most  valuable  and  Interesting  book*  that  can  ever  claim  a  permanent  place 
in  a  British  library."— Standard. 

"  These  highly  Interesting  volumes  give  a  valuable  contribution  to  the  history  of  India 
and  an  admirable  portrait  of  a  most  distinguished  officer." — John  Bull. 

"These  Memoirs  with  the  Correspondence  included  in  them  will  do  that  justice  to  the 
part  played  by  Sir  W.  Nott  in  the  Affghan  war,  which  it  is  undeniable  preceding  works  have 
failed  to  do." — Atheruetim. 

"  These  memoirs  of  General  Nott,  whom  the  editor  very  justly  describes  as  a  '  model 
officer,'  have  been  given  to  the  world  at  the  instigation  of  the  hero's  surviving  daughters.  A 
more  graceful  tribute  of  dutiful  affection  to  the  memory  of  a  departed  parent  it  would  be 
difficult  to  name.  It  is  at  once  a  graphic  picture  of  the  soldier's  career,  and  a  noble  monu- 
ment of  his  fame.  The  work  issues  from  the  press  at  a  very  fortunate  moment.  The  life  of 
an  officer  who  followed  in  the  footsteps  of  Wellington,  making  the  Despatches  of  that 
illustrious  warrior  his  continual  study,  will  be  welcomed  by  many  an  aspirant  for  militaiy 
renown  at  this  exciting  crisis.  The  volumes  form  a  valuable  contribution  to  the  biographical 
stores  of  the  age.  To  the  young  soldier,  in  particular,  they  will  form  a  most  v  luable  guido, 
worthy  to  be  placed  by  the  side  of  the  Despatches  of  the  preat  Duke  of  Wellington." — Messenger. 

"  When  the  late  General  Nott  died,  the  '  Quarterly  Review'  expressed  a  hope  that  some 
means  would  be  taken  for  giving  publicity  to  his  private  letters  and  official  correspondence, 
because  they  so  completely  illustrated  his  high  and  chivalrous  character,  white  a  memoir  of 
his  life  would  bold  out  so  admirable  a  lesson  to  British  statesmen,  and  so  good  an  example  to 
young  officers.  We  are  happy,  therefore,  to  find  that,  under  the  able  editorship  of  Mr. 
Stocqueler,  the  whole  of  the  most  valuable  portion  of  the  general's  correspondence  has  just 
been  published  in  two  handsome  volumes,  which  comprise  also  a  most  interesting  memoir  of 
the  gallant  hero  of  Candahar,  giving  a  complete  account  of  the  stirring  campaign  in  Afghan- 
istan, and  throwing  much  light  upon  many  important  points  hitherto  left  in  obscurity.  The 
work  will  be  eagerly  welcomed  by  all — more  particularly  by  military  readers  and  those  in- 
terested in  our  Indian  dominions." — Globe. 

"  A  biography  of  a  first-rate  soldier,  and  a  highly  honourable  man.  The  book  will  often  be 
appealed  to  as  a  standard  authority.  A  valuable  and  most  authentic  addition  is  here 
furnished  to  the  true  history  of  transactions  \vh  rli  will  ever  hold  a  prominent  place  lu  the 
annals  of  our  Indian  rule  " — Dublin  University  Mag. 

"  We  know  not  a  book  after  the  Wellington  Despatches,  more  deserving  of  the  study  of 
a  young  officer.  It  might  be  made  one  of  the  standard  manuals  of  military  education." — 
Literary  Gazette. 

"  This  book  is  one  of  the  most  Interesting  records  of  military  life  that  we  possess,  and 
•  genuine  memorial  of  one  who  has  achieved  a  right  to  be  reckoned  nmong  England's  greatest 
neu." — Daily  A'etrs. 


NEPAUL.     2  vols.  post  8vo.     21s. 

"  No  man  could  be  better  qualified  to  describe  Nepaul  than  Captain  Smith  ;  and  hit 
concise,  but  clear  and  graphic  account  of  its  history,  its  natural  productions,  its  laws  and 
customs,  and  the  character  of  its  warlike  Inhabitants,  is  very  agreeable  and  instructive 
reading.  A  separate  chapter,  not  the  least  entertaining  In  the  book,  is  devoted  to  anecdote* 
ot  the  Nepaulese  mission,  of  whom,  and  of  their  visit  to  Europe,  many  remarkable  stories 
are  u  Id."— '  tat 



Fifteen  Years  Ambassador  at  Constantinople,  continued  to  the  Present  Time, 
with  a  Memoir  of  SIR  JAMES  PORTER,  by  his  Grandson,  SIR  GEORGE 
LARPENT,  BART.  2  vols.  8vo.,  with  Illustrations.  30s.  bound. 

"  These  volumes  are  of  an  authentic  character  and  enduring  interest." — Athenaeum. 

"This  book  forms  a  very1  valuable  repertory  of  Information  in  regard  to  the  past  and 
present  state  of  Turkey.  Altogether  the  information  is  completely  given,  and  for  all  pur. 
poses  of  reference  during  tbe  continuance  of  the  struggle  in  the  East,  the  book  will  be 
raluable." — Examiner, 

"  To  any  of  our  reader*  desirous  of  forming  an  opinion  for  himself  on  the  condition 
and  prospects  of  Turkey,  we  would  advise  a  careful  perusal  of  this  work.  No  work  on  the 
subject  could  have  been  better  timed,  while  the  information  which  it  contains — unlike  the 
great  bulk  of  those  hasty  compilations  which  a  sudden  demand  has  called  into  existence — is 
not  only  accurate,  but  valuable." — Morning  Chronicle. 

"A  most  interesting,  instructive,  and  valuable  work.  In  no  other  book  that  we  are 
aware  of,  will  the  reader  find  the  same  amount  of  reliable  information  respecting  the  actual 
condition  and  resources  of  the  Sultan's  dominions." — Morning  Post. 

"  In  these  volumes  we  have  the  most  complete  and  accurate  description  of  the  past  and 
present  position  of  the  Turkish  Empire  to  be  found  in  our  language." — Britannia. 

"  These  volumes  constitute  a  work  for  tbe  future  as  well  as  for  the  present,  in  other 
words,  a  valuable  library  book  as  well  as  a  book  of  great  contemporaneous  interest.  Their 
permanent  value  they  derive  chiefly  from  the  deep  research  and  extensive  and  minute  in- 
vestigation of  their  first  author.  Sir  James  Porter,  their  present  interest  from  the  acute  and 
lively  treatment  of  the  events  of  the  day  by  bis  grandson  and  continuator.  In  fact,  we  know 
not  where  to  find  so  perfect  an  account  of  Turkey  in  all  its  relations  with  the  rest  of  the 
world,  military,  political,  and,  above  all,  commercial." — Standard. 

"This  highly  interesting  work  consists  of  two  part*.  The  first  volume,  after  a  memoir 
of  Sir  James  Porter,  proceeds  to  give  a  general  description  of  the  Turkish  Empire,  of  its 
natural  and  industrial  productions,  and  its  commerce,  a  sketch  of  its  history  from  tbe  in- 
vasion of  Europe  to  the  reign  of  Sultan  Mahmud  II.,  and  an  account  of  the  religion  and 
the  civil  institutions  of  the  Turks,  and  of  their  manners  and  customs,  chiefly  from  tbe 
data  supplied  by  (he  papers  of  Sir  James  Porter.  In  the  second  volume  we  are  made  ac- 
quainted with  Turkey  as  it  is  ;  the  religious  and  civil  government  of  Turkey,  its  Legislature, 
tbe  state  of  education  in  the  Kmpire,  Its  finances,  its  military  and  naval  strength,  and  the 
social  condition  o<  the  Turks,  are  all  in  succession  brought  under  review.  The  work  gives  a  fuller 
and  more  life-like  picture  of  the  present  state  ot  the  Ottoman  Empire,  than  any  other  work  with 
which  we  are  acquainted." — Juhn  Bull. 

"  No  publication  upon  the  state  and  prospects  of  the  Ottoman  Empire,  with  which  we 
are  acquainted  can  compare  with  the  work  now  under  notice  for  general  utility.  In  addition 
to  investigations  intj  the  legislature  of  Turkey,  its  civil  and  religious  government,  its 
educational  institutions,  and  the  system  of  instruction,  its  finance.",  military  and  naval 
resources,  and  the  social  condition  of  the  people,  ample  details  are  given  of  its  history,  and 
a  short  account  of  the  progress  of  the  actual  struggle.  These  researches  are  interspersed  with 
journals  and  letters,  which  impart  a  charming  interest  to  the  volume*.  We  hail  the  appear- 
ance of  .these  volumes  with  satisfaction,  as  accurate  information  both  on  the  history  and  the 
actual  condition  of  Turkey  is  much  needed.  Good  books  are  ever  welcome,  and  this  is  a  good 
book,  coming  into  our  possession  at  the  critical  moment  when  it  is  most  required."—  v. 



By  MISS  PARDOE,  Author  of  "Louis  XIV,  and  the  Court  of  France,  in 
the  17th  Century,"  &c.  Second  Edition.  3  large  tols.  8vo.  with  fine 

"  A  fascinating  book.  The  history  of  such  a  woman  as  the  beautiful,  Impulsive,  earnest, 
and  affectionate  Marie  de  Medicis  could  only  be  done  justice  to  by  a  female  pen,  impelled  by 
all  the  sympathies  of  womanhood,  but  strengthened  by  an  erudition  by  which  it  Is  not  In 
every  case  accompanied.  In  Miss  Pardoe  the  unfortunate  Queen  has  found  both  these 
requisites,  and  the  result  has  been  a  biography  combining  the  attractiveness  of  romance  with 
the  reliableness  of  history,  and  which,  taking  a  place  midway  between  the  '  frescoed  galleries  • 
of  Thierry,  and  the  '  philosophic  watch-tower  of  Guizot,'  bai  all  the  pictorial  brilliancy  of 
the  one,  with  much  of  the  reflective  speculation  of  the  other." — Daily  Newt. 

"  A  work  of  high  literary  and  historical  merit.  Rarely  have  the  strange  vicissitudes  of 
romance  been  more  intimately  blended  with  the  facts  of  real  history  than  in  the  life  of  Marie 
de  Medicis;  nor  has  the  difficult  problem  of  combining  with  the  fidelity  of  biography  the 
graphic  power  of  dramatic  delineation  been  often  more  successfully  solved  than  by  the 
talented  author  of  the  volumes  before  us.  As  a  personal  narrative,  Miss  Pardoe's  admirable 
biography  possesses  the  most  absorbing  and  constantly  sustained  interest;  as  a  historical 
record  of  the  events  of  which  it  treats,  its  merit  is  of  no  ordinary  description."— 
John  Bull. 


RUSSIA,  AND  GERMANY.  WRITTEN  BY  HERSELF,  and  Edited  by  Her 
Grandson,  the  COUNT  DE  MONTBRISON.  3  vols.  post  8vo.  31s.  6d. 

The  Baroness  d'Oberkirch  being  the  intimate  friend  of  the  Empress  of  Russia, 
wife  of  Paul  I.,  and  the  confidential  companion  of  the  Duchess  of  Bourbon,  her 
facilities  for  obtaining  information  respecting  the  most  private  affairs  of  the 
principal  Courts  of  Europe,  render  her  Memoirs  unrivalled  as  a  book  of  interest- 
ing anecdotes  of  the  royal,  noble  and  other  celebrated  individuals  who  flourished 
on  the  continent  curing  the  latter  part  of  the  last  century.  Among  the  royal  per- 
sonages introduced  to  the  reader  in  this  work,  are  Louis  XVI.,  Marie  Antoinette, 
Philip  Egalite,  and  all  the  Princes  of  France  then  living — Peter  the  Great,  the 
Empress  Catherine,  the  Emperor  Paul,  and  his  sons  Constantine  aud  Alexander, 
of  Russia — Frederick  the  Great  and  Prince  Henry  of  Prussia — the  Emperor 
Joseph  II.  of  Austria — Gustavus  III,  of  Sweden — Princess  Christina  of  Saxony 
— Sobieski,  and  Czartoriski  of  Poland — and  the  Princes  of  Brunswick  and 
Wurtemburg.  Among  the  most  remarkable  persons  are  the  Princes  and 
Princesses  de  Lamballe,  de  Ligne  and  Galitzin — the  Dukes  and  Duchesses  de 
Choiseul,  de  Mazarin,  de  Boufflers,  de  la  Valliere,  de  Guiche,  de  Penthievre,  and 
de  Polignac — Cardinal  de  Rohan,  Marshals  Biron  and  d'llarcourt,  Count  de 
Staremberg,  Baroness  de  Krudener,  Madame  Geoffrin,  Talleyrand,  Mirabeau,  and 
Necker — with  Count  Cagliostro,  Mesiner,  Vestris,  and  Madame  Mara ;  and  the 
work  also  includes  such  literary  celebrities  as  Voltaire,  Condorcet,  de  la  Harpe, 
de  Beaumarchais,  Rousseau,  Lavater,  Bernoulli,  Raynal,  de  1'Epee,  Huber, 
Gothe,  Wieland,  Malesherbes,  Marraontel,  de  Stael  and  de  Genlis  ;  with  some 
singular  disclosures  respecting  those  celebrated  Englishwomen,  Elizabeth  Chud- 
leigh,  Duchess  of  Kingston,  and  Lady  Craven,  Margravine  of  Anspach. 

"  A  keen  observer,  and  by  position  thrown  in  the  high  places  of  the  world,  the 
Baroness  d'Oberkirch  was  the  very  woman  to  write  Memoirs  that  would  interest  future 
generations.  We  commend  these  volume*  most  heartily  to  every  reader.  They  are  a 
perfect  magazine  of  pleasant  anecdotes  and  Interesting  characteristic  things.  We  lay 
down  these  charming  volumes  with  regret.  They  will  entertain  the  most  fastidious 
readers,  and  instruct  the  most  informed."— Examiner. 



QUEEN  OF  NAVARRE,  SISTER  OF  FRANCIS  I.,  from  numerous  Original 
Sources,  including  MS.  Documents  in  the  Bibliotheque  Imperiale,  and  the 
Archives  du  Royaume  de  France,  and  the  Private  Correspondence  of  Queen 
Marguerite  with  Francis  I.  By  MISS  FREER.  2  vols.,  with  fine  Portraits, 
engraved  by  Heath,  21s.  bound. 


"This  la  a  very  complete  and  cleverly-written  life  of  the  illustrious  sister  of  Francis  I., 
and  it  may  be  said  of  her  that  the  varied  and  interesting  stores  of  French  history  offer  no 
theme  more  worthy  of  research  and  study  than  the  career  of  this  great  princess,  who  exer- 
cised so  potent  an  influence  over  the  politics  and  manners  of  the  age  of  which  she  was 
herself  the  brightest  ornament.  The  published  and  manuscript  documents  and  letters 
relating  to  the  life  of  Marguerite  of  Navarre,  and  which  are  indispensable  to  a  correct 
biography  of  this  queen,  are  widely  dispersed.  The  author  has  spared  no  cost  or  trouble  in 
endeavouring  to  obtain  all  that  were  likely  to  elucidate  her  character  and  conduct.  She  has 
furnished  us  with  a  very  interesting  and  graphic  sketch  of  the  singular  events  and  llu- 
important  personages  who  took  part  in  them  during  this  stormy  and  remarkable  period  of 
French  and  English  history."— Observer. 

"  This  is  a  very  useful  and  amusing  book.  It  is  a  good  work,  very  well  done.  The 
authoress  is  quite  equal  in  power  and  grace  to  Miss  Strickland.  She  must  have  spent  a 
great  time  and  labour  in  collecting  the  information,  which  she  imparts  in  an  easy  and 
agreeable  manner.  It  is  difficult  to  lay  down  her  book  after  having  once  begun  it.  This  is 
owing  partly  to  the  interesting  nature  of  the  subject,  partly  to  the  skilful  manner  in  which  it 
has  been  treated.  No  other  life  of  Marguerite  has  yet  been  published,  even  in  France. 
Indeed,  till  Louis  Philippe  ordered  the  collection  and  publication  of  manuscripts  relating  to 
the  History  of  France,  no  such  work  could  be  published.  It  is  difficult  to  conceive  how, 
under  any  circumstances,  it  could  have  been  done  better." — Standard. 

"  There  are  few  names  more  distinguished  that  that  of  Marguerite  d'Angouleme  in  the 
range  of  female  biography,  and  the  writer  of  this  work  has  done  well  in  taking  up  a 
subject  BO  copious  and  attractive.  It  is  altogether  an  interesting  and  well-written 
biography." — Literary  Gazette. 

"A  work  of  high  literary  and  historic  merit.  It  is  full  of  absorbing  and  constantly- 
sustained  interest.  In  these  volumes  will  be  found  not  alone  an  incalculable  amount  ot 
historical  information,  but  a  store  of  reading  of  a  charming  and  entrancing  character,  and  we 
heartily  commend  them  as  deserving  general  popularity." — Sunday  Times. 

"  A  work  which  is  most  acceptable  as  an  addition  to  our  historical  stores,  and  which  will 
place  the  author  in  a  foremost  rank  among  our  female  writers  of  the  royal  biography  of  their 
own  §ex." — John  Bull. 

"A candidly,  carefully,  and  spiritedly  written  production,  and  no  one  who  peruses  it 
with  the  attention  it  merits  can  fall  to  acquire  a  complete  and  accurate  knowledge  of  the 
interesting  life  of  the  best  and  most  graceful  woman  who  ever  filled  a  conspicuous  place  iu 
the  history  of  mankind." — Morning  Herald. 

"  This  life  of  Marguerite  d'Angouleme  is  entitled  to  high  rank  amongst  the  many  excel- 
lent memoirs  of  illustrious  women  for  which  we  have  been  largely  indebted  to  female 
authorship.  The  subject  is  eminently  attractive." — Morning  Post. 

"Throughout  these  volumes  the  most  intense  interest  is  maintained.  Like  Carlyle, 
Mils  Freer  has  written  as  one  whose  thoughts  and  sympathies  became  assimilated  to  the 
age.  The  biography  of  Marguerite  of  Navarre  is  a  work  upon  which  the  author  has 
lavished  all  tbe  resources  of  her  genius." — Britannia. 



MACILWAIN,  F.R.C.S.,  author  of  "  Medicine  and  Surgery  One  Inductive 
Science,"  &c.  Second  Edition.  2  vols.,  post  8vo.,  with  Portraits,  21s. 

"  A  memoir  of  high  professional  interest."— Morning  Post. 

"  These  memoirs  convey  a  graphic,  and,  we  believe,  faithful  picture  of  the  celebrated 
John  Abernethy.  The  volumes  are  written  in  a  popular  style,  and  will  afford  to  the  general 
reader  much  instruction  and  entertainment."— Herald. 

"  This  is  a  book  which  ought  to  be  read  by  every  one.  The  professional  man  will  find 
in  it  the  career  of  one  of  the  most  illustrious  professors  of  medicine  of  our  own  or  of  any 
other  age — the  student  of  Intellectual  science,  the  progress  of  a  truly  profound  philosopher — 
and  all,  the  lesson  afforded  by  a  good  man's  life.  Abernethy's  memory  is  worthy  of  a  good 
biographer,  and  happily  it  has  found  one."— Standard. 

"We  hope  these  volumes  will  be  perused  by  all  our  readers.  They  are  extremely 
interesting,  and  not  only  give  an  account  of  Abernethy,  which  cannot  fall  to  be  read  with 
benefit,  but  they  discuss  incidentally  many  questions  of  medicine  and  medical  polity.  Mr. 
Macilwain  Is  lond  of  anecdotes,  and  has  inserted  a  great  number;  this  does  not  render  his 
work  less  pleasant  reading.  We  recommend  it  most  strongly  as  an  interesting,  and,  at  the 
same  time,  instructive  treatise."—  Medico-CMrurfical  Review. 


EUROPE ;  constituting  a  complete  History  of  the  Literature  of  Sweden, 
Denmark,  Norway,  and  Iceland,  with  copious  Specimens  of  the  most  cele- 
brated Histories,  Romances,  and  Popular  Legends  and  Tales,  old  Chivalrous 
Ballads,  Tragic  and  Comic  Dramas,  National  Songs,  Novels  and  Scenes  from 
the  Life  of  the  Present  Day.  By  WILLIAM  and  MARY  HOWITT.  2  voh. 
post  8vo.  21s. 

"  English  readers  hare  long  been  indebted  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Howitt.  They  have  now 
increased  our  obligations  by  presenting  us  with  this  most  charming  and  valuable  work,  by 
means  of  which  the  great  majority  of  the  reading  public  will  be,  for  the  first  time,  made 
acquainted  with  the  rich  stores  of  intellectual  wealth  long  garnered  in  the  literature  and 
beautiful  romance  of  Northern  Europe.  From  the  famous  Edda,  whose  origin  is  lost  in 
antiquity,  down  to  the  novels  of  Miss  Bremer  and  Baroness  Knorrlng,  the  prose  and  poetic  • 
writings  of  Denmark,  Norway,  Sweden,  and  Iceland  are  here  introduced  to  us  In  a  manner 
at  once  singularly  comprehensive  and  concise.  It  is  no  dry  enumeration  of  names,  but  the 
very  marrow  and  spirit  of  the  various  works  displayed  before  us.  We  have  old  ballads  and 
fairy  tales,  always  fascinating ;  we  have  scenes  from  plays,  and  selections  from  the  poets, 
with  most  attractive  biographies  of  great  men.  The  songs  and  ballads  are  translated  with 
exquisite  poetic  beauty." — Sun. 


AMERICA.     By  the  Author  of  "  SAM  SLICK."     2  vols.   post  8vo.     21s. 

"  We  conceive  this  work  to  be  by  far  the  most  valuable  and  important  Judge  Haliburton 
has  ever  written.  While  teeming  with  interest,  moral  and  historical,  to  the  general  reader, 
it  equally  constitutes  a  philosophical  study  for  the  politician  and  statesman.  It  will  be  found 
to  let  In  a  flood  of  light  upon  the  actual  origin,  formation,  and  progress  of  the  republic  of 
the  United  States." — Naval  and  Military  Gazette. 




comprising  the  Campaigns  in  Flanders  and  Holland  in  1793-94;  with  an 
Appendix  containing  His  Plans  for  the  Defence  of  the  Country  in  case  of 
Invasion.  Edited  by  His  Son,  SIR  HARRY  VERNE Y,  BART."  1  vol.  royal 
8vo.,  with  large  maps,  14s. 

"  Both  the  journals  and  letters  of  Capt.  Calvert  are  full  of  interest.  The  letters,  in 
particular,  are  entitled  to  much  praise.  Not  too  long,  easy,  graceful,  not  without  wit,  and 
everywhere  marked  by  good  sense  and  good  taste — the  series  addressed  by  Capt.  Calvert  to 
his  sister  are  literary  compositions  of  no  common  order.  With  the  best  means  of  observing 
tke  progress  of  the  war,  and  with  his  faculties  of  judgment  exercised  and  strengthened  by 
experience— a  quick  eye,  a  placid  temper,  and  a  natural  aptitude  for  language  rendered 
Capt.  Calvert  in  many  respects  a  model  of  a  military  critic.  Sir  Harry  Verney  has  per- 
formed his  duties  of  editor  very  well.  The  book  is  creditable  to  all  parties  concerned  in  its 
production." — Athenaeum. 


Author  of  "  Adventures  and  Recollections."  2  vols.  post  8vo.  21s. 

"Much  as  has  been  written  of  late  years  about  war  and  Wellington,  we  know  of  nothing 
that  contains  so  striking  a  picture  of  the  march  and  the  battle  as  seen  by  an  individual,  or  so 
close  and  homely  a  sketch  of  the  Great  Captain  in  the  outset  of  the  European  career  of  Sir 
Arthur  Wellesley."— Spectator. 

"  The  deserved  popularity  with  which  the  previous  volumes  of  Colonel  Landmann's 
adventures  were  received  will  be  increased  by  the  present  portion  of  these  interesting  and 
amusing  records  of  a  long  life  passed  in  active  and  arduous  service.  The  Colonel's 
shrewdness  of  observation  renders  his  sketches  of  character  highly  amusing." — Britannia. 

COLLECTIONS.   2  vols.  post  8vo.    21s. 

"  Among  the  anecdotes  in  this  work  will  be  found  notices  of  King  George  HI.,  the  Duket 
of  Kent,  Cumberland.  Cambridge,  Clarence,  and  Richmond,  the  Princess  Augusta,  General 
Garth,  Sir  Harry  Hildmay,  Lord  Charles  Somerset,  Lord  Edward  Fitzgerald,  Lord  Heath- 
field,  Captain  Grose,  &c.  The  volumes  abound  in  interesting  matter.  The  anecdotes  are 
one  and  all  amusing." — Observer. 

"These  'Adventures  and  Recollections'  are  those  of  a  gentleman  whose  birth  and 
profession  gave  him  faciiitirs  of  access  to  distinguished  society.  Colonel  Landmann  writes 
so  agreeably  that  we  have  little  doubt  that  his  volumes  will  be  acceptable." — Athenaeum. 


CONNAUGHT  RANGERS.  2  vols.  21s. 

"  In  this  second  series  of  the  adventures  of  this  famous  regiment,  the  author  extend* 
his  narrative  from  the  first  format'oci  of  the  gallant  88th  up  to  the  occupation  of  Paris.  All 
the  battles,  sieges,  and  skirmishes,  in  which  the  regiment  took  part,  are  described.  The 
volumes  are  interwoven  with  original  anecdotes  that  give  a  freshness  and  spirit  to  the  whole. 
The  stories,  and  the  sketches  of  society  and  manners,  with  the  anecdotes  of  the  celebrities  of 
the  time,  are  told  in  an  agreeable  and  unaffected  manner.  The  work  bears  all  the  character- 
istics of  a  soldier's  straightforward  and  entertaining  narrative."— Sunday  Times. 


CIENT and  MODERN  ;  including  Historical  and  Critical  Notices  of  the 
Schools  of  Italy,  Spain,  France,  Germany,  and  the  Netherlands.  Edited  by 
LADY  JERVIS.  2  vols.  post  8vo.  21s. 

"  This  book  is  designed  to  give  to  the  general  public  a  popular  knowledge  of  the  History 
of  Painting  and  the  characters  of  Painters,  with  especial  reference  to  the  most  prominent 
among  those  of  their  works  which  are  to  be  seen  in  English  galleries.  It  is  pleasantly  written 
with  the  intention  of  serving  a  useful  purpose.  It  succeeds  in  its  design,  and  will  be  of  real 
use  to  the  multitude  of  picture  seers.  As  a  piece  of  agreeable  reading  also.  It  is  unex- 
ceptionable."— Kxaminer. 

"  This  useful  and  well-arranged  compendium  will  be  found  of  value  to  the  amateur,  and 
pleasing  as  well  as  instructive  to  the  general  reader  ;  and,  to  give  it  still  further  praise,  the 
collector  will  find  abundance  of  most  useful  information,  and  many  an  artist  will  rise  from 
the  perusal  of  the  work  with  a  much  clearer  idea  of  his  art  than  he  had  before.  We  sum  up 
its  merits  by  recommending  it  us  an  acceptable  handbook  to  the  principal  galleries,  and  a 
trustworthy  guide  to  a  knowledge  of  the  celebrated  paintings  in  England,  and  that  this 
information  is  valuable  and  much  required  by  many  thousands  is  a  well-proven  fact." — 
Sun-lay  Times. 

"  In  turning  over  Lady  Jervis's  pages,  we  are  astonished  at  the  amount  of  knowledge 
she  has  acquired.  We  can  testify  to  the  accuracy  of  her  statements,  and  to  the  judiciousness 
of  her  remarks.  The  work  will  deserve  to  take  rank  with  those  of  Waagen  and  Passavant. 
To  the  art-student's  attention  it  is  in  every  respect  to  be  commended." — Messenger. 

"  It  is  not  overstating  the  merits  of  the  work  to  describe  it  as  the  most  complete,  and,  at 
the  same  time,  one  of  the  most  trustworthy  guides  to  a  knowledge  of  the  celebrated  paintings 
in  England  that  has  hitherto  been  published." — Observer. 


BRUCE.     2  vols.  post  8vo.     21s. 

This  work  comprises  Biographies  of  the  following  Classic  and  Historic  Per- 
sonages  : — Sappho,  ^Esop,  Pythagoras,  Aspasia,  Milto,  Agesilaus,  Socrates,  Plato, 
Alcib^ades,  Helen  of  Troy,  Alexander  the  Great,  Demetrius  Poliorcetes,  Scipio 
Africanus,  Sylla,  Cleopatra,  Julius  Caesar,  Augustus,  Tiberius,  Gerraanicus, 
Caligula,  Lollia  Paulina,  Caesonia,  Boadicea,  Agrippina,  Poppaea,  Otho,  Commodus, 
Caracalla,  Heliogabalus,  Zenobia,  Julian  the  Apostate,  Eudocia,  Theodora, 
Charlemagne,  Abelard  and  Heloise,  Elizabeth  of  Hungary,  Dante,  Robert  Bruce, 
Ignez  de  Castro,  Agnes  Sorrel,  Jane  Shore,  Lucrezia  Borgia,  Anne  Bullen,  Diana 
of  Poitiers,  Catherine  de  Medicis,  Queen  Elizabeth,  Mary  Queen  of  Scots, 
Cervantes,  Sir  Kenelm  Oigby,  John  Sobieski,  Anne  of  Austria,  Ninon  del'Enclos, 
Mile,  de  Montpensier,  the  Duchess  of  Orleans,  Madame  de  Maintenon,  Catherine 
of  Russia,  and  Madame  de  Stael. 

"  A  book  which  has  many  merits,  most  of  all,  that  of  a  fresh  and  unhacknied  subject. 
The  volumes  are  the  result  of  a  good  deal  of  reading,  and  have  besides  an  original  spirit  and 
fl.ivour  about  them,  which  have  pleased  us  much.  Mr.  Bruce  is  often  eloquent,  often 
humorous,  and  has  a  proper  appreciation  of  the  wit  and  sarcasm  belonging  in  abundance  to 
bis  theme.  The  variety  and  amount  of  information  scattered  through  his  volumes  entitle 
them  to  be  generally  read,  and  to  be  received  on  all  hands  with  merited  favour." — Kxaminer. 

"  We  find  In  these  piquant  volumes  the  liberal  outpourings  of  a  ripe  scholarship,  the 
results  of  wide  and  various  reading,  given  in  a  style  and  manner  at  once  pleasant  and  pictu- 



DE  CASTE  LLANE.     2  vols.  post  8vo.     21s. 

"  We  commend  this  book  as  really  worth  perusal.  The  volumes  make  us  familiarly 
acquainted  with  the  nature  of  Algerian  experience.  St.  Arnaud,  Canrobert,  Changarnier, 
Cavaignac,  Lamoriciere,  are  brought  prominently  before  the  reader." — Examiner, 

"  These  volumes  will  be  read  with  extraordinary  interest.  The  vivid  manner  in  which 
the  author  narrates  his  adventures,  and  the  number  of  personal  anecdotes  that  he  tells, 
engage  the  reader's  attention  in  an  extraordinary  manner." — Sunday  Times. 


THE  UNITED  STATES' ARMY.     2  vols.  post  8vo.     21s. 

"  The  novelty  characterising  these  interesting  volumes  is  likely  to  secure  them  many 
readers.  In  the  first  place,  an  account  of  the  internal  organization,  the  manners  and  customs 
of  the  United  States'  Federal  Army,  is  in  itself  a  novelty,  and  a  still  greater  novelty  is  to 
have  this  account  rendered  by  a  mau  who  had  served  in  the  English  before  joining  the 
American  army,  and  who  can  give  his  report  after  having  every  opportunity  of  comparison. 
The  author  went  through  the  Mexican  campaign  with  General  Scott,  and  bis  volumes 
contain  much  descriptive  matter  concerning  battles,  sieges,  and  marches  on  Mexican 
territory,  besides  their  sketches  of  the  normal  chronic  condition  of  the  United  States'  soldier 
in  time  of  peace."— Daily  Newt. 


of  Recent  Transactions,  by  SIR  J.  E.  ALEXANDER,  K.L.S.,  &c.  2  vols., 
post  8vo.  with  maps,  &c.,  21s. 

"These  volumes  offer  to  the  British  public  a  clear  and  trustworthy  statement  of  the 
affairs  of  Canada,  and  the  effects  of  the  immense  public  works  in  progress  and  completed  j 
with  sketches  of  locality  and  scenery,  amusing  anecdotes  of  personal  observation,  and  gene- 
rally every  information  which  may  be  of  use  to  the  traveller  or  settler,  and  the  military  and 
political  reader. — Messenger. 


CAPTAIN  MACKINNON,  R.N.     2  vols.  post  8vo.    21s. 

"Captain  Mackinnon's  sketches  of  America  are  of  a  striking  character  and  permanent 
ralue.  His  volumes  convey  a  just  impression  of  the  United  States,  a  fair  and  candid  view  of 
their  society  and  institutions,  so  well  written  and  so  entertaining  that  the  effect  of  their 
perusal  on  the  public  here  must  be  considerable.  They  are  light,  animated,  and  lively,  full 
of  racy  sketches,  picture*  of  life,  anecdotes  of  society,  visits  to  remarkable  men  and  famous 
places,  sporting  episodes,  &c.,  very  original  and  interesting." — Sunday  Time*. 

SPAIN    AS    IT    IS.      BY   G.    A.    HOSKINS,    ESQ. 

2  vols.  post  8vo.     21s. 

"  To  the  tourist  this  work  will  prove  invaluable.  It  is  the  most  complete  and  interesting 
portraiture  of  Spain  that  has  ever  come  under  our  notice." — John  Bull. 


Artillery.  1  vol.  post  8vo.  10s.  6d. 

"  Written  with  great  care  and  research,  and  including  probably  nil  the  particulars  of 
any  moment  in  the  history  of  Corfu." — Athenaeum. 

12         HURST   AND    BLACKETl's    NEW    PUBLICATIONS. 


SZYRMA,  Editor  of"  REVELATIONS  OF  SIBERIA."  2  vols.  postSvo.  21s. 


"  This  work  give*  a  very  interesting  and  graphic  account  of  the  manners  and  customs  of 
the  Russian  people.  The  most  interesting  and  amusing  parts  of  the  work  will  be  found  to  be 
those  interior  scene*  In  the  houses  of  the  wealthy  and  middle  classes  of  Russia  upon  which 
we  have  but  scanty  Information,  although  they  are  some  of  the  most  striking  and  truthful 
indications  of  the  progress  and  civilization  of  a  country.  As  such  we  recommend  them  to  the 
study  of  our  readers."  —  Observer. 

"A  curious,  extraordinary,  and  very  entertaining  memoir  is  contained  in  these  volumes, 
i.nd  at  the  present  crisis  cannot  but  command  an  eager  perusal.  The  special  recommenda- 
tion of  the  work  to  us  is  the  novel  view  and  clear  insight  it  affords  Englishmen  of  the  real 
character  of  the  Russians.  Their  sayings  and  doings,  and  the  machinery  of  their  society,  are 
a  1  laid  unsparingly  bare."—  Sunday  Times. 

"  So  little  Is  known  In  this  country  of  the  internal  condition  of  Russia,  or  the  state  of 
society  in  that  enormous  empire,  that  the  contents  of  these  volumes  will  naturally  be  perused 
with  great  curiosity.  The  volumes  abound  in  lively  dialogue,  and  are  enlivened  by  satirical 
and  humorous  touches,  and  the  manners  and  customs  of  the  individuals  composing  what  is 
called  the  middle  rank  in  Russia  are  graphically  described."—  Morning  Herald. 

"A  very  remarkable  work,  and  one  which,  interesting  at  any  time,  will  not  fail  to 
extract  peculiar  attention  at  the  present  moment.  Once  read,  it  will  never  be  forgotten." 
—  Post. 


LADY.     Edited  by   COLONEL    LACH    SZYRMA.    Third  and  cheaper 
Edition.   2  vols.  post  8vo.     16s. 

"  A  thoroughly  good  book.  It  cannot  be  read  by  too  many  people."— Dickens'*  House. 
haU  Words. 

"  The  authoress  of  these  volumes  was  a  lady  of  quality,  who,  having  incurred  the 
displeasure  of  the  Russian  Government  for  a  political  offence,  was  exiled  to  Siberia.  The 
nlace  of  her  exile  was  Berezov,  the  most  northern  part  of  this  northern  penal  settlement ;  and 
In  it  she  spent  about  two  years,  not  the  reader  will  find  by  her  interesting 
work,  containing  a  lively  and  graphic  picture  of  the  country,  the  people,  their  manners  and 
customs,  &c.  The  book  gives  a  most  important  and  valuable  insight  into  the  economy  ot 
what  has  been  hitherto  the  terra  incognita  of  Russian  despotism,"— Daily  yews. 

"  Since  the  publication  of  the  famous  romance  the  '  Exiles  of  Siberia,'  of  Madame 
Cottin,  we  have  had  no  account  of  these  desolate  lands  more  attractive  than  the  present 
' rork,  from  the  pen  of  the  Lady  Eve  Felinska,  which,  In  its  unpretending  style  and  truthful 
simplicity  will  win  its  way  to  the  reader's  heart,  and  compel  him  to  sympathise  with  tlM 
fair  sufferer.  The  series  of  hardships  endured  in  traversing  these  frozen  solitudes  Is 
aJectingly  told  ;  and  once  settled  down  at  one  of  the  most  northern  points  of  the  convict 
territory,  Berezov,  six  hundred  miles  beyond  Tobolsk,  the  Author  exhibits  an  observant  eye 
tor  the  natural  phenomena  of  those  latitudes,  as  well  as  the  habits  of  the  semi. barbarous 
a'joriginei.  This  portion  of  the  book  will  be  found  by  the  naturalist  as  well  as  ethnologist 
(Oil  of  valuable  Information."— Globe. 



SEA  ISLANDS,  JAVA,  etc.  By  F.  GERSTAECKER.  3  vols.  post  8ro. 
31s.  6d. 


"  Starting  from  Bremen  for  California,  the  author  of  this  Narrative  proceeded  to  Rio, 
and  thence  to  Buenos  Ayres;  where  he  exchanged  the  wild  seas  for  the  yet  wilder  Pampas, 
and  made  his  way  on  horseback  to  Valparaiso  across  the  Cordilleras — a  winter  passage  full  of 
difficulty  and  danger.  From  Valparaiso  he  sailed  to  California,  and  visited  San  Francisco, 
Sacramento,  and  the  mining  districts  generally.  Thence  he  steered  his  course  to  the  South 
Sea  Islands,  resting  at  Honolulu,  Tahiti,  and  other  gems  of  the  sea  in  that  quarter,  and  from 
thence  to  Sydney,  marching  through  the  Murray  Valley,  and  inspecting  the  Adelaide  district. 
From  Australia  he  dashed  onward  to  Java,  riding  through  the  interior,  and  taking  a  general 
survey  of  Batavia,  with  a  glance  at  Japan  and  the  Japanese  An  active,  intelligent,  observant 
man,  the  notes  he  made  of  his  adventures  are  full  of  variety  and  interest.  His  descriptions  of 
places  and  persons  are  lively,  and  bis  remarks  on  natural  productions  and  the  phenomena  of 
earth,  sea,  and  sky  are  always  sensible,  and  made  with  a  view  to  practical  results.  Those 
portions  of  the  Narrative  which  refer  to  California  and  Australia  are  replete  with  vivid 
sketches  ;  and  indeed  the  whole  work  abounds  with  living  and  picturesque  descriptions  of 
men,  manners,  and  localities." — Globe. 

"  Independently  of  great  variety — for  these  pages  are  never  monotonous  or  dull — a 
pleasant  freshness  pervades  Mr.  Gerstaecker's  chequered  narrative.  It  offers  much  to 
interest,  and  conveys  much  valuable  information,  set  forth  in  a  very  lucid  and  graphic 
manner. ' ' — Atherumm. 

"A  book  of  travels  of  a  superior  kind,  both  as  regards  the  varied  information  it  con- 
tains and  the  spirited  style  in  which  it  is  written." — Literary  Gazette. 


ROBERT  ELWES,  Esa.  Second  Edition,  1  vol.  royal  8vo.,  with  21 
Coloured  Illustrations  from  Original  Designs  by  the  Author.  21s.  elegantly 
bound,  gilt  edges. 

"  Combining  in  itself  the  best  qualities  of  a  library  volume  with  that  of  a  gift-book,  is 
Mr.  Elwes'  '  Sketcher's  Tour.'  It  is  an  unaffected,  well-written  record  of  a  tour  of  some 
36,000  miles,  and  is  accompanied  by  a  number  of  very  beautiful  tinted  lithographs,  executed 
by  the  author.  These,  as  well  as  the  literary  sketches  in  the  volume,  deal  most  largely  with 
Southern  and  Spanish  America,— whence  the  reader  Is  afterwards  taken  by  Lima  to  the 
Sandwich  Islands,  is  carried  to  and  fro  among  the  strange  and  exciting  scenes  of  the 
Pacific,— thence  sails  to  the  Australian  coast,— passes  to  China,— afterwards  to  Singapore 
and  Bombay,— and  so  home  by  Egypt  and  Italy.  The  book  is  pleasantly  written  throughout, 
and  with  the  picturesque  variety  that  cannot  but  belong  to  the  description  of  a  succession  of 
such  scenes,  is  also  full  of  interesting  and  instructive  remarks." — Examiner. 

"The  garment  in  which  this  book  comes  forth  seems  to  point  out  the  drawing-room  table 
as  its  place  of  destination.  The  nature  of  its  contents, — cheerful,  lively  letter-press—will 
assure  it  a  ready  welcome  there.  Yet  it  is  not,  therefore,  ineligible  for  the  library  shelf — even 
for  that  shelf  which  is  devoted  to  '  Voyages  Round  the  World.'  Pleasanter  reading,  we 
repeat,  need  not  be  offered  than  our  sketcher  brings." — Athenaeum. 

14          HURST    AND    BLACKETr's    NEW    PUBLICATIONS. 


VKTOR  IN  THE  AUSTRALIAN  COLONIES.  Second  Edition,  revised.  2  vole, 
post  8vo.  21s. 

"  This  is  an  unadorned  account  of  the  actual  condition  in  which  these  colonies  are  found, 
by  a  professional  surveyor  and  mineralogist,  who  goes  over  the  ground  with  a  careful  glance 
and  a  remarkable  aptitude  for  seizing  on  the  practical  portions  of  the  subject.  On  the 
climate,  the  vegetation,  and  the  agricultural  resources  of  the  country,  h£  is  copious  in  the 
extreme,  and  to  the  intending  emigrant  an  Invaluable  instructor.  As  may  be  expected  from 
a  scientific  hand,  the  subject  of  gold  digging  undergoes  a  thorough  manipulation.  Mr. 
Lancelot  dwells  with  minuteness  on  the  several  indications,  stratifications,  varieties  of  soil, 
and  methods  of  working,  experience  has  pointed  out,  and  offers  a  perfect  manual  of  the  new 
craft  to  the  adventurous  settler.  Nor  has  he  neglected  to  provide  him  with  information  as  to 
the  sea  voyage,  and  all  its  accessories,  the  commodities  most  in  request  at  the  antipodes,  and 
a  general  view  of  social  wants,  family  management,  &c.,  such  as  a  shrewd  and  observant 
counsellor,  aided  by  old  resident  authorities,  can  afford.  As  a  guide  to  the  auriferous  regions, 
as  well  as  the  pastoral  solitudes  of  Australia,  the  work  is  unsurpassed." — Globe. 

"  We  advise  all  about  to  emigrate  to  take  this  book  as  a  counsellor  and  companion."— 
Lloyd's  Weekly  Paper. 


AUSTRALIA.     By  MRS.  CLACY.     1  vol.     10s.  6d. 

"  The  most  pithy  and  entertaining  of  all  the  books  that  have  been  written  on  the  gold 
diggings." — Literary  Gazette. 

"Mrs.  Clacy's  book  will  be  read  with  considerable  interest,  and  not  without  profit. 
Her  statements  and  advice  will  be  most  useful  among  her  own  sex." — Athenaeum. 

"  Mrs.  Clacy  tells  her  story  well.  Her  book  is  the  most  graphic  account  of  the  digging* 
and  the  gold  country  in  general  that  Is  to  be  had." — Daily  News. 

"  We  recommend  this  work  as  the  emigrant's  vade  mecum." — Home  Companion. 


By  MRS.  CLACY.  Author  of  "  A  Lady's  Visit  to  the  Gold  Diggings." 
2  vols.  post  8vo.  21s. 

"  In  these  volumes  Mrs.  Clacy  has  presented  life  in  Australia  in  all  its  varied  aspects. 
An  Intimate  acquaintance  with  the  country,  and  with  the  circumstances  in  which  settlers  and 
emigrants  find  themselves,  has  enabled  the  writer  to  impart  to  her  narrative  a  character  of 
truthfulness  and  life-like  animation,  which  renders  them  no  less  instructive  than  charming. 
The  book  is  throughout  exceedingly  attractive." — John  Bull. 

"While  affording  amusement  to  the  general  reader,  these  '  Lights  and  Shadows  of 
Australian  Life,'  are  full  of  useful  hints  to  intending  emigrants,  and  will  convey  to  friends  at 
home  acceptable  information  as  to  the  country  where  so  many  now  have  friends  or  relatives." 
—Literary  Gazette. 

"  These  volumes  consist  of  a  series  of  very  interesting  tales,  founded  on  facts,  in  which  the 
chief  features  of  a  settler's  life  are  shown.  To  intending  emigrants  the  work  will  be  specially 
attractive,  but  the  ordinary  novel  reader  will  find  that  these  narratives  are  more  likely  to 
amu«e  an  idle  hour  than  more  ambitious  productions— possessing,  as  they  do,  the  charm  of 
truth  with  the  fascination  of  fiction."— Sun. 




Author  of  "  Travels  in  Circassia,"  etc.  Second  and  Cheaper  Edition,  in 
2  vols.  8vo.,  with  Illustrations,  and  a  valuable  Map  of  European  Turkey 
from  the  most  recent  Charts  in  the  possession  of  the  Austrian  and  Turkish 
Governments,  revised  by  the  Author,  18s. 

"  These  important  volumes  describe  some  of  'hose  countries  to  which  public  attention 
is  now  more  particularly  directed:  Turkey,  Greece,  Hungary,  and  Austria.  The  author  has 
given  us  a  most  interesting  picture  of  the  Turkish  Empire,  its  weaknesses,  and  the  embar- 
rassments from  which  it  is  now  suffering,  its  financial  difficulties,  the  discontent  of  its 
Christian,  and  the  turbulence  of  a  great  portion  of  its  Mohammedan  subjects.  We  cordially 
recommend  Mr.  Spencer's  valuable  and  interesting  volumes  to  the  attention  of  the  reader." — 
V.  S.  Magazine, 

"  This  interesting  work  contains  by  far  the  most  complete,  the  most  enlightened,  and 
the  most  reliable  amount  of  what  has  been  hitherto  almost  the  terra  incognita  of  European 
Turkey,  and  supplies  the  reader  with  abundance  of  entertainment  as  well  a?  instruction." — 
John  Bull. 


CONDITION.  By  EDMUND  SPENCER,  Esa.,  Author  of  "  Travels  in 
European  Turkey,"  "  Circassia,"  &c.  2  vols.  post  8vo.  21s. 

"  Mr.  Spencer  has  travelled  through  France  and  Italy,  with  the  eyes  and  feelings  of  a 
Protestant  philosopher.  His  volumes  contain  much  valuable  matter,  many  judicious  remarks, 
and  a  great  deal  of  useful  information." — Morning  Chronicle. 


ADMIRALTY.  Second  Edition.  1  vol.,  with  numerous  Illustrations. 
10*.  Gd. 

"  This  volume  is  not  the  least  interesting  or  instructive  among  the  records  of  the  late 
expedition  in  search  of  Sir  John  Fcanklin,  commanded  by  Captain  Austin.  The  most 
valuable  portions  of  the  book  are  those  which  relate  to  the  scientific  and  practical  observations 
made  in  the  course  of  the  expedition,  and  the  descriptions  of  scenery  and  incidents  of  arctic 
travel.  From  the  variety  of  the  materials,  and  the  novelty  of  the  scenes  and  incidents  to 
which  they  refer,  no  less  than  the  interest  which  attaches  to  all  that  relates  to  the  probable 
safety  of  Sir  John  Franklin  and  his  companions,  the  Arctic  Miscellanies  forms  a  very 
readable  book,  and  one  thut  redounds  to  the  honour  of  the  national  character."—  The  Times. 



Second  Edition,  2  vols.  post  8vo.     21s. 

"  A  very  clever  and  amusing  book,  by  one  who  has  lived  aa  a  planter  and  journalist  many 
years  in  Ceylon.  The  work  Is  filled  with  interesting  accounts  of  the  sports,  resources,  pro- 
ductions, scenery,  and  traditions  of  the  island.  The  sporting  adventures  are  narrated  In  a 
very  spirited  manner." — Standard. 

"  We  have  not  met  with  a  more  delightful  book  for  along  time  past." — Lit.  Qaz. 

"We  have  no  recollection  of  a  more  interesting  or  instructive  work  on  Ceylon  and  the 
Cingalese  than  that  which  Mr.  Knighton  has  just  given  to  the  world.  It  displays  a  great  deal  of 
acnteness  and  sagacity  in  its  observation  of  men  and  manners,  and  contains  a  vast  deal  of 
useful  information  on  topics,  historical,  political,  and  commercial,  and  has  the  charm  of  a 
fluent  and  graphic  style."— Morning  Pott. 


AN   INDIAN  JOURNALIST.     BY  W.    KNIGHTON,    M.A.,   Author   of 
"  Forest  Life  in  Ceylon."     2  vols  post  8vo.     21s. 

"  When  Mr.  Knightou's  pleasant  volumes  on  Ceylon  were  published,  we  freely  gave  his 
publication  the  praise  which  it  appears  to  have  well  deserved,  since  another  edition  has  been, 
calledfor.  Amongst  the  writersof  the  day,  we  know  of  none  who  are  more  felicitous  in  hitting  off 
with  an  amusing  accuracy,  the  characters  he  has  met  with,  and  his  descriptive  powers  are  first- 
rate.  Take  his  Sketches  up  and  open  where  you  will,  he  touches  upon  topics  of  varied 
nature — now  political,  anon  historical  or  commercial,  interspersed  with  traits  of  society  and 
manners,  every  page  teeming  with  information,  combined  with  lively  detail.  His  style,  indeed, 
is  eminently  attractive.  There  is  no  weariness  comes  over  the  reader  with  Mr.  Knighton's 
work  before  him — all  is  vivacity.  The  Tropical  Sketches  contains  the  result  of  the  author's 
experience  in  the  East  in  various  capacities,,  but  he  is  chiefly  at  home  when  he  enters  upon 
the  narrative  of  his  mission  as  H  journalist.  His  revelations  of  his  labours  in  an  educational 
capacity,  are  highly  amusing,  and  there  is  an  added  charm  to  the  volumes  that  the  impress 
of  fidelity  is  stamped  on  every  page.  In  short,  Tropical  Sketches  may  be  set  down  as  the  work 
of  a  man  of  education  and  refinement,  gifted  with  a  keen  observation  for  all  that  is  passing 
around  him ;  such  a  publication  cannot  full  in  being  both  amusing  and  instructive."—  Sunday 


W.  DAY,  Eso.     2  vols.  post  8vo.     21s. 

"It  would  be  unjust  to  deny  the  vigour,  brilliancy  and  varied  interest  of  this  work,  the 
abundant  stores  of  anecdote  and  incident,  and  the  copious  detail  of  local  habits  and  peculiarities 
in  each  island  visited  in  succession."—  Globe. 


SCHONBERG.     2  vols.  post  8vo.     21s. 

"  This  account  of  a  Journey  through  India  and  Kashmir  will  be  read  with  considerable 
interest.  Whatever  came  In  his  way  worthy  of  record  the  author  committed  to  writing,  and 
the  result  Is  an  entertaining  and  instructive  miscellany  of  information  on  the  country,  Its 
climate,  Its  natural  production,  its  history  and  antiquities,  and  the  character,  the  religion, 
and  the  social  condition  of  Its  inhabitants."— John  Bull. 




"This  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  works  that  ever  yet  came  into  our  hands.  It 
possesses  the  charm  of  introducing  us  to  habits  and  manners  of  the  human  family  of  which 
before  we  had  no  conception.  Mrs.  Beecher  Stowe's  work  has,  indeed,  made  us  all  familiar 
with  the  degree  of  intelligence  and  the  disposition  of  the  transplanted  African  ;  but  it  has 
been  reserved  to  Mr.  Cruickshank  to  exhibit  the  children  of  Ham  in  their  original  state,  and 
to  prove,  as  his  work  proves  to  demonstration,  that,  by  the  extension  of  a  knowledge  of  the 
Gospel,  and  by  that  only  can  the  African  be  brought  within  the  pale  of  civilization.  We 
anxiously  desire  to  direct  public  attention  to  a  work  so  valuable.  An  incidental  episode  in 
the  work  Is  an  affecting  narrative  of  the  death  of  the  gifted  Letitia  Elizabeth  Landon  (L.  E.  L.) 
written  a  few  mouths  after  her  marriage  with  Governor  Maclean." — Standard. 


SERVICE  IN  SYRIA.     Second  Edition,  2  vols.  post  8vo.  with  Illustrations, 
"  A  very  agreeable  book.     Mr  Neale  is  evidently  quite  familiar  with  the  East,  and  writes 

in  a  lively,  shrewd,  and  good-humoured  manner.    A  great  deal  of  information  is  to  be  found 

in  his  pages." — Athenaeum 


ESQ..  Second  Edition.  2  vols.  post  8vo.,  with  Maps  an.d  Illustra- 
tions, 21s. 

"  Mr.  Melly  is  of  the  same  school  of  travel  as  the  author  of  '  ESthen.'  His  book 
altogether  is  ve:y  agreeable,  comprising,  besides  the  description  of  Khartoum,  many  in- 
telligent illustrations  of  the  relations  now  subsisting  between  the  Governments  of  the  Sultan 
and  the  Pacha,  and  exceedingly  graphic  sketches  of  Cairo,  the  Pyramids,  the  Plain  of  Thebes, 
the  Cataracts,  &c." — Examiner. 


HER  BRITANNIC  MAJESTY'S  LEGATION.     2  vols.  post  8vo.  21». 
"  Mr.   Bonelli's  official  position  gave  him  great  opportunities  of  observation,  of  which 
he  has  freely  availed  himself,  and  he  has  furnished  us  with  a  very  interesting   and  amusing 
book  of  travels  respecting  a  country  whose  political  and  commercial  importance  is  becoming 
every  day  more  obvious." — Observer. 


CHAPLAIN  AT  BEYROOT.  1  vol.  10s.  6d. 

"  Mr.  Lyde's  pages  furnish  a  very  good  illustration  of  the  present  state  of  some  of  the 
east  known  parts  of  Syria.  Mr.  Lyde  visited  the  most  important  districts  of  the  Ansyreeh, 
lived  with  them,  and  conversed  with  their  sheiks  or  chief  men.  The  practical  aim  of  the 
Author  gives  his  volumes  an  interest  which  works  of  greater  pretension  want." — Athenaeum. 


SAM     SLICK'S     WISE     SAWS     AND     MODERN 

INSTANCES  ;  OR,  WHAT  HE  SAID,  DID,  OR  INVENTED.     Secoud  Edition. 
2  vols.  post  8vo.     21s. 


"  We  do  not  fear  to  predict  that  these  delightful  volumes  will  be  the  most  popular,  as 
beyond  doubt,  they  are  the  best,  of  all  Judge  Haliburton's  admirable  works.  The  •  Wise 
Saws  and  Modern  Instances'  evince  powers  of  Imagination  and  expression  far  beyond  what 
even  his  former  publications  could  lead  any  one  to  ascribe  to  the  author.  We  have,  it  is  true 
long  been  familiar  with  his  quaint  humour  and  racy  narrative,  but  the  volumes  before  tis 
take  a  loftier  range,  and  are  so  rich  in  fun  and  good  sense,  that  to  offer  an  extract  as  a 
sample  would  be  an  injustice  to  author  and  reader.  It  is  one  of  the  pleasantest  books  we 
ever  read,  and  we  earnestly  recommend  it." — Standard. 

"  Let  Sam  Slick  go  a  mackarel  fishing,  or  to  court  in  England — let  him  venture  alone 
among  a  tribe  of  the  sauciest  single  women  that  ever  banded  themselves  together  in  electric 
chain  to  turn  tables  or  to  mystify  man — our  hero  always  manages  to  come  off  with  flying 
colours — to  beat  every  craftsman  in  the  cunning  of  his  own  calling — to  get  at  the  heart  of 
every  maid's  and  matron's  secret.  The  book  before  us  will  be  read  and  laughed  over.  It* 
quaint  and  racy  dialect  will  please  some  readers — its  abundance  of  yarns  will  amuse  others. 
There  is  something  in  the  volumes  to  suit  readers  of  every  humour." — Athenaum. 

"  The  humour  of  Sam  Slick  Is  Inexhaustible.  He  Is  ever  and  everywhere  a  welcome 
visitor  ;  smiles  greet  his  approach,  and  wit  and  wisdom  hang  upon  his  tongue  The  present 
if  altogether  a  most  edifying  production,  remarkable  alike  for  its  racy  humour,  its  sound 
philosophy,  the  felicity  of  its  Illustrations,  and  the  delicacy  of  its  satire,  We  promise  our 
readers  a  great  treat  from  the  perusal  of  these  '  Wise  S&ws  and  Modern  Instances,'  which 
contain  a  world  of  practical  wisdom,  and  a  treasury  of  the  richest  fun."— Morning  Pott. 


BACKWOODS,  AND    PRAIRIES.     Edited  by  the    Author  of    "SAM 
SLICK."  3  vols.  post  8vo.     31s.  6d. 

"  In  the  picturesque  delineation  of  character,  and  the  felicitous  portraiture  of  national 
features,  no  writer  of  the  present  day  equals  Judge  Haliburton,  and  the  subjects  embraced 
in  the  present  delightful  volumes  call  forth  in  new  and  vigorous  exercise  his  peculiar  powers. 
•The  Americans  at  Home'  will  not  be  less  popular  than  any  of  his  previous  works."— Morning 

"In  this  highly-entertaining  work,  we  are  treated  to  another  cargo  of  capital  stories 
from  the  inexhaustible  store  of  our  Yankee  friend— all  of  them  graphically  illustrative  of  the 
ways  and  manners  of  Hrother  Jonathan." — John  Bull. 


the  Author  of  "  SAM  SLICK."     3  vols.   post  8vo.     31s.  6d. 

"  We  have  seldom  met  with  a  work  more  rich  in  fun  or  more  generally  delightful. "- 

"  No  man  has  done  more  than  the  facetious  Judge  Haliburton,  through  the  mouth  of 
the  Inimitable  •  Sam,'  to  make  the  old  parent  country  recogniie  and  appreciate  her  queer 
transatlantic  progeny.  His  present  collection  of  comic  stories  and  laughable  traits  If  a 
budget  of  fun  full  of  rich  specimens  of  American  humour." — Globe. 



MITFORD.    Author  of  "Our  Village,"  "  Atherton,"  &c.     2  vols.  post  8vo. 
with  Portrait  of  the  Author  and  other  Illustrations.     21s. 

"  \Ve  recommend  Miss  Mitforu's  dramas  heartily  to  all  by  whom  they  are  unknown.  A 
more  graceful  addition  could  not  be  made  to  any  collection  of  dramatic  works." — Blackwood't 

"  Miss  Mitford  has  collected  into  one  chaplet  the  laurels  gathered  in  her  prime  of  author- 
ship, and  she  has  given  it  to  the  world  with  a  graceful  and  loving  letter  of  reminiscence  and 
benediction.  Laid  by  the  side  of  the  volume  of  dramatic  works  of  Joanna  Baillie,  these 
volumes  suffer  no  disparagement.  This  is  high  praise,  and  it  is  well  deserved." — Athenaeum. 

"  Miss  Mitford's  plays  and  dramatic  scenes  form  very  delightful  reading." — Examiner. 

"  The  high  reputation  which  Miss  Mitford  has  acquired  as  a  dramatist  will  insure  a 
hearty  welcome  to  this  collected  edition  of  her  dramatic  works."— John  Bull. 


\VARBURTOX.     Second  Edition.     3  vols.  post  8vo. 

"The  scheme  for  the  colonization  of  Darien  by  Scotchmen,  and  the  opening  of  a  com- 
munication  between  the  East  and  West  across  the  Isthmus  of  Panama,  furnishes  the  founda- 
tion of  this  story,  which  is  in  all  respects  worthy  of  the  high  reputation  which  the  author  of 
the  '  Crescent  and  the  Cross'  had  already  made  for  himself.  The  early  history  of  the'  Merchant 
Prince'  introduces  the  reader  to  the  condition  of  Spain  under  the  Inquisition  ;  the  portraitures 
of  Scottish  life  which  occupy  a  prominent  place  in  the  narrative,  are  full  of  spirit ;  the  scenes 
in  America  exhibit  the  state  of  the  natives  of  the  New  World  at  that  period  ;  the  daring  deeds 
of  the  Buccaneers  st.pply  a  most  romantic  element  in  the  story  ;  and  an  additional  interest 
is  infused  into  it  by  the  introduction  of  the  various  celebrated  characters  of  the  period,  such 
as  Law,  the  French  financier,  and  Paterson,  the  founder  of  the  Bank  of  England.  AH  these 
varied  ingredients  are  treated  with  that  brilliancy  of  style  and  powerful  descriptive  talent,  by 
which  the  pen  of  Eliot  Warburtou  was  so  eminently  distinguished." — John  Bull. 


THE  REV.  J.  P.  FLETCHER.     2  vols.  post  8vo.     21s. 

"  We  conscientiously  recommend  this  book,  as  well  for  its  amusing  character  as  for 
the  spirit  it  displays  of  earnest  piety." — Standard. 


CROLY,  LL.D.     10s.  Cd. 

"Eminent  in  every  mode  of  literature,  Dr.  Croly  stands,  in  our  judgment,  first  among 
the  living  poets  of  Great  Britain — the  only  man  of  our  day  entitled  by  his  power  to  venture 
within  the  sacred  circle  of  religious  poets. " — Standard. 

"An  admirable  addition  tu  the  library  of  religious  families." — John  Bull. 


Translated  by  the  Author  of  "EMILIA  WYNDHAM."  Small  4to., 
handsomely  bound,  gilt  edges,  5s. 

"  '  The   Song  of  Roland'  is  well  worth  general  perusal.     It  is  spirited  and  descriptive, 
nd  gives  an  important,  and,  no  doubt,  faithful  picture  of  the  cbivalric  manners   and  feelings 
of  the  Age."— Morning  Herald. 

20          HURST    AND    BLACKETT's    NEW    PUBLICATIONS. 


ARMS.     2  vols.  post  8vo.  21s. 

Among  the  many  other  interesting  legends  and  romantic  family  histories  com- 
prised in  these  volumes,  will  be  found  the  following  : — The  wonderful  narrative 
of  Maria  Stella,  Lady  Newborough,  who  claimed  on  such  strong  evidence  to  be 
a  Princess  of  the  House  of  Orleans,  and  disputed  the  identity  of  Louis  Philippe — 
The  story  of  the  humble  marriage  of  the  beautiful  Countess  of  Strathmore,  and 
the  sufferings  and  fate  of  her  only  child — The  Leaders  of  Fashion,  from  Gramont 
to  D'Ortay — The  rise  of  the  celebrated  Baron  Ward,  now  Prime  Minister  at 
Parma — The  curious  claim  to  the  Earldom  of  Crawford — The  Strange  Vicissitudes 
of  our  Great  Families,  replete  with  the  most  romantic  details — The  story  of  the 
Kirkpatricks  of  Closeburn  (the  ancestors  of  the  French  Empress),  and  the  re- 
markable tradition  associated  with  them — The  Legend  of  the  Lambtons — The 
verification  in  our  own  time  of  the  famous  prediction  as  to  the  Earls  of  Mar — 
Lady  Ogilvy's  escape — The  Beresford  and  Wynyard  ghost  stories  correctly  told — 
&c.  &c. 

"  It  were  Impossible  to  praise  too  highly  as  a  work  of  amusement  these  two  most  In- 
teresting volumes,  whether  we  should  have  regard  to  its  excellent  plan  or  its  nut  less  ex- 
cellent execution.  The  volumes  are  just  what  ou^ht  to  be  found  on  every  drawing-room  table. 
Here  you  have  nearly  fifty  captivating  romances  with  the  pith  of  nil  their  interest  preserved 
in  nndiminished  poignancy,  and  any  one  may  be  read  in  half  an  hour.  It  is  not  the  least  of 
their  merits  that  the  romances  are  founded  on  fact — or  what,  at  least,  has  been  handed  down 
for  truth  by  long  tradition — and  the  romance  of  reality  far  exceeds  the  romance  of  fiction. 
Each  story  Is  told  in  the  clear,  unaffected  style  with  which  the  author's  former  works 
hare  made  the  public  familiar,  while  they  afford  evidence  of  the  value,  even  to  a  work  of 
amusement,  of  that  historical  and  genealogical  learning  that  may  justly  be  expected  of  the 
author  of  '  The  Peerage.'  "—Standard. 

"  The  very  reading  for  sea-side  or  fire-side  in  our  hours  of  idleness." — Athtnaum. 


SECOND  SERIES.  BY  PETER  BURKE,  Esa.,  of  the  Inner  Temple, 
Barrister-at-Law.  2  vols.  post  8vo.  21s. 

PRINCIPAL  CONTENTS :— Lord  Crichton's  Revenge— The  Great  Douglas 
Cause — Lord  and  Lady  Kinnaird — Marie  Delorine  and  Her  Husband — The 
Spectral  Treasure — Murders  in  Inns  of  Court — Matthieson  the  Forger — Trials 
that  established  the  Illegality  of  Slavery — The  Lover  Highwayman — The 
Accusing  Spirit — The  Attorney-General  of  the  Reign  of  Terror — Eccentric 
Occurrences  in  the  Law — Adventuresses  of  Pretended  Rank — The  Courier  of 
Lyons — General  Sarrazin's  Bigamy — The  Elstree  Murder — Count  Bocarme  and 
his  wife — Professor  Webster,  &c. 

"  We  have  no  hesitation  In  recommending  this,  as  one  of  the  most  interesting  works 
that  have  been  lately  given  to  the  public." — Morning  Chronicle 

"  The  favour  with  which  the  first  series  of  this  publication  was  received,  has  Induced 
Mr.  Burke  to  extend  his  researches,  which  he  has  done  with  great  judgment.  The  Incidents 
forming  the  subject  of  the  second  series  are  as  extraordinary  in  every  respect,  as  those  which 
obtained  to  high  a  meed  of  celebrity  tor  thr  first.  Some  of  the  tales  could  scarcely  be  believed 
to  be  foun  led  in  fact,  or  to  be  records  of  events  that  have  startled  the  world,  were  there  not 
the  Incontestable  evidence  which  Mr.  Burke  has  established  to  prove  that  they  have 
actually  happened." — Alusfnger. 





"  The  '  Clever  Woman  '  \a  of  the  game 
class  with  the  'Vicar  of  Wrexhill,'  and 
'  Widow  Barnaby.'  It  is  the  best  novel 
the  season  has  produced.  No  person  can 
toil  to  be  amused  by  it." — Critic. 

"Mrs.  Trollope  has  done  full  justice  to 
her  well-earned  reputation  as  one  of  the 
cleve.est  novelists  of  the  day  in  this 
new  production  of  her  fertile  pen." — 
Juhn  Bull. 


3  voU. 

" '  Uncle  Walter '  is  an  exceedingly  en- 
tertaining novel.  It  assures  Mrs.  Trollope 
more  than  ever  in  her  position  as  one  of 
the  ablest  fiction  writers  of  the  day." — 
Horning  Pott. 


3  vols. 

"  The  knowledge  of  the  world  which 
Mrs.  Trollope  possesses  in  so  eminent  a 
degree  is  strongly  exhibited  in  the  pages 
of  this  novel." — Obterver. 



3  vols. 


3  vols.  3  vols. 

"One    of- the    best    of    Mrs.    Gore's  "This    entertaining    and    particularly 

stories.     The  volumes  are  strewed  with  clever  novel  is  not  to  be  analysed,    but 

smart  and  sparkling  epigram." — Morning  to  be  praised,  and  that  emphatically." — 

Chronicle.  Examiner. 




3  vols. 

"  '  Magdalen  Hepburn  will  sustain  the 
reputation  which  the  author  of  '  Margaret 
Maitland'  has  acquired.  It  is  a  well 
prepared  and  carefully  executed  picture 
of  the  society  and  state  of  manners  in 
Scotland  at  the  dawn  of  the  Reforma- 
tion. John  Knox  is  successfully  drawn." 
— Athenaeum. 

"'  Magdalen  Hepburn '  is  a  story  of  the 
Scottish  Reformation,  with  John  Knox 
prominently  introduced  among  the  dra- 
matis personse.  The  book  is  thoroughly 
enjoyable,  pieasant  women  move  to  and 
fro  in  it,  characters  are  well  discrimi- 
nated, and  there  is  a  sense  everywhere  of 
the  right  and  good,  as  well  as  the  pictu- 
resque."— Examiner. 


3  vols. 

"A  story  awakening  genuine  emotions 
of  interest  and  delight  by  its  admirable 
pictures  of  Scottish  life  and  scenery." — 


SECOND  EDITION.    3  vols. 

.**  We  prefer  '  Harry  Muir '  to  most  of 
the  Scottish  novels  that  have  appeared 
since  Gait's  domestic  stories.  This  new 
tale,  by  the  author  of  '  Margaret  Mait- 
land,' is  a  real  picture  of  the  weakness  of 
man's  nature  and  the  depths  of  woman's 
kindness.  The  narrative,  to  repeat  our 
praise,  is  not  one  to  be  entered  on  or 
parted  from  without  our  regard  for  its 
writer  being  increased." — Athenentm. 

"  This  is  incomparably  the  best  of  the 
author's  works.  In  it  the  brilliant  pro- 
mise afforded  by  '  Margaret  Maitland ' 
has  been  fully  realised,  and  now  there 
can  be  no  question  that,  for  graphic  pic- 
tures of  Scottish  life,  the  author  is  en- 
titled to  be  ranked  second  to  none  among 
modern  writers  of  fiction." — Caledonian 


1    TOl.    fis. 

"  This  beautiful  production  is  every  way 
worthy  of  its  author's  reputation  in  the 
very  first  rank  of  contemporary  writers." — 




By  L.  How*. 
Dedicated  to  Professor  Aytoun.    2  vols. 



A   TALK    OP    RKAL    L1PB. 
By  A  Cl.EKOr.MAN.      3   vols. 


By  the  Author  of  "ANNS  DYSART." 

3  vols. 

"  Many  and  various  are  the  cross  pur- 
poses of  love  which  ruu  through  this 
cleverly-written  tale,  from  the  pen  of  the 
talented  author  of  '  Anne  Uysurt.'  While 
administering  largely  to  the  entertainment 
of  the  reader,  the  Author  has  added  to 
a  well-earned  reputation." — John  Bull. 


By  MRS.  GREY,  Author  of  "Tag  GAM- 

BLKR'S  WIFE,"  &c.  3  vols. 
"In  this  fascinating   novel   Airs.   Grey 
has    surpassed    her    former    productions, 
talented  and  powerful  as    they  were." — 
John  Bull. 

"  The  merit  of  producing  an  admirable 
story  may  be  justly  awarded  to  Mrs. 
Grey." — Sunday  Times. 


3  vols. 

"A  powerfully  written  story,  the  cha- 
racters and  incidents  of  which  are  por- 
trayed with  great  skill." — Jufut  Bull. 

"The  startling  secession  of  such  men 
as  Newman,  Manning,  and  Wilberfuroe, 
renders  the  revelations  which  the  author 
has  made  in  these  interesting  and  instruc- 
tive volumes  extremely  well- timed." — Bri- 


By  the  Author  of  "TUB  FORTUNES  OF 

WOMAN."  3  vols. 

"  Great  diversity  of  character  and  an 
endless  succession  of  surprising  incidents 
and  vicissitudes  impart  an  absorbing  inte- 
rest to  this  new  production  of  Miss 
Lamont'i  pen." — John  Hull. 


By  MRS.  GRKY.     3  vols. 
"  Equal  to    any    former    novel  by    its 
author." — Athenaeum. 


By  C.  ROWCROFT,  ESQ.   3  voli. 


By   MRS.  J.   E.    DAI.RVMPI.K. 
Dedicated  to  Sir  E.  Bulwer  Lytton.  2  vols 

"  '  Vivia  is  an  excellent  novel.  Mrs. 
Dalrymple  paints  society  in  Its  true 
colours.  We  heartily  congratulate  her 
upon  a  production  which  displays  such 
high  purpose,  wrought  out  with  so  much 
ability.''— Post. 


Edited  by  the  Author  of  "  JOHN  DRAT- 

TO.V,"  "  AII.IKPORU,"  &c.  3  vols. 
" '  Mathew  Paxton '  bears  a  strong 
generic  resemblance  to  those  clever  stories 
'John  Drayton '  and  'Ailieford,'  and 
awakens  in  the  perusal  a  kindred  gratifi- 
cation. It  displays  the  same  simple 
pathos,  the  same  homely  humour,  the 
same  truth  to  nature,  and  the  same  fine 
sense  of  national  peculiarity." — Post. 


By  the  Author  of  "  JOHN  DRAYTON."  3  r. 

'"Ailieford  '  is  the  biography  of  the 
clever  writer  of 'John  Drayion.'  It  is  a 
deeply  interesting  tale."— Britannia. 


3  vols. 

"  A  vast  amount  of  thought  and  know- 
ledge is  displayed  in  this  work.  Many 
various  phuses  of  society,  and  different 
gradations  of  character,  are  dexterously 
given  to  sight." — Sun. 


liy  JOHN  C.  JBAFFRESON.    3  roll. 

"A  clever  novel,  and  one  that,  without 
any  great  wealth  or  diversity  of  inti  lent, 
contrives  to  be  deeply  Inieresting.  The 
career  of  a  brilliant  young  mun  at  college 
— his  temptations,  errors,  and  resolute 
self-redemption  from  evil  courses — makes 
the  main  interest  of  the  story,  which  is  set 
forth  with  a  vigour  and  reality  that  looks 
like  a  daguerreotype  from  facts." — Athe- 


By  the  Author  of  "THE  DISCIPLINK  OF 

LIFK."    3  vols. 

"  We  like  all  Lady  Emily  Ponsonby's 
novels,  and  this  is,  in  our  judgment,  the 
best  of  them." — Morning  J'ost. 


By  the  Author  of  "  THB  Ki  WEARS."  3  T. 

"  We  feel  obliged  to  the  authi.r  for 
giving  us  such  a  fresh  pleasant  story  as 
'  Ph«-mie  Millar.'  Out  of  the  homeliest  of 
details  a  certain  fascination  is  evoked 
which  ensures  the  reader  interest  to  the 
end." — Athenaeum. 




By  Miss  PARDOE.    3  v. 
"  An  excellent  novel,  containing  a  great 
variety    of    well. drawn     characters,    and 
keeping  up  the  interest  of  the  reader  to 
the  last  page." — Atlas. 


By  A.  BAILLIE  COCHRANE,  ESQ.    2  v. 

"  The  best  slory  that  has  yet  appeared 
from  the  pen  of  the  talented  author." — 


By  the  Author  of 
"ALICE  WEVTWORTH."  3  vols. 


3  vols. 

"This  novel  reminds  us  of  the  tales  by 
Lady  Scott,  which  had  puwer  aud  pathos 
enough  to  get  a  hearing  and  keep  a  place, 
even  though  Lister,  Ward,  and  Buhver 
were  ail  in  the  field,  with  their  manly 
experiences  of  modern  life  and  society." — 


"This   very    pleasant    tale    of  'Janet 
Mowbray '  is  a  love  story— and    a    very 
good  one — full   of  agreeable  variety  and 
interest." — Examiner. 


By  the  Author  of  "  THB  FLIRT."  3  v. 

•"The  Roses  '  displays,  with  the  polish 
always  attending  a  later  work,  all  the 
talent  which  appeared  in  'The  Flirt,'  and 
'The  Manoeuvring  Mother."' — Standard. 


3  vols. 

"Music  has  never  had  go  glowing  an 
advocate  as  the  author  of  these  volumes. 
There  is  an  amazing  deal  of  ability  dis- 
played in  them." — Herald. 


A   SCOTTISH    STORT.      3  V. 


By  MRS.  MABKRLY.    3  vols. 


By  the  Author  of  "  PERILS  OP  FASHION." 
3  vols. 


By  the  Author  of  "  ROCKIVOHAM." 

With  Illustrations  by  Lord  Gerald  Fits. 
gerald.     Second  Edition.    3  vols. 

"The  author  of  ' Rockingham '  holds 
always  a  vigorous  pen.  It  is  impossible 
to  deny  him  the  happy  faculty  of  telling  a 
pleasing  story  with  ability  and  power. 
We  are  bound  to  extend  our  highest  praise 
to  the  skill  with  which  the  several  cha- 
racters in  '  Electra  '  are  portrayed,  and 
with  which  the  interest  of  the  story  is 
sustained  to  the  very  last  chapter." — 


By  the  Author  of  "EMILIA  WTNDHAM." 
3  vols. 

"This^novel  is  worthy  of  the  author's 
reputation.  The  interest  of  the  story  is 
powerfully  kept  up,  and  there  is  much 
truthful  and  discriminating  depicting  of 
character." — Literary  Gazette. 


By  the  Author  of  "EMILIA  WTNDHAM." 
3  vols. 

"  One  of  the  most  successful  of  the  au- 
thor's works." — Post. 

"These  volumes  abound  in  delicate 
and  passionate  writing." — Examiner. 


By  MRS,  CLARA  WALBET.    3  vols. 
Dedicated  to  the  Earl  of  Carlisle. 


By  W.  F.  DEACON-. 

With  a  Memoir  of  the  Author,  by  the 
Hon.  Sir  T.  N.  Talfourd,  D.C.L.  3  vols. 
"'Annette'  is  a  stirring  tale.  The  pre- 
fatory memoir  of  Sir  Thomas  Talfourd 
would  be  at  all  times  interesting,  nor  the 
less  so  for  containing  two  long  letters  from 
Sir  Walter  Scott  to  Mr.  Deacon,  full  of 
gentle  far-thinking  wisdom." — Examiner. 


By  MRS.  W.  FOSTER. 
3  vols. 


By  the  Author  of  "THE  OLD  ENGLISH 

3  vols. 



NAVAL  AND  MILITARY  JOURNAL.     Published  on  the  first  of  every 
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cession of  Original  Papers  on  innumerable  interesting  subjects,  Personal  Nar- 
ratives, Historical  Incidents,  Correspondence,  etc.,  each  number  comprises 
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Promotions,  Appointments,  Births,  Marriages,  Obituary,  etc.,  with  all  the  Naval 
and  Military  Intelligence  of  the  month. 


"  This  is  confessedly  one  of  the  ablest  and  most  attractive  periodicals  of  which  the 
British  press  can  boast,  presenting  a  wide  field  of  entertainment  to  the  general  as  well  as 
professional  reader.  The  suggestions  for  the  benefit  of  the  two  services  are  distinguished 
by  vigour  of  sense,  acute  and  practical  observation,  an  ardent  love  of  discipline,  tempered  by 
a  high  sense  of  justice,  honour,  and  a  tender  regard  for  the  welfare  and  comfort  of  oursoldiers 
and  seamen."— Globe. 

"  At  the  head  of  those  periodicals  which  furnish  useful  and  valuable  information  to 
their  peculiar  classes  of  readers,  as  well  as  amusement  to  the  general  body  of  the  public, 
must  be  placed  the  '  United  Service  Magazine,  and  Naval  and  Military  Journal.'  It  numbers 
among  its  contributors  almost  all  those  gallant  spirits  who  have  done  no  less  honour 
to  their  country  by  their  swords  than  by  their  pens,  and  abounds  with  the  most  interesting 
discussions  on  naval  and  military  affairs,  and  stirring  narratives  of  deeds  of  arms  in  all 
parts  of  the  world.  Every  information  of  value  and  interest  to  both  the  Services  is  culled 
with  the  greatest  diligence  from  every  available  source,  and  the  correspondence  of  various 
distinguished  officers  which  enrich  Its  pages  is  a  feature  of  great  attraction.  In  short,  the 
'  United  Service  Magazine'  can  be  recommended  to  every  reader  who  possesses  that  attach- 
ment to  his  country  which  should  muke  him  look  with  the  deepest  Interest  on  its  navul  and 
military  resources." — Sun. 

"  This  truly  national  periodical  is  always  full  of  the  most  valuable  matter  for  professional 
men." — Morning  Herald. 

"  To  military  and  naval  men,  and  to  that  class  of  readers  who  hover  on  the  skirts  of  the 
Service,  and  take  a  world  of  pains  to  inform  themselves  of  all  the  goings  on,  the  modes  and 
fashions,  the  movements  and  adventures  connected  with  ships  and  barracks,  this  periodical 
is  Indispensable.  It  Is  a  repertory  of  facts  and  criticisms — narratives  of  past  experience,  and 
fictions  that  are  as  good  as  if  they  were  true — tables  and  returns — new  inventions  and  new 
books  bearing  upon  the  army  and  navy — correspondence  crowded  with  Intelligence — and 
sundry  unclaimed  matters  that  lie  in  close  neighbourhood  with  the  professions,  and  contribute 
more  or  less  to  the  stock  of  general  useful  information." — Allot. 




Santa  Barbara 


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